Future Internet Technologies

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Future Internet Technologies"

Transcription

1 Future Internet Technologies Traditional Internet Dr. Dennis Pfisterer Institut für Telematik, Universität zu Lübeck Internet Protocol v4 (IPv4)

2 IPv4 Model Packet-Switched Datagram Service Each packet is independent from any other packet Routing is done on a per-packet basis yx yx yx yx yx yx Routing Tables used to select next hop i.e., which link to use Best-effort Service No guarantees regarding QoS, in-order delivery, real-time, Routing tables Router R1 DA Next hop y R3, R Router R3 DA Next hop y R Router R6 DA Next hop y IPv4 packet format Version (4 bit) IPv4 (0x04), IPv6 (0x06) HdrLen (4 bit) Header Length in multiples of 32-bit (>5) Type of Service (8 bit) now obsolete Precedence ToS 0 Precedence: 7=High, 0=Normal ToS: 8=min. Delay, 4=max. Throughput, 2=max. Reliability, 0=normal Bits: Version HdrLen Type of service Total length Identification Flags Fragment offset 20 Time to live Protocol Header checksum octets Source address Destination address Options + padding Data (! octets)

3 IPv4 packet format Total length (16 bit) Including Header Identification (16 bit) Used for fragmentation D M Flags (3 bit) D = Don t fragment, M = More Fragments Fragment offset Offset in multiples of 8 Byte Bits: Version HdrLen Type of service 20 octets Time to live Identification Protocol Flags Source address Destination address Options + padding Data (! octets) Total length Fragment offset Header checksum 6-5 IPv4 packet format Time To Live (8 bit) Decremented at each hop, packet dropped if zero is reached Protocol (8bit) Indicates next protocol (upper layer protocol such as UDP=17/TCP=6) Header Checksum (16 bit) CRC-16 (complete header) Source- and Destination IP-Address (32 bit) Options Security, Source routing, Bits: Version HdrLen Type of service 20 octets Time to live Identification Protocol Flags Source address Destination address Options + padding Data (! octets) Total length Fragment offset Header checksum 6-6

4 Some Protocol Numbers See for reference Unix lists these well-known numbers in /etc/protocols 7 IPv4 Fragmentation

5 IPv4 Fragmentation IP packets are transported over a variety of networks Each network has a maximum transmission unit (MTU) Examples Ethernet (1500 bytes) ATM (multiples of 48 bytes) PPPoE (1480 bytes) X.25 (576 bytes) FDDI (4352 bytes) Sender and receiver only know the link s local MTU The maximum path MTU is unknown 9 IPv4 Fragmentation IP packets may exceed a link s MTU IP packet size > MTU Must be split into fragments smaller than the current MTU Fragmentation options Transparent fragmentation Non-transparent fragmentation 10

6 IPv4 Fragmentation Transparent fragmentation Fragmentation and reassembly performed on each link Non-transparent fragmentation Fragmentation at each intermediate station, reassembly at destination IP: Non-transparent fragmentation Relevant fields in IP packet header: Ver HL TOS Total length Identification D,M Fragment offset TTL Protocol Header checksum... Flags: D = Don t fragment M = More fragments 11 IP Packet Fragmentation Split up packets into segments smaller than MTU (including IP header, bytes) Compute new value for Total Length Set More Fragments -bit, except for the last fragment Compute Fragment Offset value Multiple of 8 bytes, offset of the data in the original packet Re-Compute header checksum Relevant fields in IP packet header: Ver HL TOS Total length Identification D,M Fragment offset TTL Protocol Header checksum... Flags: D = Don t fragment M = More fragments 12

7 IPv4 Reassembly Fragmented packet arrives if either More Fragments" flag is set Fragment Offset" field is non-zero Store all related packets (final size yet unknown) Wait until packet with MF=0 arrives Original IP packet length: Fragment Offset + Total Length Reassemble packet in original order Relevant fields in IP packet header: Ver HL TOS Total length Identification D,M Fragment offset TTL Protocol Header checksum... Flags: D = Don t fragment M = More fragments 13 Internet Addressing

8 IPv4 Adressing 32-bit " 2 32 # 4.29 Billion addresses (in theory) Some reserved (e.g., private networks: ~18 million, multicast : ~270 million) Binary value: Dotted decimal notation: Types of Addresses Unicast Identifies a single network interface (multiple interfaces: multi-homing) May be used as source- and destination address Broadcast Addresses all hosts in a certain scope (e.g., on a link), only as destination Multicast Addresses a group of interfaces (hosts) Evolution of IPv4 Addressing How to structure the address space? Goals Hierarchical address allocation and routing Support for multi- and broadcasting History ARPANET: highest 8 bit as network identifier: 254 networks RFC 791, 1981: Classful IP addressing Later: additional levels of hierarchy ( ) 1993-Until today: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) 6-16

