# IP addressing. Interface: Connection between host, router and physical link. IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 IP addressing IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface Interface: Connection between host, router and physical link routers typically have multiple interfaces host may have multiple interfaces IP addresses associated with interface, not host, router =

2 IP addressing (2) IP address: Network part (high order bits) Host part (low order bits) What s a network? (from IP address perspective) Device interfaces with same network part of IP address Can physically reach each other without intervening router LAN Network consisting of 3 IP networks (for IP addresses starting with 223, first 24 bits are network address) 2

3 IP addressing (3) How to find the networks? Detach each interface from router, host Create islands of isolated networks Interconnected system consisting of six networks

4 IP networks: Subnets Sub divide address space network part host address Address format: a.b.c.d/x, where x is # bits in subnet portion of address subnet part /24 host part 4

5 Fixed subnetting (classful) class A B C D 0 network host 10 network host 110 network host 1110 multicast address 32 bits to to to to

6 Address management Problem: We are running out of networks Solution (a): Subnetting: E.g., Class B Host field (16 bits) is subdivided into <subnet;host> fields Solution (b): CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing) 6

7 CIDR CIDR: Classless InterDomain Routing Motivation Class A is too large, Class C is too small Everyone had a Class B address!!! Solution: Sites are given contiguous blocks of class-c addresses (256 addresses each) and a mask or parts of former class A/B networks. 7

8 CIDR (2.) CIDR: Classless InterDomain Routing Subnet portion of address of arbitrary length Address format: a.b.c.d/x, where x is # bits in subnet portion of address subnet part /23 host part 8

9 IP addresses: How to get one? Q: How does host get IP address? Hard-coded by system admin in a file Wintel: Control Panel Network Configuration TCP/IP Properties UNIX: /etc/rc.config DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: dynamically get address from as server Plug-and-play IP / Subnets allocated by provider (RIPE/ARIN/ ) 9

10 Hierarchical address structure Recall: CIDR 18 relevant bits /18 = High order bits form the prefix Once inside the network, can subnet: divide remaining bits Subnet example: / / / /14 Note: picture shows prefix masks, not interface addrs! Forwarding decision: Longest prefix match 10

11 Forwarding vs. routing Forwarding: the process of moving packets from input to output The forwarding table Information in the packet Routing: process by which the forwarding table is built and maintained One or more routing protocols Procedures (algorithms) to convert routing info to forwarding table. (More later ) 11

12 Forwarding with CIDR Packet should be sent toward the interface with the longest matching prefix Advertised address

13 Lookup: Longest prefix match Forwarding table: <Network>/<mask> <next-hop> IP Packets: destination IP address Find next-hop via longest prefix match Example: Forwarding table Packets /24 A /16 C /20 B /28 B /28 A

14 IP addressing: The last word Q: How does an ISP get block of addresses? A: ICANN: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers allocates addresses manages DNS assigns domain names, resolves disputes Q: What do I do if I don t have a public address? A: Private IP addresses (RFC 1918) 10/ / /16 Private use only not routable in the Internet 14

15 NAT: Network address translation Motivation: Local network uses just one IP address as far as outside world is concerned: Just one IP address for all devices Not needed range of addresses from ISP 15

16 NAT: Network address translation (2.) rest of Internet local network (e.g., home network) / All datagrams leaving local network have same single source NAT IP address: , different source port numbers Datagrams with source or destination in this network have /24 address for source, destination (as usual) 16

17 NAT: Network address translation (3.) Motivation: Local network uses just one IP address as far as outside world is concerned: Range of addresses not needed from ISP: just one IP address for all devices Can change addresses of devices in local network without notifying outside world Can change ISP without changing addresses of devices in local network Devices inside local net not explicitly addressable, visible by outside world (a security plus). 17

18 NAT: Network address translation (4.) Implementation: NAT router must: Outgoing datagrams: Replace (source IP address, port #) of every outgoing datagram to (NAT IP address, new port #)... remote clients/servers will respond using (NAT IP address, new port #) as destination addr. Remember (in NAT translation table) every (source IP address, port #) to (NAT IP address, new port #) translation pair Incoming datagrams: Replace (NAT IP address, new port #) in dest fields of every incoming datagram with corresponding (source IP address, port #) stored in NAT table 18

