1 legislative standards on electronic communications and electronic signatures: an introduction Luca Castellani Legal Officer secretariat
2 International harmonization of e-commerce law Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996) text and list of enacting states available at Model Law on Electronic Signatures (2001) text and list of enacting states available at United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts (2005) text and list of signatory states available at
3 International harmonization of e-commerce law Sources of legal obstacles to electronic transactions Legal concepts based on the existence of a tangible medium instrument, document, original, signature Legal concepts based on geographic location: delivery, receipt, dispatch, surrender
4 Recognition and evidentiary value of electronic communications: basic questions If there is no Law on electronic transactions: Do courts adopt a liberal interpretation to form requirements and evidentiary rules? Or do they take a restrictive approach? If there is a Law on electronic transactions: Does it limit the types of electronic records that are legally recognized? Does it admit other types of electronic records as well?
5 Basic principles of e-commerce legislation Non discrimination Information shall not be denied legal effect, validity or enforceability solely on the grounds that it is in the form of a data message (or it is incorporated by reference). Functional equivalence To facilitate rather than regulate electronic commerce To adapt existing legal requirements To provide basic legal validity and raise legal certainty
6 Basic principles of e-commerce legislation Media and technology neutrality Equal treatment of paper-based and electronic transactions Equal treatment of different techniques (EDI, , Internet, telegram, telex, fax) Party autonomy Primacy of party agreement on whether and how to use e- commerce techniques Parties free to choose security level appropriate for their transactions
7 Functional equivalence of the written form Where the law requires information to be in writing, that requirement is met by a data message if the information contained therein is accessible so as to be usable for subsequent reference. ( Model Law on Electronic Commerce, article 6).
8 Functional equivalence of original messages A data message can be regarded as an original document if: There exists a reliable assurance as to the integrity of the information from the time when it was first generated in its final form, as a data message or otherwise; and The information is capable of being displayed to the person to whom it is to be presented. ( Model Law on Electronic Commerce, article 8)
9 Traditional authentication and signature methods Notion of authentication and signature in the paper world Authenticity as a quality Signature as a method Varying functions under areas of law and across legal systems Contract law and procedural law Common law and civil law distinctions
10 Traditional authentication and signature methods Basic functions of hand-written signatures Identify a person Associate that person with the content of a document Attest to signatory s intent to to be bound by the content of a signed contract to endorse authorship of a text Prove the signatory s presence at a given place at a given time
11 Policy approaches to electronic signatures Prescriptive legislation Imposes use of a specific technology (typically digital signature technology) Two-tier legislation Creates legal presumptions in favour of one technology or method, but also admits other means of identification Minimalist legislation Provides minimum requirements and leave the parties free to choose signature method they deem appropriate
12 Policy approaches to electronic signatures Countries that enacted legislation to support digital signatures (exclusively or primarily): Americas: Argentina, Brazil (only for use within public administration), Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Panama, Uruguay. Africa: Tunisia, South Africa. Asia and the Middle East: India, Malaysia, Israel, Japan. Europe: Belarus, Russian Federation.
13 Policy approaches to electronic signatures Examples of enactment of two-tier legislation in old EU: Specific e-signature laws: Italy, Germany, Portugal (all had to amend existing legislation), Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Spain, Sweden, UK (new legislation) Incorporated in broader framework: Ireland, Luxemburg (ecommerce specific); France, Netherlands (civil code) Other European countries: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia (already prior to EU accession ); Croatia, Norway, Romania, Switzerland Examples of two-tier legislation in other continents: Mexico, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand
14 Policy approaches to electronic signatures Main examples of minimalist legislation Australia Canada New Zealand United States of America
15 Policy approaches to certification services Free market approach Any entity may offer certification services without requiring prior authorization: United States Mandatory licensing schemes Certification authorities need to obtain a license from a governmental body: Colombia, India, Singapore Accreditation schemes Certification authorities encouraged to seek accreditation with a public body or with a private non-for profit business sector organization: European Union, Pakistan Monopoly schemes Only public bodies or notaries authorized to issue certificates: typically applied to digital signatures used in governmental functions: Argentina, Chile
16 Electronic signatures under the Model Law on Electronic Commerce Legal signature requirements are met in relation to a data message if: a method is used to identify the signatory and to indicate his approval of the information contained in the data message; and that method is as reliable as was appropriate for the purpose for which the data message was generated or communicated (ex-post facto reliability of signature method: Model Law, article 7)
17 The policy: technology neutrality Model Law on Electronic Signatures, article 3 (Equal treatment of signature technologies): Nothing in the Law shall be applied so as to exclude, restrict or deprive of legal effect any method of creating an electronic signature that satisfies its requirements or otherwise meets the requirements of applicable law.