9 IPv4: Classful Addressing Address space divided into 5 classes 5 classes: A-E Fixed prefix (1-4 bit) depending on the network class Class Prefix Address Range Networks Hosts A M B k 65k C M 256 D M groups E reserved 17 IPv4: Classful Addressing Networks assigned by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Host identifiers assigned by local authority (e.g., an administrator) 8 bits (128 nets) 24 bits (2 24 # 16M hosts) 0 network host 16 bits (2 14 nets # 16K hosts) 16 bits (2 16 # 65K hosts) 10 network host 24 bits (2 21 # 2 M nets) 8 bits (256 hosts) 110 network host 28 bits (2 28 groups) 1110 multicast group address 1111 reserved 18

10 IPv4: Classful Addressing: Special Addresses Network Host Description net-id All 0 Network Address: Not a source/destination but defines a network (e.g., for routing). Example: (net-id 212: Class C) net-id All 1 All 1 All Arbitrary Broadcast Address: Destination of a packet. Addresses all stations of a network. Example: Network-Broadcast Address: Destination address only. Addresses all hosts of a network. Not forwarded by routers. Example: Loopback Address: Useful for tests, local host. Example: , All 0 host-id or all 0 Special address for bootstrapping (e.g., DHCP) Example: IPv4: Subnetting Network sizes Class C: 256 hosts! to few for an organization Class B: 65K hosts! too much for most organizations Class A: 16mio. hosts! only for large ISPs Problems Fixed class sizes led to IP address exhaustion Many IP addresses were unused but could not be reassigned Routers experienced heavy loads Large routing tables: No route aggregation possible! Sub-networks were created by splitting the host into sub-network/host 20

11 IPv4: Subnetting Advantages Subnetworks give additional structure to the host part Routers are agnostic to this structure! only one routing table entry Subnetmasks describe structure of IP addresses Information no longer contained in the IP address Address Structure for address block assigned to a network: network host Address structure for subnetted network: network subnet host Example: Assigned Class B network address block network host Example: Subnetting with 8 subnet bits, 8 host bits (256 hosts/subnet) network subnet host Binary subnet mask: Dotted-decimal subnet mask: IPv4: Subnetting Subnetting creates sub-networks of equal size Problems Still an inefficient use of IP addresses IP address space exhausted in the 1990s Nearly no route aggregation possible (Backbone router would need to store 2mio. entries only for Class C networks) Solution Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) 22

12 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Replaces fixed <network, sub-network, host> structure Arbitrary network/host size (2 N, 2 32-N ) Networks are specified using /N syntax Example: /24 Allows upstream path aggregation Smaller routing tables 24

13 Example: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) ISP-0 Aggregated route /18 s2 R0 s1 (128 class C blocks, from up to ) R addresses /21 8 class C (0-7) Aggregated route /17 ISP-2: /18 s1 s0 R2 s2 R addresses /22 4 class C (8-11) ISP-1: /17 R1 s3 s4 R addresses /23 2 class C (12-13) R addresses /24 1 class C (14) Router R0 - Routing table Route Interf. Next hop /17 s1 R /18 s2 R Router R1 - Routing table Route Interf. Next hop /21 s1 R /22 s2 R /23 s3 R /24 s4 R CIDR: Properties Routing decision based on prefixes Prefix length not evident from IP address (use of CIDR /xx syntax mandatory) Address allocation based on topology (ISP! reseller! customer) Must be signaled out of band (e.g., BGP) Routing tables entries may contain overlapping entries A longer prefix is more specific Routing uses longest prefix match to select outgoing link 26

14 CIDR: Longest Prefix Match (Examples) Entries: /28 & /16 IP-Address to match: Both network masks match! /28 is used IP / Netmask IP / Netmask [binary notation] /28 / Entry IP /16 / Entry IP CIDR: Limitations CIDR provides better address space utilization Without CIDR: address space exhaustion in the 1990s Still, the 2 32 limit sustains Prediction: Last IP addresses assigned 2012 [potaroo.net] Current countermeasures Network address translation (NAT) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) HTTP Name-based virtual hosting Network renumbering (reclaim IP address blocks space allocated in the early days of the Internet) Use of IPv6 28

15 Literature [potaroo.net] IPv4 Address Report, #29

8.2 The Internet Protocol

8.2 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Protocol Suite HTTP SMTP DNS RTP Distributed applications Reliable stream service TCP UDP User datagram service Best-effort connectionless packet transfer Network Interface 1 IP Network Interface

More information

IP Addressing IP Addressing Tópicos Avançados de Redes

IP Addressing IP Addressing Tópicos Avançados de Redes IP Addressing 1 IP Addresses Structure of an IP address Classful IP addresses Limitations and problems with classful IP addresses Subnetting CIDR IP Version 6 addresses 2 IP Addresses 32 bits version (4

More information

IP Addressing. IP Addresses. Introductory material.

