# Chapter 04 - More General Annuities

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1 Chapter 04 - More General Annuities 4-1 Section Annuities Payable Less Frequently Than Interest Conversion Payment k.. 2k... n Time k = interest conversion periods before each payment

2 n = total number of interest conversion periods n/k = total number of payments (positive integer) i = rate of interest in each conversion period. General Method Example: Payments of \$500 are made at the end of each year for 10 years. Interest has a nominal rate of 8%, convertible quarterly. (a) What is the present value of these future payments? i (4) =.08 i (4) /4 =.02 (1 +.02) 4 = Therefore % is the annual effective interest rate 4-2

3 4-3 Answer = 500a = \$3, (b) What is the accumulated value of these payments at the end of 10 years? Answer = 500s = \$7, Formula Method for Annuity-Immediate Now view this setting as n periods with spaced payments. The present value of these n/k payments is ν k + ν 2k + ν 3k + + ν (n/k)k = νk (1 (ν k ) (n/k) ) 1 ν k by SGS

4 4-4 The accumulated value at time t = n is (1 + i) n a n i s k i = s n i s k i Both of the above formulas are annuity-immediate formulas because the payments are at the end of each payment period which is k interest periods long. Example: (previous in this section) i =.02 k = 4 n = 40 Accumulated Value = 500 s s 4.02 = \$7,

5 Formula Method for Annuity-due: Present Value: 1 + ν k + ν 2k + ν 3k + + ν n k ( 1 (ν k ) (n/k)) = 1 ν k by SGS Accumulated Value at time t = n is: (1 + i) n a n i a k i = s n i a k i = s n i ä k i Both of the above formulas are annuity-due formulas because the payments are at the beginning of each payment period which is k interest periods long. 4-5

6 4-6 Perpetuities: Annuity-immediate with payments less frequent than interest conversion Present Value = lim n (1 ν n ) (1 + i) k 1 Annuity-due with payments less frequent than interest conversion Present Value = lim n (1 ν n ) 1 ν k = 1 i(1 ν k )/i = 1 ia k i

7 4-7 Exercise 4-8: The present value of a perpetuity paying 1 at the end of every 3 years is Find i So = 1 is 3 i = 1 (1 + i) 3 1 (1 + i) 3 = = i = 6 5 i =.20

8 4-8 Exercise 4-4: An annuity-immediate that pays \$400 quarterly for the next 10 years costs \$10,000. Calculate the nominal interest rate convertible monthly earned by this investment

9 4-9 Exercise 4-7: Find an expression for the present value of an annuity-due of \$600 per annum payable semiannually for 10 years, if d (12) =

10 Section Annuities Payable More Frequently Than Interest Conversion Payment 1/m 1 m.. 2m.... mn Time m = number of payments in each interest conversion period 1/m = amount of each payment n = total number of interest periods 4-10

11 i = rate of interest for each conversion period. The annuity-immediate present value at time t = 0 for all payments is a (m) = 1 ] [ν 1 2 m mn m n + ν m + + ν m + + ν m m [ ] = 1 1 ν n ( 1 m (1 + i) m 1 ) = 1 νn i (m) = ia n i i (m) Here ] i (m) = m [(1 + i) 1 m 1 because (1 + i) = (1 + i(m) ) m. m That is, i (m) is the nominal period interest rate and i is the effective period interest rate when each interest period is converted m th ly. 4-11

12 Once we know the present value at time t = 0, the accumulated value at the end of the n th conversion period (i.e. at time t = mn) is s (m) = (1 + i) n a (m) n n = (1 + i)n 1 i (m) = is n i i (m) Example: Payments of \$500 are made at the end of each month for 10 years. Interest is set at 6% (APR) convertible quarterly. What is the accumulated value at the last payment The effective interest rate per quarter is.06 4 =.015. The quarters are the interest conversion periods. So n = 4(10) = 40, m = 3 and i =.015. Note that and the accumulated value at the last payment is : (500)(3)s (3) = 500(3)[( )40 1] = \$81,

13 4-13 The annuity-due present value at time t = 0 for all payments is ä (m) n = 1 νn d (m) = ia n i d (m). The annuity-due accumulated value at the end of the n th conversion period (i.e. at time t = mn) is s (m) n = (1 + i)n 1 d (m) = is n i d (m) Here d is the effective rate of discount per interest period and d (m) is the nominal rate of discount per interest period when convertible m th ly in each period.

