Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 2: IP Addressing and Related Topics

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 2: IP Addressing and Related Topics"

Transcription

1 Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition Chapter 2: IP Addressing and Related Topics

2 Objectives Understand IP addressing, anatomy and structures, and addresses from a computer s point of view Recognize and describe the various IP address classes from A to E, and explain how they re composed and used Understand the nature of IP address limitations, and how techniques like Classless Inter-Domain Routing and Network Address Translation ease those limitations IP Addressing and Related Topics 2

3 Objectives (continued) Define the terms subnet and supernet, and apply your knowledge of how subnets and supernets work to solve specific network design problems Understand how public and private Internet addresses are assigned, how to obtain them, and how to use them properly Recognize the importance and value of an IP addressing scheme IP Addressing and Related Topics 3

4 IP Addressing Basics Computers deal with network addresses as bit patterns IP uses a three-part addressing scheme Symbolic Example support.dell.com Logical numeric Example Physical numeric Six-byte numeric address, burned into firmware (on a chip) by network interface manufacturers IP Addressing and Related Topics 4

5 IP Addressing Basics (continued) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Permits computers to translate numeric IP addresses to MAC layer addresses ReverseARP (RARP) Translates MAC layer addresses into numeric IP addresses IP Addressing and Related Topics 5

6 Anatomy of an IP Address IP addresses Dotted decimal notation Take the form n.n.n.n, where n is guaranteed to be between 0 and 255 Each number is an 8-bit number called an octet Duplication is not allowed IP Addressing and Related Topics 6

7 IP Address Classes IP addresses Subdivided into five classes: Class A to Class E For first three classes octets are divided as follows Class A n. h.h.h Class B n.n. h.h Class C n.n.n. h n = network, h = host IP Addressing and Related Topics 7

8 IP Address Classes (continued) Address Classes D and E are for special uses Class D addresses Multicast communications Class E addresses Reserved entirely for experimental use IP Addressing and Related Topics 8

9 More About Class A Addresses Class A addresses in binary form 0bbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb b can be 1s or 0s Reserved for special uses Addresses consisting of all 0s and all 1s Reserved for private network use Address for network 10 ( ) Reserved for loopback testing Address 127.n.n.n IP Addressing and Related Topics 9

10 IP Addressing and Related Topics 10

11 More About Class B Addresses Class B addresses take the following binary form 10bbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb b can be 1s or 0s Maximum number of usable network addresses 16,366 Maximum number of public IP addresses IP Addressing and Related Topics 11

12 IP Addressing and Related Topics 12

13 More About Class C Addresses Class C addresses take the following binary form 110bbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb b can be 1s or 0s The maximum number of usable network addresses Reserved for private use 256 Class C addresses, from to IP Addressing and Related Topics 13

14 IP Addressing and Related Topics 14

15 More About Address Classes D and E Class D addresses 1110bbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb b can be 1s or 0s Multicast addresses Class E addresses 11110bbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb b can be 1s or 0s Only for experimental purposes IP Addressing and Related Topics 15

16 Network, Broadcast, Multicast, and Other Special IP Addresses Network address Any IP address where all host bits are 0 Broadcast address Address that all hosts on a network must read Broadcast traffic Seldom forwarded from one physical network to another IP Addressing and Related Topics 16

17 Broadcast Packet Structures IP broadcast packets have two destination address fields Data Link layer destination address field Destination network address field IP Addressing and Related Topics 17

18 IP Addressing and Related Topics 18

19 Multicast Packet and Address IP gateway Structures Router or other device that will forward traffic to the host s physical network The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Allocates multicast addresses on a controlled basis IP Addressing and Related Topics 19

20 IP Addressing and Related Topics 20

21 IP Addressing and Related Topics 21

22 The Vanishing IP Address Space Address space saving techniques Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Trade in existing IP network addresses RFC 1918 Reserves three ranges of IP addresses for private use Network Address Translation (NAT) Lets networks use private IP addresses internally and maps them to public IP address externally IP Addressing and Related Topics 22

23 Understanding Basic Binary Arithmetic Four binary calculations must be mastered Converting binary to decimal Converting decimal to binary Understanding how setting increasing numbers of high-order bits to 1 in eight-bit binary numbers corresponds to specific decimal numbers Understanding how setting increasing low-order bits to 1 in eight-bit binary numbers corresponds to specific decimal numbers IP Addressing and Related Topics 23

24 Converting Decimal to Binary Converting decimal number 125 to binary 125 divided by 2 equals 62, remainder 1 62 divided by 2 equals 31, remainder 0 31 divided by 2 equals 15, remainder 1 15 divided by 2 equals 7, remainder 1 7 divided by 2 equals 3, remainder 1 3 divided by 2 equals 1, remainder 1 1 divided by 2 equals 0, remainder 1 IP Addressing and Related Topics 24

25 Converting Binary to Decimal Count the total number of digits in the number Subtract 1 from the total (8-1 = 7) Convert to exponential notation, using all the digits as multipliers converts as follows = 1*27+1*26+0*25+1*24+1*23+0*22+1*21+1*20 = = 219 IP Addressing and Related Topics 25