IP Addressing. IP Addresses. Introductory material. IP Addressing Introductory material. An entire module devoted to IP addresses. IP Addresses Structure of an IP address Classful IP addresses Limitations and problems with classful IP addresses Subnetting

More information

Lecture Computer Networks

Lecture Computer Networks Prof. Dr. H. P. Großmann mit M. Rabel sowie H. Hutschenreiter und T. Nau Sommersemester 2012 Institut für Organisation und Management von Informationssystemen Thomas Nau, kiz Lecture Computer Networks

More information

Internet Protocol version 4

Internet Protocol version 4 Internet Protocol version 4 Claudio Cicconetti International Master on Communication Networks Engineering 2006/2007 Table of Contents IP Addressing Class-based IP addresses

More information

IP Addressing Introductory material.

IP Addressing Introductory material. IP Addressing Introductory material. A module devoted to IP addresses. Addresses & Names Hardware (Layer 2) Lowest level Ethernet (MAC), Serial point-to-point,.. Network (Layer 3) IP IPX, SNA, others Transport

More information

Lecture 15. IP address space managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

Lecture 15. IP address space managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Lecture 15 IP Address Each host and router on the Internet has an IP address, which consist of a combination of network number and host number. The combination is unique; no two machines have the same

More information

Internet Protocols Fall Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis

Internet Protocols Fall Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis Internet Protocols Fall 2006 Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis Outline Internet Protocol Service Model Addressing Original addressing scheme Subnetting CIDR Forwarding Router Designs Fragmentation

More information

Figure 5.1: Issues addressed by network layer protocols. (Figure by Forouzan)

Figure 5.1: Issues addressed by network layer protocols. (Figure by Forouzan) Chapter 5 Network Layer The main responsibility of a network layer protocol is host-to-host data delivery. In doing this, the network layer has to deal with network layer addressing, packetization and

More information

Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER

Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER This chapter provides an overview of the most important and common protocols associated with the TCP/IP network layer. These include: Internet Protocol (IP), Routing protocols Routing

More information

CS5008: Internet Computing

CS5008: Internet Computing CS5008: Internet Computing Lecture 10: IP Part II IP Addressing A. O Riordan, 2009, latest revision 2016 Some slides based on Fitzgerald and Dennis, and Tanenbaum IP Address Notation IPv4 addresses are

More information

Module 6. Internetworking. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 6. Internetworking. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 6 Internetworking Lesson 2 Internet Protocol (IP) Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to: Explain the relationship between TCP/IP and OSI model

More information

ICS 351: Today's plan

ICS 351: Today's plan ICS 351: Today's plan Quiz, on overall Internet function, linux and IOS commands, network monitoring, protocols IPv4 addresses: network part and host part address masks IP interface configuration IPv6

More information

Data & Computer Communications. Lecture 8. Network Layer: Logical addressing. In this lecture we will cover the following topics:

Data & Computer Communications. Lecture 8. Network Layer: Logical addressing. In this lecture we will cover the following topics: Data & Computer Communications MSCEG 425 Lecture 8 Network Layer: Logical addressing Fall 2007 1 0. Overview In this lecture we will cover the following topics: 14.Network Layer: Logical addressing 14.1

More information

Computer Networks. Lecture 3: IP Protocol. Marcin Bieńkowski. Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław

Computer Networks. Lecture 3: IP Protocol. Marcin Bieńkowski. Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław Computer Networks Lecture 3: IP Protocol Marcin Bieńkowski Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 3 1 / 24 In previous lectures We learned about layer 1

More information

Internet Protocol Suite. Srinidhi Varadarajan

Internet Protocol Suite. Srinidhi Varadarajan Internet Protocol Suite Srinidhi Varadarajan Internet Protocol Suite: Transport TCP: Transmission Control Protocol Byte stream transfer Reliable, connection-oriented service Point-to-point (one-to-one)

More information

CS 43: Computer Networks IP. Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013

CS 43: Computer Networks IP. Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013 CS 43: Computer Networks IP Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013 Reading Quiz IP datagram format IP protocol version number header length (bytes) type of data max number remaining hops (decremented

More information

IP addressing and forwarding Network layer

IP addressing and forwarding Network layer The Internet Network layer Host, router network layer functions: IP addressing and forwarding Network layer Routing protocols path selection RIP, OSPF, BGP Transport layer: TCP, UDP forwarding table IP

More information

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications. Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications. Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols William Stallings Data and Computer Communications Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols Internetworking Terms (1) Communications Network Facility that provides data transfer service An internet Collection

More information

IP : Internet Protocol. Introduction

IP : Internet Protocol. Introduction IP : Internet Protocol Chapters 18,19 Introduction One key aspect of virtual network is single, uniform address format Can't use hardware addresses because different technologies have different address

More information

Network layer: Overview. Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding

Network layer: Overview. Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding Network layer: Overview Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding 1 Network layer functions Transport packet from sending to receiving hosts Network layer protocols in every host, router application

More information

Internet Protocol. IP Datagram, Fragmentation and Reassembly

Internet Protocol. IP Datagram, Fragmentation and Reassembly Internet Protocol IP Datagram, Fragmentation and Reassembly IP Datagram Header Data Data (variable length) IP Packet Header number of IP protocol Current version is 4 6 has different header format IP Packet

More information

COMP9332 Network Routing & Switching

COMP9332 Network Routing & Switching COMP9332 Network Routing & Switching IPv4 Addressing http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~cs9332/ 1 Lecture overview Key concepts Classful addressing Network mask Subnetting Supernetting Classless addressing Reference:

More information

Network Layer IPv4. Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Fidelity National Financial Distinguished Professor of CIS. School of Computing, UNF

Network Layer IPv4. Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Fidelity National Financial Distinguished Professor of CIS. School of Computing, UNF Network Layer IPv4 Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Fidelity National Financial Distinguished Professor of CIS School of Computing, UNF IPv4 Internet Protocol (IP) is the glue that holds the Internet together.