14 4-14 It easily follows that the extension to an annuity-immediate perpetuity produces a present value of and the extension to an annuity-due perpetuity produces ä (m) = 1 d (m) Exercise 4-14: Find i when 3a (2) n = 2a (2) 2n These equalities produce = 45s (2). 1

15 3(1 ν n ) i (2) = 2(1 ν2n ) i (2) = 45i i (2) Using the first and third of these terms produces 3(1 ν n ) = 45i which implies ν n = 1 15i. Now using the first and second terms above yields 3(1 ν n ) = 2(1 ν 2n ). Setting x = ν n this becomes Therefore, x = ν n = 1 2 = 1 15i which implies 15i = 1 2 or i =

16 4-16 Section Continuous Payment Annuities Consider a m th ly annuity-immediate paying a total of 1 annually over n years. Payment 1/m 0 2/m... mn/m Time Examine the payments made in the interval from t to t +, where 0 < t < t + < n.

17 Time 4-17 The total of the payments in this interval is 1 m = (# of mth ly interval ends between t and t+ ) m intervals When m is very large, this total payment is approximately So when m is very large, it is (approximately) as though the payment of 1 made each year is smeared evenly over that year and where the payment total in any interval is the area under this line above the interval. Continuous Model: Payment t t+d n

18 When finding the present value of all payments, we must discount the payment made at time t by the factor ν t. Thus the present value of all payments becomes a n = n 0 1 ν t dt = νt ln(ν) n 0 = 1 ln(ν) (νn 1) and therefore Here the annual effective interest rate i is fixed and δ = ln(1 + i) is the force of interest. Note that 1 ν n lim m a(m) = lim = 1 νn = a n m δ n i (m) because lim m i (m) = lim m d (m) = δ. With continuous payments, the distinction between an annuity-immediate and an annuity-due is moot, that is a n = lim m a(m) n = lim m ä(m) n. 4-18

19 4-19 It likewise follows that s n = lim m s(m) = lim n m s(m) n Finally, since δ = ln(1 + i) implies that ν = e δ and (1 + i) = e δ, it follows that a n = (1 νn ) δ = 1 e nδ δ and s n = [(1 + i)n 1] = enδ 1, δ δ where in these expressions n does not have to be an integer.

20 4-20 Exercise 4-18: If a n = 4 and s n = 12, find δ = a n = 1 e nδ δ implies e nδ = 1 4δ 12 = s n = enδ 1 implies e nδ = 12δ + 1 δ Putting these two expressions together produces or 48δ 2 8δ = 0. This yields δ = 8 48 =.16 6.

21 Exercise 4-20: Find the value of t, 0 < t < 1, such that 1 paid at time t has the same present value as 1 paid continuously between time 0 and

22 Section Payments in Arithmetic Progression Suppose an annuity pays k at the end of period k for k = 1, 2,, n. Payment 1 n n 1 n Time The present value of this annuity with arithmetic increasing payments is (Ia) n = ν + 2ν 2 + 3ν (n 1)ν n 1 + nν n.

23 Note that (Ia) n ν (Ia) n ν = 1 + 2ν + 3ν nν n 1 and thus (Ia) n = 1 + ν + ν 2 + ν ν n 1 nν n = ä n nν n. It follows that ( 1 ν ) (Ia) ν n = i(ia) n = ä n nν n and thus The accumulated value at time t = n is: (Is) n = (1 + i) n (Ia) n = s n n i = (1 + i)s n n. i 4-23

24 4-24 Consider a annuity-immediate with general arithmetic progression payment amounts: P at time t = 1, P + Q at time t = 2, P + 2Q at time t = 3,, and P + (n 1)Q at time t = n. Payment n 1 n Time The present value at t = 0 is