26 High-Order Bit Patterns Binary Decimal IP Addressing and Related Topics 26

27 Low-Order Bit Patterns Binary Decimal Exponent IP Addressing and Related Topics 27

28 IP Networks, Subnets, And Masks Subnet mask Special bit pattern that blocks off the network portion of an IP address with an all-ones pattern Default masks for Classes A, B, and C Class Layout Default Mask Class A n h.h.h Class B n.n h.h Class C n.n.n h IP Addressing and Related Topics 28

29 IP Subnets and Supernets Subnetting Stealing (borrowing) bits from the host portion to further subdivide the network portion of an address Supernetting Stealing bits from network portion Using them to create a single, larger contiguous address space for host addresses IP Addressing and Related Topics 29

30 Calculating Subnet Masks Types of subnet masking techniques Constant-length subnet masking (CLSM) Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) In a VLSM addressing scheme Different subnets may have different extended network prefixes IP Addressing and Related Topics 30

31 Designing a Constant-Length Subnet Mask Decide how many subnets are needed Add 2 to number of subnets needed then jump to the nearest higher power of two Reserve bits of host portion s address from the top down Be sure that there are enough host addresses left over on each subnet to be usable If using RIP Use the formula 2 b 2 to calculate the number of usable subnets from a mask IP Addressing and Related Topics 31

32 Designing a Variable-Length Subnet Mask Analyze requirements for individual subnets Aggregate requirements by their relationships to the nearest power of two Use subnets that require largest number of devices To decide the minimum size of the subnet mask Aggregate subnets that require fewer of hosts Define VLSM scheme that Provides the necessary number of subnets of each size to fit its intended use best IP Addressing and Related Topics 32

33 Calculating Supernets Supernets Steal bits from network portion of an IP address to lend those bits to the host Permit multiple IP network addresses to be combined Allow an entire group of hosts to be reached through a single router address IP Addressing and Related Topics 33

34 Classless Inter-Domain Routing Limitations Network addresses must be contiguous When address aggregation occurs CIDR address blocks work best when they come in sets that are greater than 1 and equal to some lowerorder bit pattern that corresponds to all 1s Addresses commonly applied to Class C addresses To use a CIDR address on any network Routers in routing domain must understand CIDR notation IP Addressing and Related Topics 34

35 Public Versus Private IP Addresses Private IP addresses ranges May be in the form of IP network addresses Address masquerading May be performed by boundary devices that include proxy server capabilities Private IP address limitation Some IP services require a secure end-to-end connection IP Addressing and Related Topics 35

36 IP Addressing and Related Topics 36

37 Public Versus Private IP Addresses Public IP addresses (continued) Remain important for identifying all servers or services that must be accessible to the Internet Most organizations need public IP addresses only for two classes of equipment Devices that permit organizations to attach networks to the Internet Servers designed to be accessible to the Internet IP Addressing and Related Topics 37

38 Managing Access To IP Address Reverse proxying Information Permits the proxy server to front for servers inside the boundary Important service that proxy server provides Manages what source addresses appear in outbound packets that pass through it IP Addressing and Related Topics 38

39 Obtaining Public IP Addresses Public IP addresses Issued by ISPs IP renumbering Switching addresses on every machine that uses address from old ISP to unique address obtained from new ISP ICANN Manages all IP-related addresses, protocol numbers, and well-known port addresses Assigns MAC layer addresses for use in network interfaces IP Addressing and Related Topics 39

40 IP Addressing Schemes IP addressing scheme constraints Number of physical locations Number of network devices at each location Amount of broadcast traffic at each location Availability of IP addresses Delay caused by routing from one network to another IP Addressing and Related Topics 40

41 The Network Space Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) Hardware used by switches to make decisions Layer-3 switch Implements the layer-3 logic from the software into its own ASICs Allows you to partition a large network into many smaller subnets with almost no loss of performance IP Addressing and Related Topics 41

42 The Host Space Reasons for using binary boundaries You may want to implement layer-3 switching to reduce the broadcast traffic One day you will want to classify your traffic to apply Quality of Service (QoS) or policies of some sort Can be applied to firewall rules IP Addressing and Related Topics 42

43 Summary IP addresses Provide foundation for identifying individual network interfaces on TCP/IP networks IP addresses Come in five classes named through E Understanding binary arithmetic Essential to knowing how to deal with IP addresses IP Addressing and Related Topics 43

44 Summary (continued) Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Permits network-host boundary to fall away from octet boundaries Subnetting Permits additional bits to be taken from the host portion of a network Address masquerading and address substitution Techniques used to hide internal network IP addresses from outside view IP Addressing and Related Topics 44

45 Summary (continued) Within the Class A, B, and C IP address ranges IETF has reserved private IP addresses or address ranges Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Ultimate authority for obtaining public IP addresses IP Addressing and Related Topics 45

CHAPTER. After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to:

CHAPTER. After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to: CHAPTER IP ADDRESSING AND RELATED TOPICS After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to: Understand IP addressing, anatomy and structures, and addresses from a computer s point