More information

Internet Protocol. Raj Jain. Washington University in St. Louis.

Internet Protocol. Raj Jain. Washington University in St. Louis. Internet Protocol Raj Jain Washington University Saint Louis, MO 63131 Jain@cse.wustl.edu These slides are available on-line at: http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse473-05/ 13-1 Overview! Internetworking

More information

Internet Addresses (You should read Chapter 4 in Forouzan)

Internet Addresses (You should read Chapter 4 in Forouzan) Internet Addresses (You should read Chapter 4 in Forouzan) IP Address is 32 Bits Long Conceptually the address is the pair (NETID, HOSTID) Addresses are assigned by the internet company for assignment

More information

CE363 Data Communications & Networking. Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing

CE363 Data Communications & Networking. Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing CE363 Data Communications & Networking Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing TCP/IP and OSI model APPLICATION APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK Host-Network TRANSPORT NETWORK DATA

More information

We Are HERE! Subne\ng

We Are HERE! Subne\ng TELE 302 Network Design Lecture 21 Addressing Strategies Source: McCabe 12.1 ~ 12.4 Jeremiah Deng TELE Programme, University of Otago, 2013 We Are HERE! Requirements analysis Flow Analysis Logical Design

More information

COMP3331/COMP9331 Computer Networks and Applications IPv4. Lecture overview. IP addressing basics. Key concepts

COMP3331/COMP9331 Computer Networks and Applications IPv4. Lecture overview. IP addressing basics.  Key concepts COMP3331/COMP9331 Computer Networks and Applications IPv4 http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~cs3331/ 1 Lecture overview Key concepts Classful addressing Network mask Subnetting Supernetting Classless addressing

More information

IP address format: Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111 128.11.3.31

IP address format: Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111 128.11.3.31 IP address format: 7 24 Class A 0 Network ID Host ID 14 16 Class B 1 0 Network ID Host ID 21 8 Class C 1 1 0 Network ID Host ID 28 Class D 1 1 1 0 Multicast Address Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011

More information

Internet Protocols Fall 2005. Lectures 7-8 Andreas Terzis

Internet Protocols Fall 2005. Lectures 7-8 Andreas Terzis Internet Protocols Fall 2005 Lectures 7-8 Andreas Terzis Outline Internet Protocol Service Model Fragmentation Addressing Original addressing scheme Subnetting CIDR Forwarding ICMP ARP Address Shortage

More information

IP - The Internet Protocol

IP - The Internet Protocol Orientation IP - The Internet Protocol IP (Internet Protocol) is a Network Layer Protocol. IP s current version is Version 4 (IPv4). It is specified in RFC 891. TCP UDP Transport Layer ICMP IP IGMP Network

More information

IP Addressing. -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing

IP Addressing. -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing IP Addressing -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing Internetworking The concept of internetworking: we need to make different networks communicate

More information

Savera Tanwir. Internet Protocol

Savera Tanwir. Internet Protocol Savera Tanwir Internet Protocol The IP Protocol The IPv4 (Internet Protocol) header. IP Packet Details Header and payload Header itself has a fixed part and variable part Version IPv4, IPv5 or IPv6 IHL,

More information

Network layer" 1DT066! Distributed Information Systems!! Chapter 4" Network Layer!! goals: "

Network layer 1DT066! Distributed Information Systems!! Chapter 4 Network Layer!! goals: 1DT066! Distributed Information Systems!! Chapter 4" Network Layer!! Network layer" goals: "! understand principles behind layer services:" " layer service models" " forwarding versus routing" " how a

More information

IP - The Internet Protocol. Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine

IP - The Internet Protocol. Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine 1 IP - The Internet Protocol Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine Email: elzarki@uci.edu http://www.ics.uci.edu/~magda 2 Overview IP (Internet Protocol) is a Network Layer Protocol. Several versions most

More information

CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca

CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca Based partly on lecture notes by David Mazières, Phil Levis, John Janno< Administrivia IP out today. Your job: Find partners and tell us Implement

More information

Chapter 3: Review of Important Networking Concepts. Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine elzarki@uci.edu http://www.ics.uci.

