PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION. Introduction

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION. Introduction"

Transcription

1 PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION Introduction The pineapple is a tropical and subtropical fruit grown in many countries in Africa. In Uganda it is mainly grown south of Lake Kyoga and western Uganda. Ii is a tradable crop and generates reasonable income. It is used as a fruit as well as for producing juice. It is also used for making jam. In addition it contains a protein digesting enzyme bromelain. Therefore it can be used as a meat tenderizer. Leaves are used for making ropes and coarse cloth. Waste products from the juice canning industry are used as animal feed. Ecological requirements Pineapple is fairly drought resistant but for high yields a well distributed annual rainfall of at least 1000mm is required. A regular supply of soil moisture is essential. Medium altitudes of m above sea level are the best. Below 1350m the fruit has little fibre, leading to a mushy fruit. The fruit also contains too much sugar leading to a bland taste. At high altitudes growth is slow and the fruit contains much acid. Deep sandy loams with a lot of organic matter are ideal. Other soil types can be used as long as they are not water logged and organic matter is added. Types (Cultivars) Cultivars: Smooth Cayenne is by far the most important pineapple cultivar throughout the tropics, the leaves are almost spineless except at the apices. Queen is still grown in some areas. This cultivar produces smaller but sweeter fruits than smooth cayenne, but the leaves are spiny and difficult to work with. The Red Spanish is a semi spineless cultivar grown mainly in West Africa and South Africa. Its fruits are intermediate between those of smooth cayenne and queen but are of better quality than those of smooth cayenne. It has some resistance to mealybug wilt disease. Management Practices Propagation 1

2 Pineapples are propagated vegetatively by planting crowns, slips or suckers; although seed can be used in breeding. Pineapple fruit and propagation materials Tissue culture can also be used. The propagules are extremely resistant to desiccation and root readily when planted in the nursery or in the field. By planting various types of propagules the period of harvest can be extended since offshoots (suckers) fruit in about 17 months, slips in 20 months and crowns in months. Planting takes place at the start of the rainy season or it can start any time in the irrigated areas. The propagule stem should be allowed to air dry for one week prior to planting so that the callus layer is formed over the damaged tissue thereby making them resistant to disease infection after planting. Scaly leaves should be removed from the lower portion of the propagule stem to expose the primodia (future roots). If this is not done, establishment will take long. Spacing Some farmers use double rows, others 3 rows, others more. For practicle purposes, however, pineapples are generally planted in double rows spaced at 2 ft (60cm) between the rows, 1 ft (30cm) between plants and 4 ft (120cm) between adjacent double rows. This gives an approximate plant population of 36,250 plants/ha. 2

3 Field layout and spacing specifications The rows are marked using pegs, string and tape. Holes are dug shallowly (7-10cm deep) using a small hoe or just insert a large stick in the ground and only the pedal part is planted and firmed. The propagules are planted on a level ground and later ridged. Ridge planting helps provide a deep bed for a better root growth and also creates water between the double spaces or draining away excess water in water logged areas. Fertilizers Nitrogen is the nutrient most used by pineapples. It can be applied at the rate of 50 kg per hectare top dressed one month after planting. Additional kg per hectare applied three to six months interval is recommended before maturity. An additional 200 kg per hectare of nitrogen can be applied to each ratoon crop. Where phosphorus is lacking, plants have narrow brittle leaves with a dark red color spreading the entire leaf. Potassium deficiency produces a poor quality fruit; few suckers and slips will be formed. The best method of application is preplant broadcast mixed with the top 15 cm of soil. Iron deficiency is identified by a general chlorosis (pale yellow or yellow-white colour) similar to that typical of nitrogen deficiency. Zinc deficiency causes a mottled yellowing of the leaves. Weed Control Weeds can be controlled in three ways notably by: hand, use of mulch and use of herbicides. To obtain maximum production, perennial weeds should be dug out prior to planting and all newly germinating weeds should be controlled while in seedling stage. If a crop is planted with pineapples, weeding should be done in the early stages. It is advisable that after harvesting the intercrop hand weeding should not be continued. The pineapple has a shallow root system which should not be disturbed. Different materials can be used for mulch for example, dry elephant grass, leaves or other organic materials such as chopped debris from previous pineapple crops. They are beneficial in 3