More information

IP Addressing A Simplified Tutorial

IP Addressing A Simplified Tutorial Application Note IP Addressing A Simplified Tutorial July 2002 COMPAS ID 92962 Avaya Labs 1 All information in this document is subject to change without notice. Although the information is believed to

More information

Ch.9 Classless And Subnet Address Extensions (CIDR)

Ch.9 Classless And Subnet Address Extensions (CIDR) CSC521 Communication Protocols 網 路 通 訊 協 定 Ch.9 Classless And Subnet Address Extensions (CIDR) 吳 俊 興 國 立 高 雄 大 學 資 訊 工 程 學 系 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Review Of Relevant Facts 3. Minimizing Network Numbers

More information

Advanced IP Addressing

Advanced IP Addressing Advanced IP Addressing CS-765 A Aspects Of Systems Administration Spring-2005 Instructure: Jan Schauman Stevens Institute Of Technology, NJ. Prepared By: Modh, Jay A. M.S. NIS SID: 999-14-0352 Date: 05/02/2005

More information

Computer Networks. Introduc)on to Naming, Addressing, and Rou)ng. Week 09. College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University

Computer Networks. Introduc)on to Naming, Addressing, and Rou)ng. Week 09. College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University Computer Networks Introduc)on to Naming, Addressing, and Rou)ng Week 09 College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University MAC Addresses l MAC address is intended to be a unique identifier

More information

APPENDIX B. Routers route based on the network number. The router that delivers the data packet to the correct destination host uses the host ID.

APPENDIX B. Routers route based on the network number. The router that delivers the data packet to the correct destination host uses the host ID. APPENDIX B IP Subnetting IP Addressing Routers route based on the network number. The router that delivers the data packet to the correct destination host uses the host ID. IP Classes An IP address is

More information

Internet Protocol Address

Internet Protocol Address SFWR 4C03: Computer Networks & Computer Security Jan 17-21, 2005 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lecture 7-9 Internet Protocol Address Addressing is a critical component of the internet abstraction. To give

More information

CCNA Tutorial Series SUBNETTING

CCNA Tutorial Series SUBNETTING CCNA Tutorial Series This document contains the Course Map For The Interactive flash tutorial at: http://www.semsim.com/ccna/tutorial/subnetting/subnetting.html HOME PAGE Course Objectives Pre-test By

More information

Computer Network Foundation. Chun-Jen (James) Chung. Arizona State University

Computer Network Foundation. Chun-Jen (James) Chung. Arizona State University Computer Network Foundation Chun-Jen (James) Chung 1 Outline Network Addressing Subnetting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Route Aggregation Network Addressing How does the network decide where to

More information

IP Addressing. -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing

IP Addressing. -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing IP Addressing -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing Internetworking The concept of internetworking: we need to make different networks communicate

More information

2. What is the maximum value of each octet in an IP address? A. 28 B. 255 C. 256 D. None of the above

2. What is the maximum value of each octet in an IP address? A. 28 B. 255 C. 256 D. None of the above CCNA1 V3.0 Mod 10 (Ch 8) 1. How many bits are in an IP C. 64 2. What is the maximum value of each octet in an IP A. 28 55 C. 256 3. The network number plays what part in an IP A. It specifies the network

More information

Lab 10.4.1 IP Addressing Overview

Lab 10.4.1 IP Addressing Overview Lab 10.4.1 IP ing Overview Estimated time: 30 min. Objectives: Background: This lab will focus on your ability to accomplish the following tasks: Name the five different classes of IP addresses Describe

More information

CE363 Data Communications & Networking. Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing

CE363 Data Communications & Networking. Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing CE363 Data Communications & Networking Chapter 6 Network Layer: Logical Addressing TCP/IP and OSI model APPLICATION APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK Host-Network TRANSPORT NETWORK DATA

More information

Internet Addresses (You should read Chapter 4 in Forouzan)

Internet Addresses (You should read Chapter 4 in Forouzan) Internet Addresses (You should read Chapter 4 in Forouzan) IP Address is 32 Bits Long Conceptually the address is the pair (NETID, HOSTID) Addresses are assigned by the internet company for assignment

More information

- IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting -

- IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting - 1 Hardware Addressing - IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting - A hardware address is used to uniquely identify a host within a local network. Hardware addressing is a function of the Data-Link layer of the OSI

More information

Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network

Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network Contents Overview 1 Lesson: Assigning IP Addresses 2 Lesson: Creating a Subnet 19 Lesson: Using IP Routing Tables 29 Lesson: Overcoming Limitations

More information

256 4 = 4,294,967,296 ten billion. 256 16 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 ten quintillion. IP Addressing. IPv4 Address Classes

256 4 = 4,294,967,296 ten billion. 256 16 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 ten quintillion. IP Addressing. IPv4 Address Classes IP Addressing With the exception of multicast addresses, Internet addresses consist of a network portion and a host portion. The network portion identifies a logical network to which the address refers,

More information

Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1

Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1 Chapter 19 Network Layer: Logical Addressing 19.1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19-1 IPv4 ADDRESSES An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address that

More information

03 Internet Addressing

03 Internet Addressing SE 4C03 Winter 2007 03 Internet Addressing William M. Farmer Department of Computing and Software McMaster University 13 January 2007 IP Addresses There are two Internet naming systems: 1. The primary

More information

WHITE PAPER. Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know

WHITE PAPER. Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know WHITE PAPER Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know CONTENTS Internet Scaling Problems 1 Classful IP Addressing 3

More information

IP Subnetting for the Masses Or How a 12 year old kid can subnet the most complex network.