19 NAT: Network address translation (5.) 2: NAT router changes datagram source addr from , 3345 to , 5001, updates table 2 NAT translation table WAN side addr LAN side addr , , 3345 S: , 5001 D: , S: , 3345 D: , : host sends datagram to , S: , 80 D: , : Reply arrives dest. address: , 5001 S: , 80 D: , : NAT router changes datagram dest addr from , 5001 to ,

20 NAT: Network address translation (6.) 16-bit port-number field: 60,000 simultaneous connections with a single LANside address! NAT is controversial: Routers should only process up to layer 3 Violates end-to-end argument NAT possibility must be taken into account by app designers, e.g., P2P applications Address shortage should instead be solved by IPv6 20

### IP addressing and forwarding Network layer

The Internet Network layer Host, router network layer functions: IP addressing and forwarding Network layer Routing protocols path selection RIP, OSPF, BGP Transport layer: TCP, UDP forwarding table IP

### Network layer: Overview. Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding

Network layer: Overview Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding 1 Network layer functions Transport packet from sending to receiving hosts Network layer protocols in every host, router application

### Router Architecture Overview. Input Port Functions. Switching Via Memory. Three types of switching fabrics. Switching Via a Bus

Router Architecture Overview Two key router functions: run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) forwarding grams from incoming to outgoing link Input Port Functions Physical layer: bit-level reception

### CS 457 Lecture 19 Global Internet - BGP. Fall 2011

CS 457 Lecture 19 Global Internet - BGP Fall 2011 Decision Process Calculate degree of preference for each route in Adj-RIB-In as follows (apply following steps until one route is left): select route with

Classful IP Addressing (cont.) 1 Address Prefix aka Net ID defines the network Address Suffix aka Host ID defines the node In Classful addressing, prefix is of fixed length (1, 2, or 3 bytes)! Classful

### Chapter 4 Network Layer

Chapter 4 Network Layer A note on the use of these ppt slides: We re making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). They re in PowerPoint form so you can add, modify, and delete

### Network layer" 1DT066! Distributed Information Systems!! Chapter 4" Network Layer!! goals: "

1DT066! Distributed Information Systems!! Chapter 4" Network Layer!! Network layer" goals: "! understand principles behind layer services:" " layer service models" " forwarding versus routing" " how a

### Network layer. Assignment 3

Network layer Chapter 4 in the textbook Assignment 3 UWO Abstractly, your server is essentially a simple router Maybe more of a switch than a router Your server gets messages ( packets ) These messages

### Scaling the Network: Subnetting and Other Protocols. Networking CS 3470, Section 1

Scaling the Network: Subnetting and Other Protocols Networking CS 3470, Section 1 Today CIDR Subnetting Private IP addresses ICMP, IMAP, and DHCP Protocols 2 Packet Encapsulation ** Creative Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:udp_encapsulation.svg

### Компјутерски Мрежи NAT & ICMP

Компјутерски Мрежи NAT & ICMP Riste Stojanov, M.Sc., Aleksandra Bogojeska, M.Sc., Vladimir Zdraveski, B.Sc Internet AS Hierarchy Inter-AS border (exterior gateway) routers Intra-AS interior (gateway) routers

### CS 43: Computer Networks IP. Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013

CS 43: Computer Networks IP Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013 Reading Quiz IP datagram format IP protocol version number header length (bytes) type of data max number remaining hops (decremented

### Internet Protocol (IP) IP - Network Layer. IP Routing. Advantages of Connectionless. CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming ------ IP routing

Process Process Process Layer CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming ------ IP routing Wenyuan Xu ICMP, AP & AP TCP IP UDP Transport Layer Network Layer Department of Computer Science and Engineering University

### Classful IP Addressing. Classless Addressing: CIDR. Routing & Forwarding: Logical View of a Router. IP Addressing: Basics

