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1 IP Addressing To facilitate the routing of packets over a network, the TCP/IP protocol suite uses a 32-bit logical address known as an IP address. This topic introduces the components of an IP address. etwork and ost Addresses etwork ost , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-4 An IP address is a hierarchical address and consists of two parts:! the network address component (network ID)! the host address component (host ID) While many computers may share the same network address, combining the network address with a host address uniquely identifies any device connected to the network. Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP Addressing and Routing 6-5

2 IP Address Structure IP addresses are unique, 32-bit numbers that describe the location of a network device. This topic explains how an IP address is constructed. Dotted-Decimal otation An IP address is a 32-bit binary number: The 32-bit binary number can be divided into four octets: Each octet (or byte) can be represented in decimal: The address can be written in dotted-decimal notation: , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-5 For simplicity and clarity, these 32-bit numbers are broken up into four sets of numbers called octets (1 octet = 8 bits). Each octet is then represented as a decimal number between 0 and 255 and separated by a period, or dot. This scheme is known as dotted-decimal notation. As shown in the figure, the IP binary number is Its IP address can be written as and spoken as 172 dot 16 dot 128 dot Introduction to Cisco etworking Technologies (ITRO) v1.0a Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

3 IP Address Classes To accommodate different sizes of networks and aid in classifying them, IP addresses are divided into categories called classes. This topic describes the types of IP address classes and the structure of the IP addresses within them. IP Address Classes o. of bits Class A: 0 etwork no. ost no. o. of bits Class B: 1 0 etwork no. ost no. o. of bits Class C: etwork no. ost no. o. of bits Class D:* Address o. of bits Class E:** Address *Class D addresses are used for multicast groups. There is no need to allocate octets or bits to separate network and host addresses. **Class E addresses are reserved for research use only. 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-6 Assigning IP addresses to classes is known as classful addressing. The classes were determined during the early days of the Internet by the Internet Assigned umbers Authority (IAA). Each IP address is broken down into a network address (or network identifier, network ID) and the host address (or host identifier, host ID). In addition, a bit or bit sequence at the start of each address determines the class of the address. The figure shows five IP address classes, as follows:! Class A: The Class A address category was designed to support extremely large networks. A Class A address uses only the first octet to indicate the network address. The remaining three octets are used for host addresses. The first bit of a Class A address is always 0. Since the first bit is a 0, the lowest number that can be represented is (decimal 0), and the highest number that can be represented is (decimal 127). owever, these two network numbers, 0 and 127, are reserved and cannot be used as a network address. Any address that starts with a value between 1 and 126 in the first octet, then, is a Class A address. ote The network is reserved for loopback testing (routers or local machines can use this address to send packets to themselves). Therefore, it cannot be assigned to a network.! Class B: The Class B address category was designed to support the needs of moderate- to large-sized networks. A Class B address uses two of the four octets to indicate the network address. The other two octets specify host addresses. Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP Addressing and Routing 6-7

4 The first two bits of the first octet of a Class B address are always binary 10. The remaining 6 bits may be populated with either 1s or 0s. Therefore, the lowest number that can be represented with a Class B address is (decimal 128), and the highest number that can be represented is (decimal 191). Any address that starts with a value in the range of 128 to 191 in the first octet is a Class B address.! Class C: The Class C address category is the most commonly used of the original address classes. This address category was intended to support a lot of small networks. A Class C address begins with binary 110. Therefore, the lowest number that can be represented is (decimal 192), and the highest number that can be represented is (decimal 223). If an address contains a number in the range of 192 to 223 in the first octet, it is a Class C address.! Class D: The Class D address category was created to enable multicasting in an IP address. A multicast address is a unique network address that directs packets with that destination address to predefined groups of IP addresses. Therefore, a single station can simultaneously transmit a single stream of datagrams to multiple recipients. The Class D address category, much like the other address categories, is mathematically constrained. The first four bits of a Class D address must be Therefore, the first octet range for Class D addresses is to , or 224 to 239. An IP address that starts with a value in the range of 224 to 239 in the first octet is a Class D address.! Class E: Although a Class E address category has been defined, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) reserves the addresses in this class for its own research. Therefore, no Class E addresses have been released for use in the Internet. The first four bits of a Class E address are always set to Therefore, the first octet range for Class E addresses is to , or 240 to 255. Class A, B, and C Components Example IP Address Class Components Class A: Class B: Class C: = etwork number assigned by ARI = ost number assigned by administrator 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-7 This figure illustrates the octets used as network-address parts and host-address parts for Class A, B, and C addresses. 6-8 Introduction to Cisco etworking Technologies (ITRO) v1.0a Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

