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2 Objectives Upon completion, you will be able to: Discuss the Types of Network Addressing Explain the Form of an IP Address Network ID Host ID Discuss the Classes of IP Addresses Understand the Function of the Mask 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

4 Can You Count in Binary? We are Very Familiar with our Decimal System But, We Need to Become Familiar with the Binary System only 0 s and 1 s , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 4

5 Basics of An IPv4 Address Layer 3 (L3) Logical IP Addresses are comprised of 4 Octets, separated by a. The Decimal form looks like this: The Binary form looks like: , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 5

6 Basics of An IPv4 Address Each of the 4 Octets has 8 Bits Each of these Bits has a Binary Value Each Bit can only be a One or a Zero Let s Look at One of the Octets 8 Bits Each of these 8 bits has a distinct value, that starts at 1 from the right side and moving to the left, doubles each time to 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and finally 128, as shown above. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

7 IPv4 Addressing 32 bits Dotted Decimal Network Host Maximum Binary Example Decimal Example Binary , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 7

8 IPv4 Address Classes Class A: Class B: Class C: Class D: Class E: 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits Network Host Host Host Network Network Host Host Network Network Network Host Multicast Research 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

9 IPv4 Address Classes Class A: Bits: NNNNNNN Host Host Host Range (1-127) 16,777,214 hosts Class B: Class C: Class D: Bits: NNNNNN Network Host Host Range ( ) 65,534 hosts Bits: 110NNNNN Network Network Host Range ( ) 254 hosts Bits: 1110MMMM Multicast Group Multicast Group Multicast Group Range ( ) 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 9

11 Determining Available Host Addresses Network Host Remember 2 N -2 (where N is the number of host bits) N -2 = = N , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 11

14 Subnet Mask IP Address Default Subnet Mask 8-bit Subnet Mask Network Host Network Host Also written as /16 where 16 represents the number of 1s in the mask. Network Subnet Host Also written as /24 where 24 represents the number of 1s in the mask. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 14

15 Decimal Equivalents of Bit Patterns = = = = = = = = , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 15

16 Know your two s 2 1 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 16

17 Know Your CIDR Values / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 17

18 Subnet Mask with Subnets Network Subnet Host Network Number Network number extended by eight bits Without a subnet mask you cannot tell the host address nor the network it resides on! 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 18

19 Subnet Mask with Subnets (cont.) Network Subnet Host Network Number Network number extended by ten bits 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 19

21 All Zeros and All Ones Subnets RFC 1878 states: "This practice of excluding the all-zeros subnet and the all-ones subnet is obsolete! Modern software will be able to utilize all definable sub-networks." Today, the use of subnet zero and the allones subnet is generally accepted and most vendors support their use, though, on certain networks (and the CCNA Exam), particularly the ones using legacy software, the use of subnet zero and the all-ones subnet can lead to problems Net ID All Zeros Subnet All Ones Subnet..63 BC.64 Net ID.127 BC.128 Net ID.191 BC.192 Net ID BC ID 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 21

22 VLSM - Variable Length Subnet Mask /28 12 Hosts Using VLSM, a single major network can be divided into variable length subnets by using different subnet mask lengths 28 Hosts e0 61 Hosts /27 e1 Si e3 e /26 48 Hosts / , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 22

29 g. ping Similarly, run the ping tests on Laptop3. Which pings are successful and which are not? a. ping b. ping c. ping d. ping e. ping f. ping g. ping Task 5: Ensure all switches, routers and end hosts can ping each other's IP address Steps 4 and 5 of Task 4 show us that connectivity between all devices have not been restored even after enabling Router1 within the network. This is because hosts connected to switches 1 and 2 are on different logical IP network despite being in the same broadcast domain. Devices on different logical IP networks need to know the intermediary device that will assist in the communication across these logical networks. A router is designed to function in this capacity, known as the gateway, but hosts need to be configured to send information destined for different logical networks to the router in order for the communication to be successful. 1. Configure Laptop1 and Laptop2 to use Router1 Gig0/0 as the gateway address. a. Under the Global Config for Laptop1, enter as the Gateway address (not IPv6 Gateway). b. Under the Global Config for Laptop2, enter as the Gateway address (not IPv6 Gateway). 2. Configure Laptop2 and Laptop3 to use Router1 Gig0/1 as the gateway address. a. Under the Global Config for Laptop3, enter as the Gateway address (not IPv6 Gateway). b. Under the Global Config for Laptop4, enter as the Gateway address (not IPv6 Gateway). 3. Using the CLI, configure the default gateway for Switch1. a. enable b. configure terminal c. ip default-gateway d. end e. copy run start 4. Using the CLI, configure the default gateway for Switch2. a. enable b. configure terminal c. ip default-gateway d. end e. copy run start

30 5. Verify that communication for all devices have been restored by running our ping tests on Laptop1. Clear the ARP table before running the ping tests. All ping tests should be successful. a. arp -d b. ping c. ping d. ping e. ping f. ping g. ping h. ping View the ARP table on Laptop1. Note that although Laptop1 can now reach all devices on the network, its ARP table only has information for devices within its own logical IP network. Communication with devices outside of its logical network would go through Router1. Hence, all frames sent to other logical networks would contain the Gig0/0 MAC address of Router1 as the destination MAC address once they are sent on the wire, while the destination IP address contained in those frames would be that of the remote device. When Router1 receives the frames from Laptop1 and forwards them along, it will change the source MAC address to that of its Gig0/1 interface and the destination MAC address to that of the intended host on the x logical network. The source and destination IP addresses of the frames remain unchanged.

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