Switching and Forwarding Switching and Forwarding Generic Router rchitecture Forwarding Tables: ridges/layer Switches; VLN Routers and Layer 3 Switches Forwarding in Layer 3 (Network Layer) Network Layer

### Internet Protocols Fall Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis

Internet Protocols Fall 2006 Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis Outline Internet Protocol Service Model Addressing Original addressing scheme Subnetting CIDR Forwarding Router Designs Fragmentation

### Network Layer (3): Subnetting

1 Network Layer (3): Subnetting Required reading: Kurose 4.4.2 CSE 3214, Winter 2016 Instructor: N. Vlajic 1. Introduction 2. Network Layer Protocols in the Internet 2.1 IPv4 2.2 IP Addressing and Subnetting

### 2.1.2.2.2 Variable length subnetting

2.1.2.2.2 Variable length subnetting Variable length subnetting or variable length subnet masks (VLSM) allocated subnets within the same network can use different subnet masks. Advantage: conserves the

### 8.2 The Internet Protocol

TCP/IP Protocol Suite HTTP SMTP DNS RTP Distributed applications Reliable stream service TCP UDP User datagram service Best-effort connectionless packet transfer Network Interface 1 IP Network Interface

### Network Layer. Abusayeed Saifullah. CS 5600 Computer Networks. These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross

Network Layer Abusayeed Saifullah CS 5600 Computer Networks These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross IP addresses: how to get one? Q: how does network get subnet part of IP addr? A: gets allocated

Efficient Addressing Outline Addressing Subnetting Supernetting CS 640 1 IPV4 Global Addresses Properties IPv4 uses 32 bit address space globally unique hierarchical: network + host 7 24 Dot Notation 10.3.2.4

### Module 1. IP/MAC Addresses and TCP/IP Suite

Module 1 IP/MAC Addresses and TCP/IP Suite Dr. Associate Professor of Computer Science Jackson State University E-mail: natarajan.meghanathan@jsums.edu Module 1 Topics 1.1 MAC Address 1.2 Class-based IP

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur IP Subnetting and Addressing Prof Indranil Sengupta Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Lecture 6: IP Subnetting and Addressing

### TCP/IP Basis. OSI Model

TCP/IP Basis 高 雄 大 學 資 訊 工 程 學 系 嚴 力 行 Source OSI Model Destination Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical ENCAPSULATION DATA SEGMENT PACKET FRAME BITS 0101010101010101010

Addresses for the Virtual Internet CSIS 4222 Ch 21: IP: Internet Protocol Addresses Addressing is a critical component of the Internet All host computers must use a uniform addressing scheme Each address

### ICS 351: Today's plan

ICS 351: Today's plan Quiz, on overall Internet function, linux and IOS commands, network monitoring, protocols IPv4 addresses: network part and host part address masks IP interface configuration IPv6

### Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting

Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting Dr. Ahmed M. ElShafee ١ Agenda IP Addressing Conventions Original IPv4 Address Classes Subnetting CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing) ٢ IP Addressing Conventions

### Internetworking and Internet-1. Global Addresses

Internetworking and Internet Global Addresses IP servcie model has two parts Datagram (connectionless) packet delivery model Global addressing scheme awaytoidentifyall H in the internetwork Properties

IP Addressing -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing Internetworking The concept of internetworking: we need to make different networks communicate

### IP : Internet Protocol. Introduction

IP : Internet Protocol Chapters 18,19 Introduction One key aspect of virtual network is single, uniform address format Can't use hardware addresses because different technologies have different address

### COMP 631: COMPUTER NETWORKS. IP Addressing. Jasleen Kaur. Fall 2014. How to Deal With Heterogeneity & Scale?

COMP 631: COMPUTER NETWORKS IP Addressing Jasleen Kaur Fall 2014 1 How to Deal With Heterogeneity & Scale? Requirements from IP addressing: Should be globally unique Should facilitate easy mapping to link-layer