IP Subnetting for the Masses Or How a 12 year old kid can subnet the most complex network. IP Subnetting for the Masses Or How a 12 year old kid can subnet the most complex network. Joe Richker Page 1 8/8/2008 IP subnetting is the most feared part of working with TCP/IP for many people. The

More information

Lab 10.3.5a Basic Subnetting

Lab 10.3.5a Basic Subnetting Lab 10.3.5a Basic Subnetting Objective How to identify reasons to use a subnet mask How to distinguish between a default subnet mask and a custom subnet mask What given requirements determine the subnet

More information

Network and Host Addresses 1.3. 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a 6-4

Network and Host Addresses 1.3. 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a 6-4 IP Addressing To facilitate the routing of packets over a network, the TCP/IP protocol suite uses a 32-bit logical address known as an IP address. This topic introduces the components of an IP address.

More information

http://computernetworkingnotes.com/ccna-study-guide/basic-of-network-addressing.html

http://computernetworkingnotes.com/ccna-study-guide/basic-of-network-addressing.html Subnetting is a process of dividing large network into the smaller networks based on layer 3 IP address. Every computer on network has an IP address that represent its location on network. Two version

More information

iseries TCP/IP routing and workload balancing

iseries TCP/IP routing and workload balancing iseries TCP/IP routing and workload balancing iseries TCP/IP routing and workload balancing Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2000, 2001. All rights reserved. US Government Users Restricted

More information

TCP/IP Basis. OSI Model

TCP/IP Basis. OSI Model TCP/IP Basis 高 雄 大 學 資 訊 工 程 學 系 嚴 力 行 Source OSI Model Destination Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical ENCAPSULATION DATA SEGMENT PACKET FRAME BITS 0101010101010101010

More information

Internetworking and IP Address

Internetworking and IP Address Lecture 8 Internetworking and IP Address Motivation of Internetworking Internet Architecture and Router Internet TCP/IP Reference Model and Protocols IP Addresses - Binary and Dotted Decimal IP Address

More information

Savera Tanwir. Internet Protocol

Savera Tanwir. Internet Protocol Savera Tanwir Internet Protocol The IP Protocol The IPv4 (Internet Protocol) header. IP Packet Details Header and payload Header itself has a fixed part and variable part Version IPv4, IPv5 or IPv6 IHL,

More information

IP Networking Part 3- IP Address Management A webinar to help you prepare for the CBNE Certification

IP Networking Part 3- IP Address Management A webinar to help you prepare for the CBNE Certification IP Networking Part 3- IP Address Management A webinar to help you prepare for the CBNE Certification Wayne M. Pecena, CPBE, CBNE Texas A&M Information Technology Educational Broadcast Services IP Networking,

More information

CONFIGURING TCP/IP ADDRESSING AND SECURITY

CONFIGURING TCP/IP ADDRESSING AND SECURITY 1 Chapter 11 CONFIGURING TCP/IP ADDRESSING AND SECURITY Chapter 11: CONFIGURING TCP/IP ADDRESSING AND SECURITY 2 OVERVIEW Understand IP addressing Manage IP subnetting and subnet masks Understand IP security

More information

The Subnet Training Guide

The Subnet Training Guide The Subnet Training Guide A Step By Step Guide on Understanding and Solving Subnetting Problems by Brendan Choi v25 easysubnetcom The Subnet Training Guide v25 easysubnetcom Chapter 1 Understanding IP

More information

Introduction. Internet Address Depletion and CIDR. Introduction. Introduction

Introduction. Internet Address Depletion and CIDR. Introduction. Introduction Introduction Internet Address Depletion and A subnet is a subset of class A, B, or C networks IP addresses are formed of a network and host portions network mask used to separate the information Introduction

More information

Internet Protocols. Addressing & Services. Updated: 9-29-2012

Internet Protocols. Addressing & Services. Updated: 9-29-2012 Internet Protocols Addressing & Services Updated: 9-29-2012 Virtual vs. Physical Networks MAC is the part of the underlying network MAC is used on the LAN What is the addressing mechanism in WAN? WAN is

More information

Classful IP Addressing (cont.)

Classful IP Addressing (cont.) Classful IP Addressing (cont.) 1 Address Prefix aka Net ID defines the network Address Suffix aka Host ID defines the node In Classful addressing, prefix is of fixed length (1, 2, or 3 bytes)! Classful

More information

8.2 The Internet Protocol

8.2 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Protocol Suite HTTP SMTP DNS RTP Distributed applications Reliable stream service TCP UDP User datagram service Best-effort connectionless packet transfer Network Interface 1 IP Network Interface

More information

This tutorial will help you in understanding IPv4 and its associated terminologies along with appropriate references and examples.