4 restricting weed growth, decreasing erosion, adding humus and nutrients to the soil and conserving moisture. However, the common and effective mulch is coffee husks. A good layer should be maintained for effective weed control. Higher yields of good quality fruits are obtained. Pre-emergence herbicides like HYVAR-X (Bromacil) are applied soon after planting and the crop remains weed-free for about 12 months. No crop should be interplanted as it will be killed off by the herbicides. Post emergence herbicides applied when the weeds are growing actively are also available e.g. GESAPAX and GESATOP. Harvesting Pineapples should mature months depending on the planting material used. In harvesting it is best to cut, rather than to break the fruit by the stalk. With adequate management, the main crop should yield about 70 tonnes/ha, while ratoon crops yield on the average 50 tonnes/ha. At least two ratoon crops can be grown after the plant crop. Stripping for ratoon crops A number of ratoon crops can be taken if management is good but fruit size decreases. They give profit to the undertaking as the main crop plant pays for crop establishment. Stripping involves the removal of all slips and all unwanted suckers. Only one sucker should remain as the basis of the ratoon crop. It should preferably arise from below the ground. Stripping should start at around the time of harvesting. If correct sized suckers and slips are needed as propagation materials from the main crop, two to three operations at monthly intervals will be needed. Insect Pests and Disease Control Nematodes, particularly the root knot nematode may become a problem and is a serious pest in many pineapple growing regions. Soil fumigation (if funds allow) should be carried out to reduce nematode damage. Furadan, Nemacur, or Temik can be used. Infestations by pineapple mealy bug result in yellow spots appearing on the leaves but, more importantly the insects spread black spot (Penicilium funiculosum and Fustrium moniliforme). Insecticides such as Salut, Decis, Rogor etc. can be used to kill mealybugs. Dipping pineapple planting material before planting in a fungicide-insecticide solution can help to eliminate them e.g. mix about 30 ml sumithion in 20 litres of water. 4

5 Wilt of leaves due to infestation with mealybug Thrips may be important as vectors of yellow spot virus which causes deformed fruits or the production of fruits with several dead fruitlets. Hosts of the virus other than pineapple are weeds such as Black jack, Datura stramonium, Emila sonchfolia and vegetables such as pepper, tomato egg plant, broadbean, spinach and peas. Yellow spot of pineapples is usually more severe when these plants are grown nearby. Yellow spot virus spread by thrips Heart and root rots caused by the fungus Phytopthora cinnamon and P. parasitica are sometimes serious. The leaves rot from the tips and the base of the heart resulting in an offensive odour. It is common in young plants of 3-8 months. Splashing rain, irrigation water and biting insects act as agents to spread disease. For effective control of the disease one has to ensure good drainage, avoid overhead irrigation and control insect pests. Soil should be prevented from entering the hearts by covering lightly with grass and removing the grass later. Planting materials can be 5

6 dipped in copper fungicides before planting or use resistant plants. Fungicides can be used to control any fungal complications. Heart rot caused by Phytopthora cinnamon Pink disease, caused by a bacterium transmitted to ripe fruits by insects causes a browning of canned fruits but can be prevented by early harvesting. The disease enters fruits via wounds and causes the fruit to ferment, producing a yeasty, alcoholic smell and undesirable off-flavour. Control is by careful handling to prevent injury and by sorting so that injured fruits are consumed or processed rapidly and only uninjured fruits are sent to the market. 6

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION Compiled by Directorate Communication National Department of Agriculture and W. Willemse,

More information

Chilli - Long Red Cayenne, Long Slim Cayenne, P2391, Serano, Skyline 3, Star 6601, Thai chili, Thai Dragon.

Chilli - Long Red Cayenne, Long Slim Cayenne, P2391, Serano, Skyline 3, Star 6601, Thai chili, Thai Dragon. CAPSICUMS Hot pepper (chilli), sweet pepper and paprika. CLIMATE These crops require warmer conditions than tomatoes, and are more sensitive to cold and frost. The optimum mean temperatures for growth,

More information

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda Maize Production in Uganda Farmers have improved maize yields from 1,000Kg/ha to 3,000-5,000 Kg/ha using the recommended technologies Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries

More information

Virus diseases affect tomato production to some

Virus diseases affect tomato production to some A L A B A M A A & M A N D A U B U R N U N I V E R S I T I E S Virus Diseases Of Tomato ANR-0836 Virus diseases affect tomato production to some degree every year in Alabama. The amount of damage they cause

More information

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification Understanding the Soil Test Report Page 1 of 7 Crops absorb the nutrients required from soil in order to grow, so ensuring that your soil is meeting the crops needs is critical. Having the proper level

More information

Onion & Leek Planting Guide

Onion & Leek Planting Guide Onion & Leek Planting Guide Important Remove plants from box immediately. Do not put in soil or water before planting. Keep cool and dry until you can plant. Follow the instructions inside for best results.