### Answers to Sample Questions on Network Layer

Answers to Sample Questions on Network Layer ) IP Packets on a certain network can carry a maximum of only 500 bytes in the data portion. An application using TCP/IP on a node on this network generates

### Internet Packets. Forwarding Datagrams

Internet Packets Packets at the network layer level are called datagrams They are encapsulated in frames for delivery across physical networks Frames are packets at the data link layer Datagrams are formed

### IPv4 Addresses. Network Layer. Types of IPv4 Addresses. IPv4 Address Classes (old) q 32 bits long q Identifier for host, router interface q Notation:

IPv4 Addresses Network Layer q 32 bits long q Identifier for host, router interface q Notation: v Each byte is written in decimal in MSB order, separated by dots v Example: 128.195.1.80 2 Types of IPv4

### IP address format: Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111 128.11.3.31

IP address format: 7 24 Class A 0 Network ID Host ID 14 16 Class B 1 0 Network ID Host ID 21 8 Class C 1 1 0 Network ID Host ID 28 Class D 1 1 1 0 Multicast Address Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011

### Internet Protocols Fall 2005. Lectures 7-8 Andreas Terzis

Internet Protocols Fall 2005 Lectures 7-8 Andreas Terzis Outline Internet Protocol Service Model Fragmentation Addressing Original addressing scheme Subnetting CIDR Forwarding ICMP ARP Address Shortage

### Savera Tanwir. Internet Protocol

Savera Tanwir Internet Protocol The IP Protocol The IPv4 (Internet Protocol) header. IP Packet Details Header and payload Header itself has a fixed part and variable part Version IPv4, IPv5 or IPv6 IHL,

### LESSON Networking Fundamentals. Understand IPv4

Understand IPv4 Lesson Overview In this lesson, you will learn about: APIPA addressing classful IP addressing and classless IP addressing gateway IPv4 local loopback IP NAT network classes reserved address

### LAN TCP/IP and DHCP Setup

CHAPTER 2 LAN TCP/IP and DHCP Setup 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, we will explain in more detail the LAN TCP/IP and DHCP Setup. 2.2 LAN IP Network Configuration In the Vigor 2900 router, there are

### Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses

A Silicon Valley Insider Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses Technology White Paper Serge-Paul Carrasco Abstract The Internet is running out of addresses! Depending on how long

### SUBNETS, CIDR, AND CLASSLESS ADDRESSING

Announcements SUBNETS, CIDR, AND CLASSLESS ADDRESSING Internet Protocols CSC / ECE 573 Fall, 005 No office hours tomorrow (Wednesday) out of town No class on Thursday Fall break! Midterm exam next Tuesday!

Planning the Addressing Structure Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP Chapter 4 Copyleft 2012 Vincenzo Bruno (www.vincenzobruno.it) Released under Crative Commons License 3.0 By-Sa Cisco name,

### Ch.9 Classless And Subnet Address Extensions (CIDR)

CSC521 Communication Protocols 網 路 通 訊 協 定 Ch.9 Classless And Subnet Address Extensions (CIDR) 吳 俊 興 國 立 高 雄 大 學 資 訊 工 程 學 系 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Review Of Relevant Facts 3. Minimizing Network Numbers

### Data & Computer Communications. Lecture 8. Network Layer: Logical addressing. In this lecture we will cover the following topics:

Data & Computer Communications MSCEG 425 Lecture 8 Network Layer: Logical addressing Fall 2007 1 0. Overview In this lecture we will cover the following topics: 14.Network Layer: Logical addressing 14.1

Internet Addresses (You should read Chapter 4 in Forouzan) IP Address is 32 Bits Long Conceptually the address is the pair (NETID, HOSTID) Addresses are assigned by the internet company for assignment

### CE363 Data Communications & Networking. Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing

CE363 Data Communications & Networking Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing TCP/IP and OSI model APPLICATION APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK Host-Network TRANSPORT NETWORK DATA

### CS 348: Computer Networks. - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay

CS 348: Computer Networks - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012 Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay Think-Pair-Share: IP addressing What is the need for IP addresses? Why not have only MAC addresses? Given that