Chapter 3: Review of Important Networking Concepts. Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine elzarki@uci.edu http://www.ics.uci. Chapter 3: Review of Important Networking Concepts Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine elzarki@uci.edu http://www.ics.uci.edu/~magda 1 Networking Concepts Protocol Architecture Protocol Layers Encapsulation

More information

Router Architecture Overview. Input Port Functions. Switching Via Memory. Three types of switching fabrics. Switching Via a Bus

Router Architecture Overview. Input Port Functions. Switching Via Memory. Three types of switching fabrics. Switching Via a Bus Router Architecture Overview Two key router functions: run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) forwarding grams from incoming to outgoing link Input Port Functions Physical layer: bit-level reception

More information

Networking Basics. Version: 447. Copyright 2007-2010 ImageStream Internet Solutions, Inc., All rights Reserved.

Networking Basics. Version: 447. Copyright 2007-2010 ImageStream Internet Solutions, Inc., All rights Reserved. Version: 447 Copyright 2007-2010 ImageStream Internet Solutions, Inc., All rights Reserved. Table of Contents Networking Basics...1 Networking Basics...1 Introduction...1 Network Addressing...1 IP Addressing...1

More information

Computer Network Foundation. Chun-Jen (James) Chung. Arizona State University

Computer Network Foundation. Chun-Jen (James) Chung. Arizona State University Computer Network Foundation Chun-Jen (James) Chung 1 Outline Network Addressing Subnetting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Route Aggregation Network Addressing How does the network decide where to

More information

Classful IP Addressing (cont.)

Classful IP Addressing (cont.) Classful IP Addressing (cont.) 1 Address Prefix aka Net ID defines the network Address Suffix aka Host ID defines the node In Classful addressing, prefix is of fixed length (1, 2, or 3 bytes)! Classful

More information

Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ

Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ 1 Lecture 7: Network Layer in the Internet Reference: Chapter 5 - Computer Networks, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall,

More information

We Are HERE! Dividing Up the Space. Addressing Background. Addressing Strategies. Requirements analysis Flow Analysis Logical Design

We Are HERE! Dividing Up the Space. Addressing Background. Addressing Strategies. Requirements analysis Flow Analysis Logical Design We Are HERE! TELE 302 Network Design Lecture 21 Addressing Strategies Source: McCabe 12.1 ~ 12.4 Jeremiah Deng TELE Programme / Info Sci University of Otago, 21/9/2015 Requirements analysis Flow Analysis

More information

Autumn Oct 21, Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 1 Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 2

Autumn Oct 21, Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 1 Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 2 IPv4 IP: Addressing, ARP, Routing Protocols and Standards Autumn 2004-2005 IP Datagram Format IPv4 Addressing ARP and RARP IP Routing Basics Subnetting and Supernetting ICMP Address Translation (NAT) Dynamic

More information

117.149.29.234. The address space of IPv4 is 2 32 or 4,294,967,296. Binary notation: 01110101 10010101 00011101 11101010

117.149.29.234. The address space of IPv4 is 2 32 or 4,294,967,296. Binary notation: 01110101 10010101 00011101 11101010 The address space of IPv4 is 2 32 or 4,294,967,296. Binary notation: 01110101 10010101 00011101 11101010 Dotted-decimal notation: 01110101 10010101 00011101 11101010 117 149 29 234 117.149.29.234 Hexadecimal

More information

LESSON Networking Fundamentals. Understand IPv4

LESSON Networking Fundamentals. Understand IPv4 Understand IPv4 Lesson Overview In this lesson, you will learn about: APIPA addressing classful IP addressing and classless IP addressing gateway IPv4 local loopback IP NAT network classes reserved address

More information

Interconnection of Heterogeneous Networks. Internetworking. Service model. Addressing Address mapping Automatic host configuration

Interconnection of Heterogeneous Networks. Internetworking. Service model. Addressing Address mapping Automatic host configuration Interconnection of Heterogeneous Networks Internetworking Service model Addressing Address mapping Automatic host configuration Wireless LAN network@home outer Ethernet PPS Internet-Praktikum Internetworking

More information

CSE 3461: Introduction to Computer Networking and Internet Technologies. Packet Switching. Presentation G

CSE 3461: Introduction to Computer Networking and Internet Technologies. Packet Switching. Presentation G CSE 3461: Introduction to Computer Networking and Internet Technologies Packet Switching Presentation G Study: 10.5, 10.6, 12.1, 12.2, 13.1, 13.2, 18.3, 18.4 Gojko Babić 10-09-2012 The Network Core mesh

More information

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP, Internet Protocol (IP)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP, Internet Protocol (IP) Tik-110.350 Computer Networks (3 cr) Spring 2000 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP, Internet Protocol (IP) Professor Arto Karila Helsinki University of Technology E-mail: Arto.Karila@hut.fi

More information

- IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting -

- IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting - 1 Hardware Addressing - IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting - A hardware address is used to uniquely identify a host within a local network. Hardware addressing is a function of the Data-Link layer of the OSI

More information

PART IV. Network Layer

PART IV. Network Layer PART IV Network Layer Position of network layer Network layer duties Internetworking : heterogeneous Physical Networks To look Like a single network to he upper layers The address at Network layer must