More information

Irish potatoes are one of America s most

Irish potatoes are one of America s most E-511 11-10 Easy Gardening Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Irish potatoes are one of America s most popular vegetables the average American

More information

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Lawn Care FAQ s Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Why do we have so many weeds? Dandelions in particular, weeds in general, do not seem concerned about how long lawn has

More information

Pineapples. Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom. Version - October 2011

Pineapples. Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom. Version - October 2011 Pineapples Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom Version - October 2011 1 Definition Of Produce This Standard applies to pineapples of varieties (cultivars) grown from Ananascomosus(L).

More information

Virginia Gardener http://www.hort.vt.edu/envirohort

Virginia Gardener http://www.hort.vt.edu/envirohort The Virginia Gardener http://www.hort.vt.edu/envirohort Name Help Sheets: Things Plants Need There are certain things that every living thing needs in order to live and grow. Just like you, plants need

More information

Maize Seed Production Manual

Maize Seed Production Manual Youth Agripreneurs Agriculture is the future Maize Seed Production Manual Produced by IITA Youth Agripreneurs Maize Seed Production Manual Produced by IYA Cassava Value Chain Members International Institute

More information

Common diseases of nectarines

Common diseases of nectarines OCTOBER 2009 PRIMEFACT 890 Common diseases of nectarines L. Ullio Cleanfresh Project, Intensive Industries, Sydney Markets Bacterial canker Bacterial canker is considered a major disease of stone fruit

More information

Custard apple information kit

Custard apple information kit information kit Reprint information current in 1998 REPRINT INFORMATION PLEASE READ! For updated information please call 13 25 23 or visit the website www.deedi.qld.gov.au This publication has been reprinted

More information

CROP PRODUCTION PROTOCOL

CROP PRODUCTION PROTOCOL pip CROP PRODUCTION PROTOCOL PINEAPPLE MD2 (Ananas comosus) COLEACP is an international network promoting sustainable horticultural trade. PIP is a European cooperation programme managed by COLEACP. It

More information

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources J. Sugano, J. Uyeda, S. Fukuda, K. Wang, M. Kawate, C. Tamaru, B. Fox, and T. Radovich College of Tropical Agriculture

More information

RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide

RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide NOTES ON FRUIT PRODUCTION Aim and Objective The aim and objective of RIPPLE Africa as an organisation is to make Nkhata Bay District one of the leading

More information

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE Between 30-60 percent of water applied to lawns and gardens is never absorbed by the plants. Water is often wasted because it is applied too quickly and runs off, evaporates

More information

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12)

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that reduces water quality problems related to pesticide use. Track your

More information

Published 2005 INTRODUCTION

Published 2005 INTRODUCTION MORINGA LEAF POWDER By Beth Doerr and Lindsay Cameron Published 2005 Copyright ECHO 2007. All rights reserved. This document may be reproduced for training purposes if distributed free of charge or at

More information

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Occasionally, fruit trees decline and often die. Diseases affecting the leaves, fruit, and twigs of fruit trees usually

More information

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a E-503 03-09 Easy Gardening ASPARAGUS ASPARAGUS ASPARAGUS ASPAR Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a highly

More information

Strawberry Anthracnose

Strawberry Anthracnose Strawberry Anthracnose Bill Turechek and Cathy Heidenreich Introduction - The term anthracnose is a general term used to describe plant diseases. Strawberry anthracnose refers to several diseases of strawberry

More information

FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES MAIZE PRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION Maize is one of the major staple foods in Uganda. Its production has increased over the years as people change their consumption trends. It has evolved from a purely

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

Pecan Diseases and Nematodes

Pecan Diseases and Nematodes Pecan Diseases and Nematodes Western Pecan Production Short Course September 27, 2012 Natalie Goldberg Extension Plant Pathologist Diseases of Pecan Phymatotrichum root rot Root-knot nematode Powdery mildew

More information

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row David T. Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruits Specialist University of Maine Cooperative Extension Highmoor Farm, P.O. Box 179, Monmouth, Maine 04259 (207) 933-2100

More information

OSU Extension Service Master Gardener Program. Organic Pest Control. Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty

OSU Extension Service Master Gardener Program. Organic Pest Control. Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty Organic Pest Control Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty Audience Question What does the term organic pest control mean to you? Preview of Presentation Organic

