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5 (Refer Slide Time: 09:30) So continuing with natural masks. For class A B C. As you know you have fixed division of the bit patterns representing the network and host, these are called network masks and the network or the natural the natural or the default masks for class A B or C networks are like this. For class A network the first 8 bits represent a network for B the first 16 bits and for C the first 24 bits. So if you look at a mask value like this you know that you are using the default class A, B or C addressing schemes without really having a subnet. A subnet means you are dividing a say for example class A network into smaller subnetworks. But if we have a mask value which goes like this we are not really trying to carry out that kind of a division. (Refer Slide Time: 10:32) 5

8 (Refer Slide Time: 16:35) Now just to look at an example again that same example IP address and this is the mask , so if you expand in binary and write also the mask in binary. So as I told you, the first 8 bits will indicate the network. The next 8 bits will indicate the subnet and the last 16 bits will indicate the host. So just by using the mask you can extract the corresponding bits and you can find out that which a network portion is and which is a subnet portion. The first few bits of the address will identify the address class. Accordingly it will give the network portion looking at the subnet mask. Looking at how many additional bits are gone there you can also extract the subnet of the address and the remaining will be host. (Refer Slide Time: 17:30) 8

13 in our organization there are three departments and the requirements corresponding to the three departments are as follows. We want to divide them in to three subnets and the number computers in these three departments are 110, 45 and 50. So as this picture shows there are three departments D1, D2, D3 with requirements which are varying. Now let us explore that whether using simple subnetting can we provide a solution or if not what should be done? So this is the problem we want to solve there are three departments with 110, with 45 and with 50 hosts in them. (Refer Slide Time: 26:44) Now let us first look at the conventional subnet option. Now for class C address you know that the natural mask will be , now if we are trying to subnet a class C network. So those subnet masks will be of the form the first three will be 255, last byte will be something X. So we are actually borrowing some bits from the host part that X will tell you how bits you are borrowing. So using some none zero value of X with leading ones you can divide the network into subnets. Now let us see that how the different values of X will affect the number of subnets and their sizes. 13

14 (Refer Slide Time: 27:33) Well, let us look at this table. The first column shows the value of X. The second column shows that number in binary this is decimal this is binary and the third column shows that how many subnets you are breaking into and the forth column that how many hosts you can have in each subnet. So if X is 128 which means only one leading bit is 1. This means that you are dividing the available 256 space bit space, 256 space into 2 subnets 128 bits. (28:11) So number of subnets is 2 we have 128 bit. If you use to leading ones which means 192 we have 4 subnets and 6 bits for the host we have 6 available bits. This means 64, if you have three leading ones 224, it means we have 8 subnets and we have 5 bits for the host means 32 and so on. You can divide into subnet is this way. But if you again think of our requirement which we had we wanted to divide the network into 3 chunks 110, 45, 50. None of these values of X will be satisfying our requirements because the first row will not solve because it is dividing into 2 subnets but we need three. The second row will not solve because it is dividing into more than 3. But the sizes of the networks are not sufficient to cater to all of them one of them requires 110. So this conventional subnet will not work. Because convention subnet whatever value of X you define that will fix the number of subnets you are having and the sizes of the each subnet. Because size of each subnet are constrained to be the same. So now let us see what can be done in this particular scenario. 14

15 (Refer Slide Time: 29:36) So now we exercise the variable length subnet mask or VLSM option. VLSM option you can think of as some kind of hierarchical subnetting. Instead of doing a subnetting at one level we are doing it in a hierarchical way. Let us see how we are doing it. At the beginning we are dividing the class C networks into two parts 128 each, for that purpose we use the subnet mask , this 128 has a single leading one. It will be dividing the class C network which we had into two sub networks this and this, the first sub network will be having the host addresses ranging from 0 to 127 and the next one from 128 to 255. This is what we do at the first level. Server process effectively we had well we are ignoring that two. Let us call it 256. We had 256 addresses at the first we divide them into 128 each. Now the idea is that one of these 128 is sufficient to cater to our requirement for the first department which was 110. So now what we are trying to do we will further divide this second 128 into 64 and 64. Now if we are able to do this then we can cater to the needs of the other two departments as well 45 and 50. This is the basic concept we are trying to follow. So this is the first level of subnetting we have done to divide into 128 and 128 at the next level the second network. 15

21 (Refer Slide Time: 43:45) Just an example, suppose an organization has been allotted a block like this. This is the address and 29 is the number of bits in the network. So if you write down in binary it looks like this. The last three digits are 0 because 29 bits are for the network, 3 bits for the host an end address will be first bits will be the same the last bit will be all ones. So there will be 8 addresses in the block and if you compute them to decimal there will start from a value like this. It will go up to a value like this. So up to , this range you can have for this particular block. (Refer Slide Time: 44:55) Now as I had said the recent trend most of the routers, they support this CIDR. In the recent trend is to use or to move on to CIDR addressing completely. Well if you talk about compatibilities some of the networks maybe already class full. So you cannot make all of them classless just overnight. So the thing is that even the exiting classful networks can be 21