More information

Introduction to IP v6

Introduction to IP v6 IP v 1-3: defined and replaced Introduction to IP v6 IP v4 - current version; 20 years old IP v5 - streams protocol IP v6 - replacement for IP v4 During developments it was called IPng - Next Generation

More information

TCP/IP Basis. OSI Model

TCP/IP Basis. OSI Model TCP/IP Basis 高 雄 大 學 資 訊 工 程 學 系 嚴 力 行 Source OSI Model Destination Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical ENCAPSULATION DATA SEGMENT PACKET FRAME BITS 0101010101010101010

More information

Internet Protocols. Addressing & Services. Updated: 9-29-2012

Internet Protocols. Addressing & Services. Updated: 9-29-2012 Internet Protocols Addressing & Services Updated: 9-29-2012 Virtual vs. Physical Networks MAC is the part of the underlying network MAC is used on the LAN What is the addressing mechanism in WAN? WAN is

More information

IP Addressing. and Routing. Prepared by : Swapan Purkait Director. Nettech Private Ltd. swapan@nettech.in + 91 93315 90003

IP Addressing. and Routing. Prepared by : Swapan Purkait Director. Nettech Private Ltd. swapan@nettech.in + 91 93315 90003 For Summer Training on Computer Networking visit IP Addressing Prepared by : Swapan Purkait Director Nettech Private Limited swapan@nettech.in + 91 93315 90003 and Routing IP Addresses Basic IP Addressing

More information

IP Addressing and Routing

IP Addressing and Routing IP Addressing and Routing 1 Basic IP Addressing Each host connected to the Internet is identified by a unique IP address. An IP address is a 32-bit quantity. Expressed as a dotted-decimal notation W.X.Y.Z.

More information

Internet Protocol version 4 Part I

Internet Protocol version 4 Part I Internet Protocol version 4 Part I Claudio Cicconetti International Master on Information Technology International Master on Communication Networks Engineering Table of Contents

More information

Internet Protocols (IP)

Internet Protocols (IP) Internet Protocols (IP) (1) Internet Protocols Internet Architecture and Philosophy A TCP/IP internet provides three sets of services as shown in the following figure Connectionless Delivery System The

More information

Chapter 4. IP Addresses: Classful Addressing

Chapter 4. IP Addresses: Classful Addressing Chapter 4 IP Addresses: Classful Addressing Outlines Introduction Classfuladdressing Other issues Subnetting and supernetting 4.1 INTRODUCTION Introduction IP address, or Internet Address 32-bit binary

More information

Lecture 8. IP Fundamentals

Lecture 8. IP Fundamentals Lecture 8. Internet Network Layer: IP Fundamentals Outline Layer 3 functionalities Internet Protocol (IP) characteristics IP packet (first look) IP addresses Routing tables: how to use ARP Layer 3 functionalities

More information

OSI Data Link & Network Layer

OSI Data Link & Network Layer OSI Data Link & Network Layer Erkki Kukk 1 Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model Compare OSI and TCP/IP model 2 Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model Explain protocol data units (PDU) and encapsulation 3 Addressing

More information

IP Subnetting and Addressing

IP Subnetting and Addressing Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur IP Subnetting and Addressing Prof Indranil Sengupta Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Lecture 6: IP Subnetting and Addressing

More information

Internet Protocol Address

Internet Protocol Address SFWR 4C03: Computer Networks & Computer Security Jan 17-21, 2005 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lecture 7-9 Internet Protocol Address Addressing is a critical component of the internet abstraction. To give

More information

Internetworking and IP Address

Internetworking and IP Address Lecture 8 Internetworking and IP Address Motivation of Internetworking Internet Architecture and Router Internet TCP/IP Reference Model and Protocols IP Addresses - Binary and Dotted Decimal IP Address

More information

Chapter 4 Network Layer

Chapter 4 Network Layer Chapter 4 Network Layer A note on the use of these ppt slides: We re making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). They re in PowerPoint form so you can add, modify, and delete

More information

Institute of Computer Technology - Vienna University of Technology. L30 - IP Technology Basics

Institute of Computer Technology - Vienna University of Technology. L30 - IP Technology Basics IP Technology Basics TCP/IP Protocol Suite, RFC, IP Addresses, IP Forwarding Agenda Introduction IP Address Address Classes Subnetting IP Forwarding Routing Basics Forwarding and ARP Forwarding and ICMP

More information

Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting

Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting Dr. Ahmed M. ElShafee ١ Agenda IP Addressing Conventions Original IPv4 Address Classes Subnetting CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing) ٢ IP Addressing Conventions

More information

RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol SFWR 4C03: Computer Networks and Computer Security January 19-22 2004 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lectures 7-9 RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol When a system with a local disk is bootstrapped it

More information

Objectives. Explain the different classes of IP addresses Configure IP addresses Subdivide an IP network