Lecture 8 Internetworking and IP Address Motivation of Internetworking Internet Architecture and Router Internet TCP/IP Reference Model and Protocols IP Addresses - Binary and Dotted Decimal IP Address

### Computer Network Foundation. Chun-Jen (James) Chung. Arizona State University

Computer Network Foundation Chun-Jen (James) Chung 1 Outline Network Addressing Subnetting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Route Aggregation Network Addressing How does the network decide where to

### Network layer. Data Link Layer Network Interface Card TCP 1 TCP 2 UDP. TCP IP Interface UDP IP Interface RSVP ARP ICMP

Network layer The Network Layer ( layer 3 ) is made of IP and a large number of auxiliary protocols. Some of the auxiliary protocols do not fit very well into the OSI stack structure. Application Application

### Internet Protocols Fall 2004. Outline

Internet Protocols Fall 2004 Lecture 7 Andreas Terzis 9/29/04 Outline Internet Protocol CIDR Forwarding CS 449/Fall 04 2 1 Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) Addressing The IP address space is broken

Advanced IP Addressing CS-765 A Aspects Of Systems Administration Spring-2005 Instructure: Jan Schauman Stevens Institute Of Technology, NJ. Prepared By: Modh, Jay A. M.S. NIS SID: 999-14-0352 Date: 05/02/2005

### Objectives. Explain the different classes of IP addresses Configure IP addresses Subdivide an IP network

IP Addressing Objectives Explain the different classes of IP addresses Configure IP addresses Subdivide an IP network CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition 2 Objectives (continued)

SFWR 4C03: Computer Networks & Computer Security Jan 17-21, 2005 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lecture 7-9 Internet Protocol Address Addressing is a critical component of the internet abstraction. To give

### IP Address Classes (Some are Obsolete) 15-441 Computer Networking. Important Concepts. Subnetting 15-441 15-641. Lecture 8 IP Addressing & Packets

Address Classes (Some are Obsolete) 15-441 15-441 Computer Networking 15-641 Class A 0 Network ID Network ID 8 16 Host ID Host ID 24 32 Lecture 8 Addressing & Packets Peter Steenkiste Fall 2013 www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/15-441-f13

### Objectives. Introduction. Classful IP Addressing. IPv4 Classful Addressing Structure (RFC 790)

1 Objectives VLSM and CIDR Routing Protocols and Concepts Chapters 6 and 7 Compare and contrast classful and classless IP addressing. Review VLSM and explain the benefits of classless IP addressing. Describe

### From the previous lecture

CS 640: Introduction to Computer Networks Aditya Akella Lecture 7 - IP: Addressing and Forwarding From the previous lecture We will cover spanning tree from the last lecture 2 Spanning Tree Bridges More

### Chapter 4 Network Layer

Chapter 4 Network Layer Reti degli Elaboratori Canale AL Prof.ssa Chiara Petrioli a.a. 2013/2014 We thank for the support material Prof. Kurose-Ross All material copyright 1996-2012 J.F Kurose and K.W.

### Autumn Oct 21, Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 1 Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 2

IPv4 IP: Addressing, ARP, Routing Protocols and Standards Autumn 2004-2005 IP Datagram Format IPv4 Addressing ARP and RARP IP Routing Basics Subnetting and Supernetting ICMP Address Translation (NAT) Dynamic

### Introduction to Local and Wide Area Networks

Introduction to Local and Wide Area Networks Lecturers Amnach Khawne Jirasak Sittigorn Chapter 1 1 Routing Protocols and Concepts Chapter 6 : VLSM and CIDR Chapter 7 : RIPv2 Chapter 1 2 VLSM and CIDR Routing

### Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 2: IP Addressing and Related Topics

Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition Chapter 2: IP Addressing and Related Topics Objectives Understand IP addressing, anatomy and structures, and addresses from a computer s point of view Recognize and describe

### We Are HERE! Dividing Up the Space. Addressing Background. Addressing Strategies. Requirements analysis Flow Analysis Logical Design