22 represented by CIDR notation, class A network can be represented by an address like this. Some IP address slash 8 means first 8 bits are the network class B address slash 16 and class C address slash 24. Now as I had told that the recent routers, they support CIDR. Now in today's lecture we have seen an idea that how this IP address subnetting can be used for better management of networks and we have seen that just extending the concept of subnetting, we can have VLSM and we can go one step further in having CIDR which offers you complete flexibility. Now in our next class we shall be looking at some issues regarding IP routing. Now the subnetting is fine, but how the subnets are used by the routers actually while routing the packets. What kind of information the routers maintain their tables, these we shall be seeing in our next lecture. So we come to the end of this lecture. We now have a look at the solutions to the problems that were posed in our last class. Solutions to quiz questions from lecture 5. (Refer Slide Time: 46:38) The first question was what does the port number in a TCP connection specify? Now here we have mentioned that the port number in a TCP or for that matter even in UDP connection any transfer level protocol they identify the two applications on the two end hosts who are communicating among themselves. So this port number is a way of identifying the two communicating end parties. It specifies the communicating processes on the two end systems. Why is it necessary to have both IP address and port number in a packet? Well this question I have addressed repeatedly that IP address identifies the host and port number identifies the application or the process running on that host. So it is it is again hierarchical addressing. First you have to identify the host computer, then you to identify a process running on that host computer. 22

23 (Refer Slide Time: 47:46) Which of the TCP, UDP and IP provides reliable communication? Well here I told you IP is a datagram service by very definition, it is unreliable. And UDP and IP are not much different UDP simply adds a few extra information to an IP packet and sends it. So UDP is also unreliable but TCP put some extra effort with respect to putting the sequence number acknowledgements window. All these things in order to achieve reliability over an unreliable IP network. So if a part of the message is lost it explicitly requests for retransmission in that way provides reliability, so only TCP is reliable. Both UDP and IP transmit datagrams how they are different? Now this I told you just now that UDP contains some extra fields in addition to IP they are the port numbers of the source and the destination and an optional checksum value. These are the two things which are stored. (Refer Slide Time: 48:57) 23

24 What are well-known port numbers? Well I told you in a client-server scenario, when a client is connecting to a server, there are some well-known or well defined programs which everyone uses and the port numbers for them are publicly known. These are well well-known port numbers and usually the wellknown port numbers range from 1 up to What are ephemeral port numbers? Well ephemeral port numbers are temporary port numbers which are used by clients. Now a client when it requests, some kind service to the server the server after processing request has to send back a response. So the server must also know what is the port number of the client? That certainly not a well-known port number. So the client has to put a temporary port number every time it sends out a request. That is called ephemeral port numbers. They can range for 1024 up to maximum of (Refer Slide Time: 49:59) With respect to a transport level connection, what are the five components in an association? This we have mentioned we need to have the protocol local IP, address local port number, remote IP address and remote port number, these are the five things. 24

25 (Refer Slide Time: 50:16) Why is the pseudo-header used in calculating TCP checksum? Well we had mentioned that while computing checksum in a TCP packet in addition to the TCP headers some of the headers are borrowed from IP. This is done primarily to prevent misdelivery from IP well even if by mistake the IP layer sends the packet to the wrong host. There upon computing the checksum the error will be found put and packet may be discarded. What are the different fields in the pseudo header? Pseudo header contains source IP address, destination IP address, which protocol you are using and the length of the segment. These are borrowed from the IP protocol. (Refer Slide Time: 51:02) This is a question on TCP. It is said there are 5000 bytes which are transfer over TCP. The first byte number is 20050, What are the sequence numbers for each segment where 25

27 (Refer Slide Time: 52:52) Well if you are developing a network application on a reliable LAN environment which of TCP or UDP you would prefer? Well if the network is reliable then we do not need the additional features that TCP provides. We would possible prefer UDP because UDP has much less overhead both in terms of header size and also in terms of the speed of delivery of the packets. So possibly the packets would move much faster in UDP as compared to TCP. So now let us look at the questions from today's lecture from lecture number 6. (Refer Slide Time: 53:33) For the subnet mask, this how many hosts per subnet are possible? In classful addressing if we use the subnet mask this which address class does it corresponds to well just by looking at the subnet you can find out. What is the subnet ad if the destination IP address is this and subnet mask is this? 27

28 What is the natural mask for a class C network? (Refer Slide Time: 54:08) Using simple subnets, is it possible to divide a network into unequal sized subnets? For an IP address this and subnet masks this what is the subnet address? How many hosts per subnet are possible? 7. Among multiple network classes and subnets which alternative imposes more burden on the external router? This I have discussed. (Refer Slide Time: 54:39) Using VLSM give a scheme to split a class C address into 4 subnets where the number of hosts required are like this 100,55,20 and 30. So here you can follow this scheme which I have discussed in the class one example I have worked you can follow similar scheme. 28

29 Now the same question If the number of hosts required are 100, 50, 50 and 20 can VLSM be used. Can the following be the beginning addresses in CIDR based addressing? There are 4 addresses which are given you will have to tell whether they are starting addresses are not. (Refer Slide Time: 55:50) For a CIDR address of the form something slash 20, what is the maximum number of hosts that can be that are possible in the network? Which of the following can be the starting address of a CIDR block that contains 512 addresses? Here again we have 4 IP addresses. Now you will have tell that which of these can be starting addresses of the CIDR block. So with this we come to the end of today's presentation. Thank you. (Refer Slide Time: 56:01) Preview of next Lecture. 29

31 Now to start with the talk about of the starting connection options, now we broadly speaking from the two computers of the internet trying to send and receive packets between themselves, we can either have connected oriented approach or we can have connectionless approach. Now in the connection-oriented approach, this is essentially what we know as the virtual circuit mode of data transfer. Here any first step before any data transfer can take place is to have a connection established between the two parties. And the establishment of the connection is the responsibility of the network layer. And once the connection has been established, all the packets would be delivered along the path that has been established as part of the connection and all the packets will be following the same path. This is one characteristic of the one connection oriented approach. (Refer Slide Time: 58:38) Now in OSPF there are number of fields in the header. And we are not going to details of this, version of OSPF, which type of OSPF packet you are sending, message length, source address, this is the area which is the autonomous system basically, checksum and some authentication related fields. 31

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