More information

Culture in field conditions - Challenges A South American point of view Roberto Campos Pura Natura, Argentina

Culture in field conditions - Challenges A South American point of view Roberto Campos Pura Natura, Argentina A South American point of view Roberto Campos Pura Natura, Argentina EUSTAS 6 th Stevia Symposium Leuven, July 3 rd and 4 th I. Area of cultivation II. Environment III. Production of seedlings IV. Planting

More information

IRRIGATING TOBACCO. J. Michael Moore

IRRIGATING TOBACCO. J. Michael Moore IRRIGATING TOBACCO J. Michael Moore Irrigation is an important component for the production of quality tobacco in Georgia. Rainfall is unpredictable and generally unreliable during the critical growth

More information

Gr o w i ng Bl u e b e r r i e s

Gr o w i ng Bl u e b e r r i e s EC 1304 Revised March 2008 u $1.50 Gr o w i ng Bl u e b e r r i e s in Yo u r Ho m e Ga r d e n B.C. Strik Growing highbush or cultivated blueberries can be very rewarding. You can eat the berries fresh,

More information

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT 12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Conservation farming promotes a diversity of insect life, influences pest populations and also favours many beneficial insects. The beneficial insects which act as

More information

TENDER DRINKING COCONUTS Nature s Refreshing Isotonic Drink

TENDER DRINKING COCONUTS Nature s Refreshing Isotonic Drink TENDER DRINKING COCONUTS Nature s Refreshing Isotonic Drink Tender drinking coconuts are selectively harvested from 7-8 month old bunches when the endosperm is still soft. They are immediately delivered

More information

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Makerere University and Humidtropics collaboration Soybean Seed production Training of Kiboga-Kyankwanzi platform members in Soybean Seed Production

More information

Nutrient Deficiencies

Nutrient Deficiencies Integrated Pest Management Nutrient Deficiencies and Application Injuries in Field Crops John Sawyer Department of Agronomy Nitrogen deficiency in corn IPM 42 Revised July 2004 Nutrient deficiencies in

More information

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching Unit D: Controlling Pests and Diseases in the Orchard Lesson 1: Managing and Controlling Pests of Fruit and Nut Crops Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving

More information

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil.

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil. Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You

More information

POTASSIUM. Functions of Potassium in Plants. Potassium Deficiency Symptoms

POTASSIUM. Functions of Potassium in Plants. Potassium Deficiency Symptoms POTASSIUM Potassium is the last of what might be called the big three soil nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These three primary nutrients are, by far, the nutrients most commonly limiting

More information

o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet

o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet Propagation Propagation is actually quite simple and requires very little effort on your part. Most seeds are ready to go, complete with all the nutrients and

More information

AGFACTS. Strawberry disease control guide MAJOR DISEASES OF STRAWBERRIES

AGFACTS. Strawberry disease control guide MAJOR DISEASES OF STRAWBERRIES AGFACTS AGFACTS AGFACTS www.agric.nsw.gov.au Strawberry disease control guide Agfact H3.3.1 third edition, May 2004 Lawrence Ullio, District Horticulturist Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute Camden

More information

Part 1: Knowing how to identify the problem. Author: Damon Polta, Friendly Aquaponics Farm Manager. For free distribution.

Part 1: Knowing how to identify the problem. Author: Damon Polta, Friendly Aquaponics Farm Manager. For free distribution. Diseases, Deficiencies, and Toxicities in Plants Part 1: Knowing how to identify the problem. Author: Damon Polta, Friendly Aquaponics Farm Manager. For free distribution. Diseases Beet Western Yellow

More information

BENEFITS OF USING IPM

BENEFITS OF USING IPM Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play

More information

A Look at Five Green Manures for Tropical Farm Systems by: Kristin Hettich

A Look at Five Green Manures for Tropical Farm Systems by: Kristin Hettich A Look at Five Green Manures for Tropical Farm Systems by: Kristin Hettich Background Green manuring involves the soil incorporation of any field or forage crop while green or soon after flowering for

More information

National Department of Agriculture ARC-Grain Crops Institute ARC LNR. Production. of green mealies

National Department of Agriculture ARC-Grain Crops Institute ARC LNR. Production. of green mealies National Department of Agriculture ARC-Grain Crops Institute ARC LNR Production of green mealies Production of green mealies Adapted by the ARC Grain Crops Institute from Garden mealies for six months

More information

WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES

WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES C 6 H A P TE R WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completely studying this chapter, you should: Be able to define a weed and its four stages of development. Understand the differences between annual,

More information

1. THE GROWER 2. GREENHOUSE STRUCTURE FEATURED 3. CROPS GROWN. Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com

1. THE GROWER 2. GREENHOUSE STRUCTURE FEATURED 3. CROPS GROWN. Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com 1. THE GROWER Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com Hung is a new grower in his third year of independent farm management. He completed a Diploma in Horticulture while working on his parent

More information

African Organic Agriculture Manual Booklet Series No. 4 Soil organic matter management HOW DO I IMPROVE THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER?