We Are HERE! TELE 302 Network Design Lecture 21 Addressing Strategies Source: McCabe 12.1 ~ 12.4 Jeremiah Deng TELE Programme / Info Sci University of Otago, 21/9/2015 Requirements analysis Flow Analysis

### Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1

Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19-1 IPv4 ADDRESSES An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address that

### OSI Data Link & Network Layer

OSI Data Link & Network Layer Erkki Kukk 1 Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model Compare OSI and TCP/IP model 2 Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model Explain protocol data units (PDU) and encapsulation 3 Addressing

### ECE 358: Computer Networks. Solutions to Homework #4. Chapter 4 - The Network Layer

ECE 358: Computer Networks Solutions to Homework #4 Chapter 4 - The Network Layer P 4. Consider the network below. a. Suppose that this network is a datagram network. Show the forwarding table in router

### IPv6 - The Next Generation Internet

IPv6 - The Next Generation Internet Subnetting and Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR) improve utilization of IP address space and slow growth of routing information, but at some point, they will not

### IP Addressing A Simplified Tutorial

Application Note IP Addressing A Simplified Tutorial July 2002 COMPAS ID 92962 Avaya Labs 1 All information in this document is subject to change without notice. Although the information is believed to

IP Addressing Introductory material. A module devoted to IP addresses. Addresses & Names Hardware (Layer 2) Lowest level Ethernet (MAC), Serial point-to-point,.. Network (Layer 3) IP IPX, SNA, others Transport

### Chapter 5. IPv4 Addresses. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 5 IPv4 Addresses TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter Outline TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2 5-1 INTRODUCTION The

### Network-Oriented Software Development. Course: CSc4360/CSc6360 Instructor: Dr. Beyah Sessions: M-W, 3:00 4:40pm Lecture 2

Network-Oriented Software Development Course: CSc4360/CSc6360 Instructor: Dr. Beyah Sessions: M-W, 3:00 4:40pm Lecture 2 Topics Layering TCP/IP Layering Internet addresses and port numbers Encapsulation

### Lecture 8. IP Fundamentals

Lecture 8. Internet Network Layer: IP Fundamentals Outline Layer 3 functionalities Internet Protocol (IP) characteristics IP packet (first look) IP addresses Routing tables: how to use ARP Layer 3 functionalities

### Chapter 3: Review of Important Networking Concepts. Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine elzarki@uci.edu http://www.ics.uci.

Chapter 3: Review of Important Networking Concepts Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine elzarki@uci.edu http://www.ics.uci.edu/~magda 1 Networking Concepts Protocol Architecture Protocol Layers Encapsulation

### Future Internet Technologies

Future Internet Technologies Traditional Internet Dr. Dennis Pfisterer Institut für Telematik, Universität zu Lübeck http://www.itm.uni-luebeck.de/people/pfisterer Internet Protocol v4 (IPv4) IPv4 Model

### PART IV. Network Layer

PART IV Network Layer Position of network layer Network layer duties Internetworking : heterogeneous Physical Networks To look Like a single network to he upper layers The address at Network layer must

### WHITE PAPER. Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know

WHITE PAPER Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know CONTENTS Internet Scaling Problems 1 Classful IP Addressing 3

### Internet Protocols. Addressing & Services. Updated: 9-29-2012

Internet Protocols Addressing & Services Updated: 9-29-2012 Virtual vs. Physical Networks MAC is the part of the underlying network MAC is used on the LAN What is the addressing mechanism in WAN? WAN is

### A is represented by (or 41h) etc. The networking address is no different to any other information stored on the computer.

extracted from www.kccommunications.com IPv4 -- Tech Note GeneralDataComm Training Notes Sept 1998 BASIC SUMMARY IP Addressing Reminder Notes Remember. The computer thinks in BINARY for example When you

### Network Layers. CSC358 - Introduction to Computer Networks

Network Layers Goal Understand how application processes set up a connection and exchange messages. Understand how addresses are determined Data Exchange Between Application Processes TCP Connection-Setup

IP Addressing and Routing 1 Basic IP Addressing Each host connected to the Internet is identified by a unique IP address. An IP address is a 32-bit quantity. Expressed as a dotted-decimal notation W.X.Y.Z.