Objectives. Explain the different classes of IP addresses Configure IP addresses Subdivide an IP network IP Addressing Objectives Explain the different classes of IP addresses Configure IP addresses Subdivide an IP network CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition 2 Objectives (continued)

More information

3 IP Addressing. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 1 of 25

3 IP Addressing. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 1 of 25 3 IP Addressing Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 1 of 25 3 IP Addressing...1 3.1 The IP Address (1/4)...3 3.1 The IP Address (2/4)...3 3.1 The IP Address (3/4)...5 3.1 The IP Address (4/4)...6

More information

Network and Host Addresses 1.3. 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a 6-4

Network and Host Addresses 1.3. 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a 6-4 IP Addressing To facilitate the routing of packets over a network, the TCP/IP protocol suite uses a 32-bit logical address known as an IP address. This topic introduces the components of an IP address.

More information

IP (Internet Protocol) -Offered Services -Packet Format -ICMP

IP (Internet Protocol) -Offered Services -Packet Format -ICMP IP (Internet Protocol) -Offered Services -Packet Format -ICMP IP Communication Service Connectionless packet-oriented (or datagram) paradigm Two packets meant for the same destination may be handled in

More information

Lecture 17 Overview. Last Lecture. Wide Area Networking (2) This Lecture. Internet Protocol (1) Source: chapters 2.2, 2.3,18.4, 19.1, 9.

Lecture 17 Overview. Last Lecture. Wide Area Networking (2) This Lecture. Internet Protocol (1) Source: chapters 2.2, 2.3,18.4, 19.1, 9. Lecture 17 Overview Last Lecture Wide Area Networking (2) This Lecture Internet Protocol (1) Source: chapters 2.2, 2.3,18.4, 19.1, 9.2 Next Lecture Internet Protocol (2) Source: chapters 19.1, 19.2, 22,1

More information

Network layer. Assignment 3

Network layer. Assignment 3 Network layer Chapter 4 in the textbook Assignment 3 UWO Abstractly, your server is essentially a simple router Maybe more of a switch than a router Your server gets messages ( packets ) These messages

More information

Network layer. Data Link Layer Network Interface Card TCP 1 TCP 2 UDP. TCP IP Interface UDP IP Interface RSVP ARP ICMP

Network layer. Data Link Layer Network Interface Card TCP 1 TCP 2 UDP. TCP IP Interface UDP IP Interface RSVP ARP ICMP Network layer The Network Layer ( layer 3 ) is made of IP and a large number of auxiliary protocols. Some of the auxiliary protocols do not fit very well into the OSI stack structure. Application Application

More information

Network Layer (3): Subnetting

Network Layer (3): Subnetting 1 Network Layer (3): Subnetting Required reading: Kurose 4.4.2 CSE 3214, Winter 2016 Instructor: N. Vlajic 1. Introduction 2. Network Layer Protocols in the Internet 2.1 IPv4 2.2 IP Addressing and Subnetting

More information

Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1

Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1 Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19-1 IPv4 ADDRESSES An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address that

More information

Mobile IP Network Layer Lesson 02 TCP/IP Suite and IP Protocol

Mobile IP Network Layer Lesson 02 TCP/IP Suite and IP Protocol Mobile IP Network Layer Lesson 02 TCP/IP Suite and IP Protocol 1 TCP/IP protocol suite A suite of protocols for networking for the Internet Transmission control protocol (TCP) or User Datagram protocol

More information

PPS Internet-Praktikum. Prof. Bernhard Plattner Institut für Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze (TIK)

PPS Internet-Praktikum. Prof. Bernhard Plattner Institut für Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze (TIK) PPS Internet-Praktikum Prof. Bernhard Plattner Institut für Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze (TIK) September 2011 Zielsetzung Von unserer Webpage: Das Ziel dieser PPS-Veranstaltung ist es,

More information

Network Layer: Network Layer and IP Protocol

Network Layer: Network Layer and IP Protocol 1 Network Layer: Network Layer and IP Protocol Required reading: Garcia 7.3.3, 8.1, 8.2.1 CSE 3213, Winter 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic 2 1. Introduction 2. Router Architecture 3. Network Layer Protocols

More information

Themen der Praktikumsnachmittage. PPS Internet-Praktikum. Zielsetzung. Infrastruktur im ETF B5

Themen der Praktikumsnachmittage. PPS Internet-Praktikum. Zielsetzung. Infrastruktur im ETF B5 PPS Internet-Praktikum Prof. Bernhard Plattner Institut für Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze (TIK) Themen der Praktikumsnachmittage Aufbau und Analyse eines kleinen Netzwerks Routing Anwendungen

More information

Objectives. Introduction. Classful IP Addressing. IPv4 Classful Addressing Structure (RFC 790)

Objectives. Introduction. Classful IP Addressing. IPv4 Classful Addressing Structure (RFC 790) 1 Objectives VLSM and CIDR Routing Protocols and Concepts Chapters 6 and 7 Compare and contrast classful and classless IP addressing. Review VLSM and explain the benefits of classless IP addressing. Describe