African Organic Agriculture Manual Booklet Series No. 4 Soil organic matter management HOW DO I IMPROVE THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER? African Organic Agriculture Manual Booklet Series No. 4 Soil organic matter management HOW DO I IMPROVE THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER? What do I need to know about soil organic mat Soil organic matter is essential

More information

PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS

PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS Quick Tips Summary Use mixed grass seeds rather than a single variety Fertilize with composted organics or slow-acting synthetic products Keep soil at ph 5.8 6.5 Keep

More information

Coffee Growing Basics: Fertilizer, Disease, Insects. HC Skip Bittenbender Extension Specialist CTAHR/UH

Coffee Growing Basics: Fertilizer, Disease, Insects. HC Skip Bittenbender Extension Specialist CTAHR/UH Coffee Growing Basics: Fertilizer, Disease, Insects HC Skip Bittenbender Extension Specialist CTAHR/UH Problems? Who to call first? Our UH/CTAHR Extension Agents! Virginia Easton Smith, W. Hawaii - 322-4892

More information

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER To explain how to plan and schedule your irrigation program CHAPTER CONTENTS factors affecting irrigation intervals influence of soil water using

More information

Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management

Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Factsheet No. 2 in Series Revised September 2010 Order Reference No. 631-500-1 For nutrient management, soil sampling is done to collect a soil

More information

Commercial Fruit Production. Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions

Commercial Fruit Production. Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions 2014 Farming For Profit Workshop Series Commercial Fruit Production Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions The questions in this document are intended to help you make the key decisions necessary

More information

Managing of Annual Winter Forages in Southwest Texas

Managing of Annual Winter Forages in Southwest Texas r r r rr EDUCATION RESEARCH EXTENSION The Texas A&M University System Soil & Crop Sciences Managing of Annual Winter Forages in Southwest Texas Mr Charles Stichler Assocaite Professor and Extension Agronomist

More information

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP)

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) CAC/RCP 51-2003 Page 1 of 8 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS, INCLUDING ANNEXES ON OCHRATOXIN A, ZEARALENONE, FUMONISINS AND TRICOTHECENES CAC/RCP

More information

Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems

Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems KAREN KLONSKY The USDA established the National Organic Program (NOP) to develop national standards for organically

More information

Trailing type Cultivars Time to first harvest and harvesting period. Hubbards Green, Green Chicago Warted,Golden 100-120 days

Trailing type Cultivars Time to first harvest and harvesting period. Hubbards Green, Green Chicago Warted,Golden 100-120 days CUCURBITS This group of crops includes pumpkins, squashes, vegetable marrows, cucumbers, musk and sweet melons, and watermelons, as well as loofah, calabash and various gourds. CLIMATE REQUIREMENTS The

More information

Appendix C. Re-vegetation and Rehabilitation Sub-Plan

Appendix C. Re-vegetation and Rehabilitation Sub-Plan Appendix C Re-vegetation and Rehabilitation Sub-Plan DRENNAN SOLAR ENERGY FACILITY REVEGETATION & REHABILITATION PLAN PRODUCED FOR ERM ON BEHALF OF SOLAIREDIRECT BY Simon.Todd@3foxes.co.za JUNE 2013 BACKGROUND

More information

Composting in the Tropics ll

Composting in the Tropics ll Composting in the Tropics ll produced by What is compost and how is it useful? Compost is a cheap, effective and long-term way of improving the soil to grow better crops. Various materials such as leaves,

More information

DESIGNING A SCHOOL GARDEN. Sandy McGroarty, An Taisce Green-Schools

DESIGNING A SCHOOL GARDEN. Sandy McGroarty, An Taisce Green-Schools DESIGNING A SCHOOL GARDEN Sandy McGroarty, An Taisce Green-Schools Designing the Garden Why do you want a garden? Ornamental Edible Forest Garden Outdoor Classroom Biodiversity Maintenance over the Summer