This tutorial will help you in understanding IPv4 and its associated terminologies along with appropriate references and examples. About the Tutorial Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. IPv4 is described

More information

IP addressing. Interface: Connection between host, router and physical link. IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface

IP addressing. Interface: Connection between host, router and physical link. IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface IP addressing IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface Interface: Connection between host, router and physical link routers typically have multiple interfaces host may have multiple interfaces

More information

Subnetting/Supernetting and Classless Addressing

Subnetting/Supernetting and Classless Addressing Chapter 5 Subnetting/Supernetting and Classless Addressing SUBNETTING SUPERNETTING CLASSLESS ADDRSSING The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 1 5.1 SUBNETTING The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 2 A network

More information

Chapter 5. IPv4 Addresses. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 5. IPv4 Addresses. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 5 IPv4 Addresses TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter Outline TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2 5-1 INTRODUCTION The

More information

Computer Networks. Lecture 3: IP Protocol. Marcin Bieńkowski. Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław

Computer Networks. Lecture 3: IP Protocol. Marcin Bieńkowski. Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław Computer Networks Lecture 3: IP Protocol Marcin Bieńkowski Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 3 1 / 24 In previous lectures We learned about layer 1

More information

Classless Subnetting Explained

Classless Subnetting Explained Classless Subnetting Explained When given an IP Address, Major Network Mask, and a Subnet Mask, how can you determine other information such as: The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address

More information

AS/400e. TCP/IP routing and workload balancing

AS/400e. TCP/IP routing and workload balancing AS/400e TCP/IP routing and workload balancing AS/400e TCP/IP routing and workload balancing Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2000. All rights reserved. US Government Users Restricted

More information

IP Subnetting and Addressing

IP Subnetting and Addressing Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur IP Subnetting and Addressing Prof Indranil Sengupta Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Lecture 6: IP Subnetting and Addressing

More information

Subnetting IPv4 and IPv6

Subnetting IPv4 and IPv6 Subnetting IPv4 and IPv6 Advanced Networking: Routing & Switching 1 Chapter 9 Copyleft 2013 Hacklab Cosenza (http://hlcs.it) Released under Creative Commons License 3.0 By-Sa Cisco name, logo and materials

More information

CS 348: Computer Networks. - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay

CS 348: Computer Networks. - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay CS 348: Computer Networks - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012 Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay Think-Pair-Share: IP addressing What is the need for IP addresses? Why not have only MAC addresses? Given that

More information

The Internet/Network Layer

The Internet/Network Layer IP Addresses and Routing Tables Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window Irtt Iface 138.38.96.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.248.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 127.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 lo default 138.38.103.254 0.0.0.0

More information

Lecture 15. IP address space managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

Lecture 15. IP address space managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Lecture 15 IP Address Each host and router on the Internet has an IP address, which consist of a combination of network number and host number. The combination is unique; no two machines have the same

More information

1 Data information is sent onto the network cable using which of the following? A Communication protocol B Data packet

1 Data information is sent onto the network cable using which of the following? A Communication protocol B Data packet Review questions 1 Data information is sent onto the network cable using which of the following? A Communication protocol B Data packet C Media access method D Packages 2 To which TCP/IP architecture layer

More information

Pre-lab Preparation: 1. Read thoroughly and prepare the experiment sheet. 2. You must bring a printed copy of this experiment with you to the lab.

Pre-lab Preparation: 1. Read thoroughly and prepare the experiment sheet. 2. You must bring a printed copy of this experiment with you to the lab. University of Jordan Faculty of Engineering & Technology Computer Engineering Department Computer Networks Laboratory 907528 Lab.5 Subnetting &Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) Objectives 1. To become

More information

Table of Contents. Cisco IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users

Table of Contents. Cisco IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users Table of Contents IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users...1 Introduction...1 Before You Begin...1 Conventions...1 Prerequisites...1 Components Used...1 Additional Information...1 Understanding IP

More information

VLSM and CIDR Malin Bornhager Halmstad University

VLSM and CIDR Malin Bornhager Halmstad University VLSM and CIDR Malin Bornhager Halmstad University Session Number 2002, Svenska-CNAP Halmstad University 1 Objectives Classless routing VLSM Example of a VLSM calculation 2 Classless routing CIDR (Classless

More information

Number of bits needed to address hosts 8

Number of bits needed to address hosts 8 Advanced Subnetting Example 1: Your ISP has assigned you a Class C network address of 198.47.212.0. You have 3 networks in your company with the largest containing 134 hosts. You need to figure out if

More information

ERserver. iseries. TCP/IP routing and workload balancing

ERserver. iseries. TCP/IP routing and workload balancing ERserver iseries TCP/IP routing and workload balancing ERserver iseries TCP/IP routing and workload balancing Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1998, 2001. All rights reserved. US

More information

Subnet + CIDR. Internet Networking recitation #1. 11:02 236341, Internet Networking, 2015 1