25 4-25 and the accumulated value at t = n is (1 + i) n [present value] = (1 + i) n[ ( an nν n )] Pa n + Q i ( sn n ) = Ps n + Q i Next examine a decreasing annuity-immediate with a payment of n + 1 k at time t = k, for k = 1, 2,, n. This is a special case of the previous formula with P = n and Q = 1. The present value becomes ( an nν n ) (Da) n = na n i and the accumulated value is ( sn (Ds) n = (1 + i) n n ) (Da) n = ns n. i

26 4-26 For a perpetuity-immediate with general arithmetic progression payment amounts, the present value is as long as P > 0 and Q > 0 because lim n a n = 1 i and lim nν n = 0. n Exercise 4-24: Find the present value of a perpetuity that pays 1 at the end of the first year, 2 at the end of the second year, increasing until a a payment of n at the end of the n th year and thereafter payments are level at n per year forever (Ia) n + nνn i = ν 1 a n nν n + nν n i = a n d.

27 4-27 Exercise 4-27: An annuity-immediate has semiannual payments of with i (2) =.16. If a = A, find the present value of the annuity in terms of A

28 Section Payments in Geometric Progression Suppose an annuity-immediate pays (1 + k) k 1 at the end of period k for k = 1, 2,, n. Payment n 1 n Time The present value of these payments is ν + (1 + k)ν 2 + (1 + k) 2 ν (1 + k) n 1 ν n 4-28

29 = ν [ ( ) n ] 1 (1 + k)ν = i 1 (1 + k)ν [ ( 1 1+k 1+i 1 ( 1+k 1+i ) n ) ] The accumulated value at t = n is: (1+i) n (1+k) n (1 + i) n (i k) if k i [present value] = n(1 + i) n 1 if k = i When dealing with an annuity-due, the present value and the accumulated value are obtained by multiplying the respective expressions for an annuity-immediate by (1 + i). 4-29

30 The present value of a perpetuity with geometrically changing payments only converges to a finite value when k < i, in which case it is ( ) 1 + i i k for a Perpetuity-Due. Example: A perpetuity-due pays \$1000 for the first year and payments increase by 3% for each subsequent year until the 20 th payment. After that the payments are the same as the 20 th. Find the present value if the effective annual interest rate is 5% (1 +.05) [ ( ) 20 ] (1.03)19 (1.05) 19 (.05) = 16, , = \$30,

31 4-31 Exercise 4-32: An employee age 40 earns \$40,000 per year and expects to receive 3% annual raises at the end of each year for the next 25 years. The employee contributes 4% of annual salary at the beginning of each year for the next 25 years into a retirement plan. How much will be available for retirement at age 65 if the fund earns a 5% effective annual rate of interest?

32 Section More General Varying Annuities Consider settings in which the interest conversion periods and the payment periods do not coincide. For example, suppose we have m payments within each interest conversion period and payments varying in arithmetic progression over interest conversion periods. Let Payment 1/m 1 m.. 2m.... mn Time 4-32

33 4-33 m = ( number of payments per interest conversion period) n = ( number of interest conversion periods) i = ( effective interest rate per conversion period) k m = ( amount of each payment in the k th conversion period) The present value of these payments is: (Ia) (m) n = 1 m [(ν 1 2 m m+1 m+2 2m m + ν m + + ν m ) + 2(ν m + ν m + + ν m ) + + n(ν m(n 1)+1 m + ν m(n 1)+2 m + + ν nm m ) ] = 1 m (ν 1 m + ν 2 m + + ν m m )[1 + 2ν + + nν n 1 ] = 1 ν 1 m (1 ν m m ) m (1 ν 1 m ) ν 1( Ia ) n

34 4-34 = 1 (1 ν)(ä n nν n ) m (ν 1 m 1)(iν) Suppose every payment increases in arithmetic progression with a payment amount of k m 2 made at time t = k. Payment 1 m.. 2m.... mn

35 4-35 The present value of these payments is: (I (m) a) (m) ä (m) nν n n = n i (m). Exercise 4-34 Example: Suppose a deposit of \$1000 is made on the first of the months of January, February and March, \$1,200 at the beginning of each month in the second quarter, \$1,400 at the beginning of each month in the third quarter and \$1,600 each month in the fourth quarter. If the account has a nominal 8% rate of interest compounded quarterly, what is the balance at the end of the year? n = 4 m = 3 i =.08/4 =.02 ν = (1.02) 1 i (3) = 3[(1.02) 1 3 1] = The present value at t = 1 is

36 4-36 ( ) 1 (1.02) 1 (1.02) 4 4 4(1.02) 4 = (1.02) = 9, , = \$14, At t = 0 the value is (1.02) 1 3 (14, ) = \$14, and its value at t = 12 is (1.02) 13 3 (14, ) = \$16, which is the balance at the end of the year.