More information

Determining Problems of Woody Ornamentals Over the Phone

Determining Problems of Woody Ornamentals Over the Phone Hillsborough County Cooperative Extension Service 5339 County Rd 579 Seffner, Fl., 33584-3334 813-744-5519 Fax 813-744-5776 http://prohort.ifas.ufl.edu/ Determining Problems of Woody Ornamentals Over the

More information

P omegranates. Texas Fruit and Nut Production. Larry Stein, Jim Kamas, and Monte Nesbitt, Extension Fruit Specialists, The Texas A&M University System

P omegranates. Texas Fruit and Nut Production. Larry Stein, Jim Kamas, and Monte Nesbitt, Extension Fruit Specialists, The Texas A&M University System E-613 2-13 Texas Fruit and Nut Production P omegranates Larry Stein, Jim Kamas, and Monte Nesbitt, Extension Fruit Specialists, The Texas A&M University System I nterest in growing pomegranates has increased

More information

"Fingerprinting" Vegetables DNA-based Marker Assisted Selection

Fingerprinting Vegetables DNA-based Marker Assisted Selection "Fingerprinting" Vegetables DNA-based Marker Assisted Selection Faster, Cheaper, More Reliable; These are some of the goals that vegetable breeders at seed companies and public institutions desire for

More information

Five Categories of Integrated Pest Management: Five terms were used to identify IPM practices. They are:

Five Categories of Integrated Pest Management: Five terms were used to identify IPM practices. They are: BANANA IPM PROTOCOL SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION Overview. The Banana Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Protocol was modeled after the National IPM Protocol for Potatoes. The Banana IPM Protocol is supported

More information

1 SEEDLING QUALITY. Seedling quality

1 SEEDLING QUALITY. Seedling quality Seedling quality Quality versus quantity A nursery manager s most important goal is to produce quality trees. Quality is more important than quantity. It is a common mistake in nurseries to concentrate

More information

Ligustrum, Privet Ligustrum japonicum

Ligustrum, Privet Ligustrum japonicum Ligustrum, Privet Ligustrum japonicum http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg022 Propagation L. japonicum Ligustrum are propagated by softwood cuttings taken in spring, or 5 10 cm semihardwood cuttings with a heel

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Andrea Veres Junior Technical Officer FAO REU andrea.veres@fao.org Yerevan, Armenia 2013 Why develop IPM? Agriculture was: not sustainable optimized inputs for maximum profit

More information

Propagation and Care of Leyland Cypress as Christmas Trees

Propagation and Care of Leyland Cypress as Christmas Trees Propagation and Care of Leyland Cypress as Christmas Trees Orville M. Lindstrom 1, David J. Moorhead 2, and Glen W. Kent 3 1 Associate Professor-Horticulture Research, Georgia Station. 2 Associate Professor,

More information

Moringa Oleifera a Multipurpose Tree:

Moringa Oleifera a Multipurpose Tree: Moringa Oleifera a Multipurpose Tree: 1.0 Introduction: Amandla Resources 1.1 Moringa Oleifera belongs to the onogeneric family of shrubs and trees and originated south of the Himalayas in Northern India.

More information

NO-TILL AND NITROGEN FIXING INOCULANTS

NO-TILL AND NITROGEN FIXING INOCULANTS NO-TILL AND NITROGEN FIXING INOCULANTS Tom Wacek R & D Director for Urbana Laboratories St. Joseph, Missouri Nitrogen fixation is the utilization of the free gaseous nitrogen in the air by soil bacteria

More information

Forage Bermudagrass: Selection, Establishment and Management. Introduction

Forage Bermudagrass: Selection, Establishment and Management. Introduction E-179 4-03 Forage Bermudagrass: Selection, Establishment and Management Charles Stichler and David Bade, Extension Agronomists The Texas A&M University System Introduction In April of 1943, with the introduction

More information

Phone: 989.673.5300 x 304 Caro MI 48723 URL: www.tisd.k12.mi.us Email: aslagh@tisd.k12.mi.us

Phone: 989.673.5300 x 304 Caro MI 48723 URL: www.tisd.k12.mi.us Email: aslagh@tisd.k12.mi.us AGRI SCIENCE LANDSCAPING / TURFGRASS TECHNOLOGY SYLLABUS SCHOOL: Tuscola Technology Center Instructor: Arlon Slagh ADDRESS: 1401 Cleaver Road Phone: 989.673.5300 x 304 Caro MI 48723 URL: www.tisd.k12.mi.us