5 IP Address Range Example IP Address Range IP Address Class Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E IP Address Range (First octet decimal value) ( ) * ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Determine the class based on the decimal value of the first octet. *127 ( ) is a Class A address reserved for loopback testing and cannot be assigned to a network. 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-8 This figure shows the IP address range of the first octet (in decimal and binary) for each IP address class. Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP Addressing and Routing 6-9

6 Reserved IP Addresses Certain IP addresses are reserved and cannot be assigned to individual devices on a network. These reserved addresses include a network address, which is used to identify the network itself, and a broadcast address, which is used for broadcasting packets to all the devices on a network. This topic describes the types of reserved IP addresses and provides examples of each. etwork Addresses 32 Bits ETWORK OST etwork Address (host bits = all zeros) 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-9 etwork Addresses An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address. Therefore, as a Class A network example, is the IP address of the network containing the host A router uses the network IP address when it searches its IP route table for the destination network location. As a Class B network example, the IP address is a network address, as shown in the figure. The decimal numbers that fill the first two octets in a Class B network address are assigned. The last two octets contain 0s because those 16 bits are for host numbers and are used for devices that are attached to the network. The IP address in the example ( ) is reserved for the network address; it is never used as an address for any device that is attached to it. An example of an IP address for a device on the network would be In this example, is the network-address portion and 16.1 is the host-address portion Introduction to Cisco etworking Technologies (ITRO) v1.0a Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

7 Broadcast Address 32 Bits ETWORK OST etwork Address (host bits = all zeros) Broadcast Address (host bits = all ones) 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-10 Directed Broadcast Address If you wanted to send data to all the devices on a network, you would need to use a broadcast address. Broadcast IP addresses end with binary 1s in the entire host part of the address (the host field). For the network in the example ( ), in which the last 16 bits make up the host field (or host part of the address), the broadcast that would be sent out to all devices on that network would include a destination address of The directed broadcast is capable of being routed. This behavior is not the default for Cisco routers, however. Local Broadcast Address If an IP device wants to communicate with all devices on the local network, it sets the destination address to all 1s ( ) and transmits the packet. This address may be used, for example, by hosts that do not know their network number and are asking some server for it. This form of broadcast is never capable of being routed. etwork ID The network portion of an IP address is also referred to as the network ID. It is important because most hosts on a network can only directly communicate with devices in the same network. If they need to communicate with devices with interfaces assigned to some other network ID, there needs to be a network device that can route data between the networks. This is true even when the devices share the same physical media segment. A network ID enables a router to put a packet onto the appropriate network segment. The host ID helps the router deliver the Layer 2 frame encapsulating the packet to a specific host on the network. As a result, the IP address is mapped to the correct MAC address, which is needed by the Layer 2 process on the router to address the frame. Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP Addressing and Routing 6-11

8 ost ID Each class of a network allows a fixed number of hosts. In a Class A network, the first octet is assigned for the network, leaving the last three octets to be assigned to hosts. The first host address in each network (all 0s) is reserved for the actual network address, and the final host address in each network (all 1s) is reserved for broadcasts. The maximum number of hosts in a Class A network is (subtracting the network and broadcast reserved addresses), or 16,777,214. In a Class B network, the first two octets are assigned for the network, leaving the final two octets to be assigned to hosts. The maximum number of hosts in a Class B network is , or 65,534. In a Class C network, the first three octets are assigned for the network. This leaves the final octet to be assigned to hosts, so the maximum number of hosts is 2 8 2, or Introduction to Cisco etworking Technologies (ITRO) v1.0a Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