More information

CS 268: Computer Networking

CS 268: Computer Networking CS 268: Computer Networking L-2 Design Considerations Design Considerations How to determine split of functionality Across protocol layers Across network nodes Assigned Reading [SRC84] End-to-end Arguments

More information

Lecture 10. Subnetting & Supernetting

Lecture 10. Subnetting & Supernetting Lecture 10. Subnetting & Supernetting Outline Subnetting Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) Supernetting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) medium org: N x class C? Class B? Class C addresses: Undersized

More information

Lecture 12: Addressing and Aggregation. CSE 123: Computer Networks Stefan Savage

Lecture 12: Addressing and Aggregation. CSE 123: Computer Networks Stefan Savage Lecture 12: Addressing and Aggregation CSE 123: Computer Networks Stefan Savage Lecture 12 Overview Finish up addressing Class-based addressing Subnetting Classless addressing Address allocation CSE 123

More information

OSI Network Layer OSI Layer 3

OSI Network Layer OSI Layer 3 OSI Network Layer OSI Layer 3 Network Fundamentals Chapter 5 ١ Objectives Identify the role of the Network Layer, as it describes communication from one end device to another end device Examine the most

More information

TCP/IP and OSI model. TCP/IP Protocol (2) B.2

TCP/IP and OSI model. TCP/IP Protocol (2) B.2 TCP/IP Protocol TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking Protocol (TCP/IP) standard for the Internet five layers = physical = data link = network = transport = application B.1 TCP/IP and OSI

More information

SUPPORT DE COURS. Dr. Omari Mohammed Maître de Conférences Classe A Université d Adrar Courriel : omarinmt@gmail.com

SUPPORT DE COURS. Dr. Omari Mohammed Maître de Conférences Classe A Université d Adrar Courriel : omarinmt@gmail.com Dr. Omari Mohammed Maître de Conférences Classe A Université d Adrar Courriel : omarinmt@gmail.com SUPPORT DE COURS Matière : Réseaux 2 Niveau : 3 ème Année Licence en Informatique Option : Réseaux et

More information

The Internet. Internet Technologies and Applications

The Internet. Internet Technologies and Applications The Internet Internet Technologies and Applications Aim and Contents Aim: Review the main concepts and technologies used in the Internet Describe the real structure of the Internet today Contents: Internetworking

More information

Architecting Large Networks

Architecting Large Networks MIT 6.02 DRAFT Lecture Notes Spring 2010 (Last update: May 4, 2010) Comments, questions or bug reports? Please contact 6.02-staff@mit.edu LECTURE 24 Architecting Large Networks The network layer mechanisms

More information

This telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is of no value to us.

This telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is of no value to us. This telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is of no value to us. Western Union internal memo, 1876 C H A P T E R 2 IPv6 Addressing After

More information

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports 1. Introduction to IP... 1 2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports... 1 3. IP Packet Structure... 2 4. IP Address Structure... 2 Network Portion... 2 Host Portion... 3 Global vs. Private IP Addresses...3

More information

Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses

Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses A Silicon Valley Insider Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses Technology White Paper Serge-Paul Carrasco Abstract The Internet is running out of addresses! Depending on how long

More information

Chapter 5 IPv4 Addresses

Chapter 5 IPv4 Addresses Chapter 5 IPv4 Addresses مترجم : دکتر محمد حسین یغمایی 1 TCP/IP Protocol Suite INTRODUCTION مترجم : دکتر محمد حسین یغمایی 2 TCP/IP Protocol Suite An IP address is a 32-bit address. مترجم : دکتر محمد حسین

More information

IP Subnetting. Subnetting

IP Subnetting. Subnetting IP Subnetting Shailesh N. Sisat Prajkta S. Bhopale Vishwajit K. Barbudhe Abstract - Network management becomes more and more important as computer-networks grow steadily. A critical skill for any network

More information

Lab#2: IP Addressing and Subnetting

Lab#2: IP Addressing and Subnetting IP Addressing Lab#2: IP Addressing and Subnetting Each Network Interface Card (NIC or Network card) present in a PC is assigned one Network address called as IP address. This IP address is assigned by

More information

CS 348: Computer Networks. - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay

CS 348: Computer Networks. - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay CS 348: Computer Networks - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012 Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay Think-Pair-Share: IP addressing What is the need for IP addresses? Why not have only MAC addresses? Given that

More information

Internet Protocols Fall 2004. Outline

Internet Protocols Fall 2004. Outline Internet Protocols Fall 2004 Lecture 7 Andreas Terzis 9/29/04 Outline Internet Protocol CIDR Forwarding CS 449/Fall 04 2 1 Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) Addressing The IP address space is broken

More information

IP: Internet Addressing

IP: Internet Addressing IP: Internet Addressing 1 Topics Covered Introduction Addresses for the Virtual Internet The IP Addressing Scheme The IP Address Hierarchy Original Classes of IP Addresses Dotted Decimal Notation Division

More information