More information

A HOW-TO BACKYARD COMPOSTING GUIDE

A HOW-TO BACKYARD COMPOSTING GUIDE A HOW-TO BACKYARD COMPOSTING GUIDE WHAT IS COMPOSTING? Compost is a dark, crumbly, earthy smelling material that is great for your garden. Composting is the natural breakdown of organic material (kitchen

More information

Tree Care Guide. W.A. Industries: 3655 N. Southport Ave., Chicago, IL 60613 (888) 333-9352 www.megagro.com

Tree Care Guide. W.A. Industries: 3655 N. Southport Ave., Chicago, IL 60613 (888) 333-9352 www.megagro.com Tree Care Guide Think of the tree you just purchased as a lifetime investment and considering many tree species live for many decades, they are a wonderful legacy. How well your tree, and investment, grows

More information

Protected Cultivation

Protected Cultivation Workshop on Implementation Strategy for MIDH 24 January 2014, NAAS Complex, Pusa, New Delhi Protected Cultivation NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON PLASTICULTURE APPLICATIONS IN HORTICULTURE (NCPAH) Why Protected

More information

Soybean roulette: improving the odds for maximizing soybean yields

Soybean roulette: improving the odds for maximizing soybean yields Soybean roulette: improving the odds for maximizing soybean yields Larry C. Purcell University of Arkansas Indiana CCA Conference December 15, 2015 Why Is Maximizing Soybean Yield Similar to Roulette?

More information

Nematode Management in Okra 1

Nematode Management in Okra 1 ENY-043 Nematode Management in Okra 1 J.W. Noling 2 Okra is infamous for its susceptibility to root-knot nematodes; it is also extremely sensitive to sting nematodes. Because of this, okra should not be

More information

Grow your own wheat. preparation #1. Brockwell Bake TEACHER S NOTES. Sowing times. Choosing and obtaining seed wheat. Sowing site.

Grow your own wheat. preparation #1. Brockwell Bake TEACHER S NOTES. Sowing times. Choosing and obtaining seed wheat. Sowing site. Brockwell Bake preparation #1 Sowing times Wheat is divided into spring and winter wheat, meaning spring wheat which grows relatively fast and is sown at the start of Spring (usually March) once soil is

More information

for Sweet Corn Joe Masabni UKREC Princeton, KY Joe Masabni

for Sweet Corn Joe Masabni UKREC Princeton, KY Joe Masabni Herbicide Recommendations for Sweet Corn UKREC Princeton, KY Preemergence Herbicides Aatrex 4L Rate: 1 2 qt / A PRE for annual grasses and broadleaves weed control Apply after planting but before weeds

More information

Principles of Composting

Principles of Composting Principles of Composting Composting biologically speeds up the decomposition of organic wastes into a soil-like material. Heat and carbon dioxide are also produced in the process. Composting can take place

More information

MAKING COMPOST FROM GARDEN WASTE. Stuart High School Whyalla

MAKING COMPOST FROM GARDEN WASTE. Stuart High School Whyalla MAKING COMPOST FROM GARDEN WASTE Stuart High School Whyalla Quick Facts... Composting garden and yard waste recycles nutrients back into the yard and saves landfill space. Composting reduces household

More information

NQF Level: 2 US No: 116119

NQF Level: 2 US No: 116119 NQF Level: 2 US No: 116119 Assessment Guide Primary Agriculture Plant Propagation Assessor:.......................................... Workplace / Company:................................. Commodity:...................

More information

Best Management Practices for Colorado Corn

Best Management Practices for Colorado Corn Best Management Practices for Colorado Corn Primary Authors: Troy Bauder Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Colorado State University Reagan Waskom Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Colorado State

More information

Strawberry Leaf Spot

Strawberry Leaf Spot Strawberry Leaf Spot Cathy Heidenreich and Bill Turechek Introduction - Leaf spot is one of the most common and widespread diseases of strawberry. Mycosphaerella fragariae is also the cause of black seed

More information

Organic Gardening Certificate Program Quiz Week 3 Answer Key

Organic Gardening Certificate Program Quiz Week 3 Answer Key Q uiz for week 3 readings: 1. The database on the Organic Weed management Website contains the following sections except: A. Picture B. Ecology C. Management D. Description 2. The weed quackgrass can reproduce

More information

How does composting work?