37 4-37 Exercise 4-38: A perpetuity provides payments every six-months starting today. The first payment is 1 and each payment is 3% greater than the immediately preceding payment. Find the present value of the perpetuity if the effective rate of interest is 8% per annum

38 Section Continuous Annuities with Varying Payments and/or Force of Interest 4-38 The accumulation function a(t) and its reciprocal, the discount function d(t) = 1 a(t) play fundamental roles in the assessment of a series of payments when viewed from some specific time. Consider a series of payments in which p tj denotes a payment made at time t = t j for j = 1, 2,, n. The present value of this series of payments is PV = n j=1 p tj 1 a(t j ) = a(0)pv because a(0) = 1. Likewise consider the future value of this sequence at the final payment, i.e. at t = t n. FV = n j=1 p tj a(t n ) a(t j ) = a(t n ) n j=1 p tj 1 a(t j ) = a(t n )PV.

39 4-39 In general, when assessing the value of the sequence of payments from the perspective of some particular point in time t = t 0, the value is This discussion is used to motivate a generalization of the continuous payment model discussed in section 4.5. In continuous payment settings the payments may not be smeared evenly over the number line (the assumption made in section 4.5). Some points in time may receive payments made at a higher rate than other points. This is described in terms of a function f (t) 0 that expresses the smear of payment over the time line with 0 t n. The smear could take on many shapes as illustrated below.

40 4-40 Pay Rate 0 t t+d n Time

41 The present value of the smear of payment is and the value at any other point in time t = t 0 is Value(t 0 ) = n 0 f (t) a(t 0) a(t) dt = a(t 0)PV. Next attention is focused on the accumulation function a(t). In continuous settings this is most often described in terms of the force of interest function δ t. Recall from section 1.9 that δ t = a (t) a(t) or equivalently a(t) = e t 0 δr dr.

42 4-42 Therefore in terms of the force of interest function, and when examining the payments from any other vision point t = t 0, t0 Value(t 0 ) = = a(t 0 )PV = e 0 δ r dr PV Special Cases: (1) Constant Force of Interest Here δ t = δ for all t. Moreover t a(t) = e 0 δdr = e δ t 0 dr = e δt which produces

43 4-43 (2) Force of Interest and Payment Function both Constant Here δ t = δ and f (t) = 1 for all t. Therefore PV = n 0 e δt dt = 1 δ e δt] n 0 = a result found in section 4.5 where it was noted that n need not be an integer. Moreover if n then PV = a = 1 δ.

44 4-44 (3) Constant Force of Interest and a Linear Payment Function Here δ t = δ and f (t) = t for all t. Therefore using integration by parts PV (I a) n = n 0 = n δ e δn + t e δt dt = t δ e δt] n ( 1 ) δ 2 e δt] n = 1 δ 2 (1 e δn ) n δ e δn δ n 0 e δt dt = 1 δ ( 1 ν n δ nν n) (recalling ν = e δ )

45 4-45 Example: Continuous deposits are made of 100e t/5 for 5 years into an account with a constant force of interest of δ =.05. What is the accumulated value at 5 years? First find the present value at t = 0: PV = 5 0 ( f (t) 1 a(t) ) dt = = = ( e (.15)t dt (.15) e(.15)t] 5 0 ) [ e (.75) 1]

46 4-46 Also, 5 a(5) = e 0 (.05)dr = e (.25) Therefore Value(5) = a(5)pv ( ) 100 [ = e (.25) e (.75) 1].15 = So the balance is \$

47 Exercise 4-43: A one-year deferred continuously varying annuity is payable for 13 years. The rate of payment at time t is t 2 1 per annum, and the force of interest at time t is (1 + t) 1. Find the present value of the annuity

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