18 Technology neutrality applied to electronic signatures: reliability standards Model Law on Electronic Signatures, article 6(1) (Compliance with a requirement for a signature): Legal signature requirements are met in relation to a data message if an electronic signature is used which is as reliable as was appropriate for the purpose for which the data message was generated or communicated, in the light of all the circumstances, including any relevant agreement.
19 Technology neutrality applied to electronic signatures: reliability standards Model Law on Electronic Signatures, article 6(3) (Compliance with requirement for signature): (a) signature creation data must be linked to the signatory and to no other person; (b) signature creation data must be under the control of the signatory at the time of signing; (c) alterations to the electronic signature made after the time of signing must be detectable; (d) where legal signature requirement aims at assuring integrity of the information, any alteration to the information must be detectable.
20 Technology neutrality applied to electronic signatures: reliability standards When is a signature method as reliable as appropriate? Model Law allows parties to decide taking into account: Sophistication of equipment used Nature of trade activity Frequency of commercial transactions between the parties Kind and size of the transaction Legal function of signature
21 Technology neutrality applied to electronic signatures: reliability standards: determining reliability in advance Model Law on Electronic Signatures, article 7 (Satisfaction of article 6) Enacting States may determine which electronic signatures satisfy the provisions of article 6, provided that any such determination must be consistent with recognized international standards.
22 Policy approaches to electronic signatures: additional issues Duties of signatories and relying parties Should users bear risk? Analogy to ATM cards and credit cards Liability of certification authorities Should there be statutory limitation of liability? Should there be statutory standards of care? Cross-certification and foreign certificates Should the law protect local market? On what basis should foreign certificates be recognized?
23 The approach: basic good faith obligations for signatories Article 8 (Conduct of the signatory) The signatory has a duty to: exercise reasonable care to avoid unauthorized use of its signature creation data; without undue delay, notify interested parties if signature creation data have been compromised or may have been compromised; exercise reasonable care to ensure the accuracy and completeness of all material representations made which are relevant to the certificate throughout its life-cycle, or which are to be included in the certificate.
24 The approach: market structure left for domestic policy, with basic standards of conduct for certification services providers Article 9 (Conduct of the certification service provider) The certification service provider has a duty to: Comply with representations on policies and practices; Ensure accuracy and completeness of all material representations relevant to the certificate; Certification services provider must also provide reasonably accessible means for a relying party to ascertain from the certificate: (i) the identity of certification service provider; (ii) that signatory had control of signature creation data at the time when certificate was issued; (iii) that signature creation data were valid at or before that time;
25 The approach: market structure left for domestic policy, with basic standards of conduct for certification services providers Article 9 (Continued) Certification services provider must also provide reasonably accessible means for a relying party to ascertain: (i) how signatory was identified; (ii) limitations on the purpose or value of signature creation data or certificate; (iii) that signature creation data are valid and have not been compromised; (iv) limitations on the scope or extent of liability of certification service provider; (v) availability of notice and revocation facilities.
26 The approach: market structure left for domestic policy, with basic standards of conduct for certification services providers Article 9 (Continued) Certification services provider must always utilize trustworthy systems, procedures and human resources in performing its services. Trustworthiness needs to be assessed on the basis of factors such as (a) financial and human resources (b) quality of hardware and software systems; (c) procedures for processing certificates and applications; (d) availability of information to signatories and potential relying parties; (e) regularity and extent of audits; (f) official certification of compliance.
27 The approach: basic good faith obligations for relying parties Article 11. Conduct of the relying party Relying parties reminded of their duty to: (a) take reasonable steps to verify the reliability of an electronic signature; or (b) take reasonable steps to: (i) verify the validity, suspension or revocation of the certificate; and (ii) observe any limitation with respect to the certificate.
28 Barriers to international use of electronic signatures Absence of common standards: Different countries accept different methods Same method applying different technical standards in different countries Variety of approaches and designs: Conflicting conceptual outlay of electronic signature systems Varying role of State Recent study: Promoting confidence in electronic commerce: legal issues on international use of electronic authentication and signature methods Available at
29 policy on cross-border use of electronic signatures: no discrimination and substantive equivalence Article 12. Recognition of foreign certificates and electronic signatures In determining legal effectiveness of certificates or electronic signatures States should not take into account: (a) place where the certificate is issued or the electronic signature created or used; or (b) the place of business of the issuer or signatory. Foreign certificates and electronic signatures created or used abroad should have the same legal effect in the country if they offer a substantially equivalent level of reliability as domestic ones in the light of recognized international standards and other relevant factors.
30 Contact information For further information on the work of on electronic commerce and electronic signatures, please visit: You may reach me at Thank you for your attention!
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