How does composting work? How does composting work? Composting is a natural process that turns organic material (things that were once living) into rich soil-like material called compost. The organic material is broken down by

More information

WHAT IS WRONG WITH MY LAWN?

WHAT IS WRONG WITH MY LAWN? WHAT IS WRONG WITH MY LAWN? Lawn problems can occur in small areas or larger patches and entire lawns can be affected. Sometimes the problems are due to poor growing conditions, improper lawn care practices,

More information

Frequently asked Questions about Weeds

Frequently asked Questions about Weeds Frequently asked Questions about Weeds Q: Why do I have so many weeds in my yard? A: Some combination of the following factors will contribute to high weed populations: A large number of weed seeds or

More information

Construction Damage to Trees

Construction Damage to Trees Construction Damage to Trees When a building site is cleared, several large, well-established trees are often left to enhance the aesthetic value of the property. However, within about 2-8 years after

More information

Tree Trimming Tips and Tricks

Tree Trimming Tips and Tricks Tree Trimming Tips and Tricks Start with Professionals Mistakes can be costly for you and your tree. Professionals who know about trees can help you get started with the right tree in the right place.

More information

Pruning Citrus Trees. Citrus trees are pruned in order; PRUNING STAGES YOUNG TREE PRUNING HAND PRUNING MAINTENANCE PRUNING

Pruning Citrus Trees. Citrus trees are pruned in order; PRUNING STAGES YOUNG TREE PRUNING HAND PRUNING MAINTENANCE PRUNING Pruning Citrus Trees Citrus trees are pruned in order; to allow light penetration into the canopy; to prevent crowding of main scaffold branches and to remove branches which cross; to remove or shorten

More information

Wilt diseases of tomatoes can be caused

Wilt diseases of tomatoes can be caused A l a b a m a A & M a n d A u b u r n U n i v e r s i t i e s Wilt Diseases of Tomatoes ANR-0797 Wilt diseases of tomatoes can be caused by fungal, bacterial, viral, and nematode pathogens, as well as

More information

Montgomery County Vegetable Gardening Guide

Montgomery County Vegetable Gardening Guide Montgomery County Vegetable Gardening Guide Home gardening continues to grow in popularity. One of every three families does some type of home gardening, according to conservative estimates, with a majority

More information

Crop Profile for Pineapples in Hawaii

Crop Profile for Pineapples in Hawaii Prepared January 2000 Crop Profile for Pineapples in Hawaii General Production Information Hawaii ranks first in national production of pineapple in the United States. Hawaii contributes 100% to total

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY SMS (Entomology) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhemaji Assam Agricultural University Silapathar INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IN PADDY Among the food grains paddy occupies

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

Corn Production in Tennessee

Corn Production in Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service The University of Tennessee PB443 Corn Production in Tennessee 1 Corn Production in Tennessee Wayne T. Flinchum, Professor Plant & Soil Sciences Contents Corn Land 4 Corn

More information

A down to earth guide to composting. Easy waste reduction in 10 minutes a week. edmonton.ca/compost

A down to earth guide to composting. Easy waste reduction in 10 minutes a week. edmonton.ca/compost A down to earth guide to composting Easy waste reduction in 10 minutes a week edmonton.ca/compost What is composting? Composting is a natural process that breaks down organic kitchen and yard materials.

More information

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County Tree Integrated Pest Management Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County IPM Refresher Definition: The use of a combination of appropriate pest control tactics to reduce pest population

More information

Oak Trees BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR

Oak Trees BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR They are beautiful in their peace, They are wise in their silence. They will stand after we are dust. They teach us, and we tend them. G.A. MacDunelmor BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR Oak Trees The

More information

IMPROVE YOUR SUGARLOAF PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION ILLUSTRATED MANUAL FOR ORGANIC FARMERS IN GHANA

IMPROVE YOUR SUGARLOAF PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION ILLUSTRATED MANUAL FOR ORGANIC FARMERS IN GHANA IMPROVE YOUR SUGARLOAF PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION ILLUSTRATED MANUAL FOR ORGANIC FARMERS IN GHANA This manual has been produced by Agro Eco under commission from the FAO project GCP/RAF/404/GER Increasing incomes

More information

HOME FREEZING GUIDE FOR FRESH VEGETABLES

HOME FREEZING GUIDE FOR FRESH VEGETABLES HOME FREEZING GUIDE F FRESH VEGETABLES Freezing most vegetables at home is a fast, convenient way to preserve produce at their peak maturity and nutritional quality. The following links provide information

More information