Subnet + CIDR. Internet Networking recitation #1. 11:02 236341, Internet Networking, 2015 1 Subnet + CIDR Internet Networking recitation #1 11:02 236341, Internet Networking, 2015 1 Administrative Information Course site: webcourse.cs.technion.ac.il/236341 Grading policy: 15% homeworks + 85%

More information

2.1.2.2.2 Variable length subnetting

2.1.2.2.2 Variable length subnetting 2.1.2.2.2 Variable length subnetting Variable length subnetting or variable length subnet masks (VLSM) allocated subnets within the same network can use different subnet masks. Advantage: conserves the

More information

IP Addressing and Subnetting. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IP Addressing and Subnetting. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IP Addressing and Subnetting 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Objectives Upon completion, you will be able to: Discuss the Types of Network Addressing Explain the Form of an IP Address

More information

Question 3.1.1. Question 3.2.1. Question 3.3.1. EdTech 552: Lab 3 Answer Sheet

Question 3.1.1. Question 3.2.1. Question 3.3.1. EdTech 552: Lab 3 Answer Sheet Question 3.1.1 Question Answers a. 123 01111011 b. 202 11001010 c. 67 01000011 d. 7 00000111 e. 252 11111100 f. 91 01011011 g. 116.127.71.3 01110100.01111111.01010001.00000011 h. 255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

More information

Networking TCP/IP routing and workload balancing

Networking TCP/IP routing and workload balancing System i Networking TCP/IP routing and workload balancing Version 5 Release 4 System i Networking TCP/IP routing and workload balancing Version 5 Release 4 Note Before using this information and the product

More information

Internet Protocol (IP) IP - Network Layer. IP Routing. Advantages of Connectionless. CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming ------ IP routing

Internet Protocol (IP) IP - Network Layer. IP Routing. Advantages of Connectionless. CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming ------ IP routing Process Process Process Layer CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming ------ IP routing Wenyuan Xu ICMP, AP & AP TCP IP UDP Transport Layer Network Layer Department of Computer Science and Engineering University

More information

You can probably work with decimal. binary numbers needed by the. Working with binary numbers is time- consuming & error-prone.

You can probably work with decimal. binary numbers needed by the. Working with binary numbers is time- consuming & error-prone. IP Addressing & Subnetting Made Easy Working with IP Addresses Introduction You can probably work with decimal numbers much easier than with the binary numbers needed by the computer. Working with binary

More information

ICS 351: Today's plan

ICS 351: Today's plan ICS 351: Today's plan Quiz, on overall Internet function, linux and IOS commands, network monitoring, protocols IPv4 addresses: network part and host part address masks IP interface configuration IPv6

More information

Expert Reference Series of White Papers. Binary and IP Address Basics of Subnetting

Expert Reference Series of White Papers. Binary and IP Address Basics of Subnetting Expert Reference Series of White Papers Binary and IP Address Basics of Subnetting 1-800-COURSES www.globalknowledge.com Binary and IP Address Basics of Subnetting Alan Thomas, CCNA, CCSI, Global Knowledge

More information

COMP 631: COMPUTER NETWORKS. IP Addressing. Jasleen Kaur. Fall 2014. How to Deal With Heterogeneity & Scale?

COMP 631: COMPUTER NETWORKS. IP Addressing. Jasleen Kaur. Fall 2014. How to Deal With Heterogeneity & Scale? COMP 631: COMPUTER NETWORKS IP Addressing Jasleen Kaur Fall 2014 1 How to Deal With Heterogeneity & Scale? Requirements from IP addressing: Should be globally unique Should facilitate easy mapping to link-layer

More information

CCNA R&S: Introduction to Networks. Chapter 9: Subnetting IP Networks

CCNA R&S: Introduction to Networks. Chapter 9: Subnetting IP Networks CCNA R&S: Introduction to Networks Chapter 9: Subnetting IP Networks Frank Schneemann Chapter 9: Subnetting IP Networks Subnetting IP Networks In this chapter, you will be learning how devices can be grouped

More information

Internetworking and Internet-1. Global Addresses

Internetworking and Internet-1. Global Addresses Internetworking and Internet Global Addresses IP servcie model has two parts Datagram (connectionless) packet delivery model Global addressing scheme awaytoidentifyall H in the internetwork Properties

More information

TCP/IP works on 3 types of services (cont.): TCP/IP protocols are divided into three categories:

TCP/IP works on 3 types of services (cont.): TCP/IP protocols are divided into three categories: Due to the number of hardware possibilities for a network, there must be a set of rules for how data should be transmitted across the connection media. A protocol defines how the network devices and computers

More information

PART IV. Network Layer

PART IV. Network Layer PART IV Network Layer Position of network layer Network layer duties Internetworking : heterogeneous Physical Networks To look Like a single network to he upper layers The address at Network layer must

More information

Chapter 2 TCP/IP Networking Basics

Chapter 2 TCP/IP Networking Basics Chapter 2 TCP/IP Networking Basics A network in your home or small business uses the same type of TCP/IP networking that is used for the Internet. This manual provides an overview of IP (Internet Protocol)

More information

Subnetting Study Guide

Subnetting Study Guide Subnetting Study Guide by Boson Software, LLC An octet is a binary number of 8 bits, with the lowest possible number being 00000000 and the highest possible number being 11111111, or 28. The binary number

More information

Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network.

Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network. Course Name: TCP/IP Networking Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network. TCP/IP is the globally accepted group of protocols

More information

Internet Working 5 th lecture. Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2004

Internet Working 5 th lecture. Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2004 5 th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2004 1 43 Last lecture Lecture room hopefully all got the message lecture on tuesday and thursday same

More information

IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users

IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users Document ID: 13788 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Additional Information Conventions Understanding IP Addresses Network Masks

More information

TCP/IP Addressing and Subnetting. an excerpt from: A Technical Introduction to TCP/IP Internals. Presentation Copyright 1995 TGV Software, Inc.

TCP/IP Addressing and Subnetting. an excerpt from: A Technical Introduction to TCP/IP Internals. Presentation Copyright 1995 TGV Software, Inc. TCP/IP Addressing and Subnetting an excerpt from: A Technical Introduction to TCP/IP Internals Presentation Copyright 1995 TGV Software, Inc. IP Addressing Roadmap Format of IP Addresses Traditional Class

More information

IP Addressing Introductory material.

IP Addressing Introductory material. IP Addressing Introductory material. A module devoted to IP addresses. Addresses & Names Hardware (Layer 2) Lowest level Ethernet (MAC), Serial point-to-point,.. Network (Layer 3) IP IPX, SNA, others Transport

More information

Future Internet Technologies

Future Internet Technologies Future Internet Technologies Traditional Internet Dr. Dennis Pfisterer Institut für Telematik, Universität zu Lübeck http://www.itm.uni-luebeck.de/people/pfisterer Internet Protocol v4 (IPv4) IPv4 Model

More information

IP Subnetting. Subnetting

IP Subnetting. Subnetting IP Subnetting Shailesh N. Sisat Prajkta S. Bhopale Vishwajit K. Barbudhe Abstract - Network management becomes more and more important as computer-networks grow steadily. A critical skill for any network

More information

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports 1. Introduction to IP... 1 2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports... 1 3. IP Packet Structure... 2 4. IP Address Structure... 2 Network Portion... 2 Host Portion... 3 Global vs. Private IP Addresses...3

More information

Classful Subnetting Explained

Classful Subnetting Explained Classful ting Explained When given an IP Address and a Mask, how can you determine other information such as: The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of Host Addresses

More information

Efficient Addressing. Outline. Addressing Subnetting Supernetting CS 640 1

Efficient Addressing. Outline. Addressing Subnetting Supernetting CS 640 1 Efficient Addressing Outline Addressing Subnetting Supernetting CS 640 1 IPV4 Global Addresses Properties IPv4 uses 32 bit address space globally unique hierarchical: network + host 7 24 Dot Notation 10.3.2.4

More information

Objectives. Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to

Objectives. Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to 1358_fmi.book Page 30 Thursday, May 27, 2004 2:21 PM Objectives Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to Create and configure IPv4 addresses Understand and resolve IP addressing crises Assign a

More information

Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures Third Edition. Chapter 2 TCP/IP

Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures Third Edition. Chapter 2 TCP/IP Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures Third Edition Chapter 2 TCP/IP Objectives Explain the fundamentals of TCP/IP networking Describe IPv4 packet structure and explain packet fragmentation Describe

More information

IP Addressing. and Subnetting. Workbook Version 1.5. Student Name:

IP Addressing. and Subnetting. Workbook Version 1.5. Student Name: IP Addressing and Subnetting Workbook Version.5 Student Name: IP Address Classes Class A 27 (Network 27 is reserved for loopback and internal testing) Leading bit pattern... Network. Host. Host. Host Class

More information

Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting

Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting Tutorial (03) IP addresses & Sub netting Dr. Ahmed M. ElShafee ١ Agenda IP Addressing Conventions Original IPv4 Address Classes Subnetting CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing) ٢ IP Addressing Conventions

More information

CIDR: Classless Interdomain Routing

CIDR: Classless Interdomain Routing 1/10 CIDR: Classless Interdomain Routing Surasak Sanguanpong nguan@ku.ac.th http://www.cpe.ku.ac.th/~nguan Last updated: July 9, 2002 Address allocation problem 2/10 Exhaustion of the class B network address

More information

Source net: 200.1.1.0 Destination net: 200.1.2.0 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0. Router Hub

Source net: 200.1.1.0 Destination net: 200.1.2.0 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0. Router Hub then to a router. Remember that with a Class C network address, the first 3 octets, or 24 bits, are assigned as the network address. So, these are two different Class C networks. This leaves one octet,

More information

ITRI CCL. IP Routing Primer. Paul C. Huang, Ph.D. ITRI / CCL / N300. CCL/N300; Paul Huang 1999/6/2 1

ITRI CCL. IP Routing Primer. Paul C. Huang, Ph.D. ITRI / CCL / N300. CCL/N300; Paul Huang 1999/6/2 1 IP Routing Primer Paul C. Huang, Ph.D. ITRI / / N300 /N300; Paul Huang 1999/6/2 1 Basic Addressing / Subnetting Class A 0 Network Host Host Host 127 networks / 16,777,216 hosts Class A natural mask 255.0.0.0