9 Public and Private IP Addresses Some networks connect to each other through the Internet, while others are private. Public and private IP addresses are required, therefore, for both of these network types. This topic compares the purpose and sources for both public and private IP addresses. Private IP Addresses Class A B C RFC 1918 Internal Address Range to to to , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-11 Public IP Addresses Internet stability depends directly on the uniqueness of publicly used network addresses. Therefore, some mechanism is needed to ensure that addresses are, in fact, unique. This responsibility originally rested within an organization known as the InterIC (Internet etwork Information Center). This organization was succeeded by the Internet Assigned umbers Authority (IAA). IAA carefully manages the remaining supply of IP addresses to ensure that duplication of publicly used addresses does not occur. Such duplication would cause instability in the Internet and compromise its capability to deliver datagrams to networks using the duplicated addresses. To obtain an IP address or block of addresses, you must contact an Internet service provider (ISP). The ISP will then contact their upstream registry or their appropriate regional registry at one of the following addresses:! APIC (Asia-Pacific etwork Information Center)! ARI (American Registry for Internet umbers)! RIPE CC (Réseaux IP Européennes etwork Coordination Center) With the rapid growth of the Internet, public IP addresses began to run out, so new addressing schemes such as classless interdomain routing (CIDR) and IPv6 were developed to help solve the problem. CIDR and IPv6 are discussed later in this lesson. Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP Addressing and Routing 6-13

10 Private IP Addresses While Internet hosts require a globally unique IP address, private hosts that are not connected to the Internet can use any valid address, as long as it is unique within the private network. Because many private networks exist alongside public networks, grabbing just any address is strongly discouraged. Three blocks of IP addresses (1 Class A network, 16 Class B networks, and 256 Class C networks) have been designated for private, internal use. Addresses in this range are not routed on the Internet backbone (see figure). Internet routers are configured to discard private addresses. If you are addressing a nonpublic intranet, these private addresses can be used instead of globally unique addresses. If you want to connect a network using private addresses to the Internet, however, it is necessary to translate the private addresses to public addresses. This translation process is referred to as etwork Address Translation (AT). A router is often the network device that performs AT Introduction to Cisco etworking Technologies (ITRO) v1.0a Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

11 IPv4 Address Allocation The growth of the Internet has resulted in enormous demands for IP addresses. This topic describes the capabilities of IP Version 4 in relation to that demand. IPv4 Address Allocation Class C 12.5% Other Classes 12.5% Class B 25% Class A 50% With Class A and B addresses virtually exhausted, Class C addresses (12.5 percent of the total space) are left to assign to new networks. 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ITRO v1.0a 6-12 When TCP/IP was first introduced in the 1980s, it relied on a two-level addressing scheme, which at the time offered adequate scalability. The architects of TCP/IP could not have predicted that their protocol would eventually sustain a global network of information, commerce, and entertainment. Twenty years ago, IP Version 4 (IPv4) offered an addressing strategy that, although scalable for a time, eventually resulting in an inefficient allocation of addresses. The Class A and B addresses make up 75 percent of the IPv4 address space, but a relative handful of organizations (fewer than 17,000) can be assigned a Class A or B network number. Class C network addresses are far more numerous than Class A and B addresses, although they account for only 12.5 percent of the possible 4 billion IP addresses, as shown in the figure. Unfortunately, Class C addresses are limited to 254 hosts, not meeting the needs of larger organizations that cannot acquire a Class A or B address. As early as 1992, the IETF identified two specific concerns:! The Class B address category was on the verge of depletion, and the remaining, unassigned IPv4 network addresses were nearly depleted at the time.! As more Class C networks came online to accommodate the rapid and substantial increase in the size of the Internet, the resulting flood of new network information threatened the capability of Internet routers to cope effectively. Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP Addressing and Routing 6-15

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