### Lecture Computer Networks

Prof. Dr. H. P. Großmann mit M. Rabel sowie H. Hutschenreiter und T. Nau Sommersemester 2012 Institut für Organisation und Management von Informationssystemen Thomas Nau, kiz Lecture Computer Networks

### (Refer Slide Time: 02:17)

Internet Technology Prof. Indranil Sengupta Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No #06 IP Subnetting and Addressing (Not audible: (00:46)) Now,

### We Are HERE! Subne\ng

TELE 302 Network Design Lecture 21 Addressing Strategies Source: McCabe 12.1 ~ 12.4 Jeremiah Deng TELE Programme, University of Otago, 2013 We Are HERE! Requirements analysis Flow Analysis Logical Design

### TCP/IP works on 3 types of services (cont.): TCP/IP protocols are divided into three categories:

Due to the number of hardware possibilities for a network, there must be a set of rules for how data should be transmitted across the connection media. A protocol defines how the network devices and computers

### 1. How many unique network IDs are there in class A addresses? # of unique hosts?

CS445: IPv4 Addresses In-class activity Names: Part 1: Address Classes Original three classes of IPv4 addresses: A: 0 network (7 bits) host (24 bits) B: 10 network (14 bits) host (16 bits) C: 110 network

### Lecture 10. Subnetting & Supernetting

Lecture 10. Subnetting & Supernetting Outline Subnetting Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) Supernetting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) medium org: N x class C? Class B? Class C addresses: Undersized

### 2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports

1. Introduction to IP... 1 2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports... 1 3. IP Packet Structure... 2 4. IP Address Structure... 2 Network Portion... 2 Host Portion... 3 Global vs. Private IP Addresses...3

### Lab 10.4.1 IP Addressing Overview

Lab 10.4.1 IP ing Overview Estimated time: 30 min. Objectives: Background: This lab will focus on your ability to accomplish the following tasks: Name the five different classes of IP addresses Describe

### Lecture 10. Subnetting & Supernetting. Supernetting. Subnetting. Outline. medium org: N x class C? Class B? Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)

Lecture 10. Subnetting & Supernetting Outline Subnetting Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) Supernetting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) medium org: N x class C? Class B? R2 130.11.0.7 Net 130.11.0.0

### CIDR: Classless Interdomain Routing

1/10 CIDR: Classless Interdomain Routing Surasak Sanguanpong nguan@ku.ac.th http://www.cpe.ku.ac.th/~nguan Last updated: July 9, 2002 Address allocation problem 2/10 Exhaustion of the class B network address

### CS5008: Internet Computing

CS5008: Internet Computing Lecture 10: IP Part II IP Addressing A. O Riordan, 2009, latest revision 2016 Some slides based on Fitzgerald and Dennis, and Tanenbaum IP Address Notation IPv4 addresses are

IP: Internet Addressing 1 Topics Covered Introduction Addresses for the Virtual Internet The IP Addressing Scheme The IP Address Hierarchy Original Classes of IP Addresses Dotted Decimal Notation Division

### CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca

CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca Based partly on lecture notes by David Mazières, Phil Levis, John Janno< Administrivia IP out today. Your job: Find partners and tell us Implement

### Instructor Notes for Lab 3

Instructor Notes for Lab 3 Do not distribute instructor notes to students! Lab Preparation: Make sure that enough Ethernet hubs and cables are available in the lab. The following tools will be used in

### Internetworking Microsoft TCP/IP on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0

Internetworking Microsoft TCP/IP on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 Course length: 5 Days Course No. 688 - Five days - Instructor-led Introduction This course provides students with the knowledge and skills required

Hands-On TCP-IP / IPv6 / VoIP Course Description In this Hands-On 3-day course, gives a deeper understanding of internetworking and routed network protocols. The focus of the course is the design, operation,