More information

IP Addressing and Subnetting, Including IPv6

IP Addressing and Subnetting, Including IPv6 Untitled Document Page 1 of 1 IP Addressing and Subnetting, Including IPv6 Author: J. D. Wegner, Robert Rockell ISBN: 1928994016 Published: 2000 Publisher: Syngress Media See Table of Contents IP Addressing

More information

Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know

Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know Class C CIDR All-1s Prefix -Length Network-Prefix Mask /24 All-0s Class A Subnetting Supernetting Extended-Network Prefix /8 VLSM Longest

More information

TCP/IP Cheat Sheet. A Free Study Guide by Boson Software, LLC

TCP/IP Cheat Sheet. A Free Study Guide by Boson Software, LLC boson_logo_tcpip.pdf 9/23/2010 11:28:19 AM TCP/IP Cheat Sheet A Free Study Guide by Boson Software, LLC Table 1 Address Class Summary Class s Hosts per Range of Network IDs (First Octet) Class A 126 16,777,214

More information

Advanced Internetworking

Advanced Internetworking Hands-On TCP-IP / IPv6 / VoIP Course Description In this Hands-On 3-day course, gives a deeper understanding of internetworking and routed network protocols. The focus of the course is the design, operation,

More information

Computer Networks By Bahaa Q. Al-Mussawi Subnetting Basics Reduced network traffic Optimized network performance Simplified management

Computer Networks By Bahaa Q. Al-Mussawi Subnetting Basics Reduced network traffic Optimized network performance Simplified management Subnetting Basics You learned previously how to define and find the valid host ranges used in a Class A, Class B, and Class C network address by turning the host bits all off and then all on. This is very

More information

Module 10 Subnetting Class A, B and C addresses. Solutions to the Lab Exercises 10.3.5a, 10.3.5b, 10.3.5c and 10.3.5d

Module 10 Subnetting Class A, B and C addresses. Solutions to the Lab Exercises 10.3.5a, 10.3.5b, 10.3.5c and 10.3.5d Module 10 Subnetting Class A, B and C addresses Solutions to the Lab Exercises 10.3.5a, 10.3.5b, 10.3.5c and 10.3.5d 10.3.5a Basic Subnetting Use the following information and answer the following subnet

More information

IP Subnetting: Practical Subnet Design and Address Determination Example

IP Subnetting: Practical Subnet Design and Address Determination Example IP Subnetting: Practical Subnet Design and Address Determination Example When educators ask students what they consider to be the most confusing aspect in learning about networking, many say that it is

More information

Appendix B Network, Routing, Firewall, and Basics

Appendix B Network, Routing, Firewall, and Basics Appendix B Network, Routing, Firewall, and Basics This chapter provides an overview of IP networks, routing, and networking. Related Publications As you read this document, you may be directed to various

More information

IPv4 Addressing Simplified. by Ken Foster B.S. IT Information; Security and Forensics Kaplan University January 23, 2011

IPv4 Addressing Simplified. by Ken Foster B.S. IT Information; Security and Forensics Kaplan University January 23, 2011 IPv4 Addressing Simplified by Ken Foster B.S. IT Information; Security and Forensics Kaplan University January 23, 2011 The concept of IP Addressing is foundational to overall routing in general. Without

More information

Lab#2: IP Addressing and Subnetting

Lab#2: IP Addressing and Subnetting IP Addressing Lab#2: IP Addressing and Subnetting Each Network Interface Card (NIC or Network card) present in a PC is assigned one Network address called as IP address. This IP address is assigned by

More information

SUBNETS, CIDR, AND CLASSLESS ADDRESSING

SUBNETS, CIDR, AND CLASSLESS ADDRESSING Announcements SUBNETS, CIDR, AND CLASSLESS ADDRESSING Internet Protocols CSC / ECE 573 Fall, 005 No office hours tomorrow (Wednesday) out of town No class on Thursday Fall break! Midterm exam next Tuesday!

More information

2.3 IPv4 Address Subnetting Part 2

2.3 IPv4 Address Subnetting Part 2 .3 IPv4 Address Subnetting Part Objective Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask. When given an IP address, network

More information

TCP/IP Drill Pack. By Donna Warren. Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 1 of 19

TCP/IP Drill Pack. By Donna Warren. Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 1 of 19 TCP/IP Drill Pack By Donna Warren Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 1 of 19 Drill 1: OSI vs DOD and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite Complete the following chart. On the next page give a brief

More information

This chapter discusses the following advanced IP addressing topics: IP Address Planning Hierarchical Addressing Using Variable-Length Subnet Masks

This chapter discusses the following advanced IP addressing topics: IP Address Planning Hierarchical Addressing Using Variable-Length Subnet Masks This chapter discusses the following advanced IP addressing topics: IP Address Planning Hierarchical Addressing Using Variable-Length Subnet Masks Route Summarization Classless Interdomain Routing Network

More information