# TIME VALUE OF MONEY (TVM)

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1 TIME VALUE OF MONEY (TVM) INTEREST Rate of Return When we know the Present Value (amount today), Future Value (amount to which the investment will grow), and Number of Periods, we can calculate the rate of return with this formula: Example: = The Present Value is \$10,000, the Future Value is \$299,599.22, and there are 30 periods. Confirm that the annual compound interest rate is 12%. FV = 299, PV = 10,000 m = 30 =,., i = i =.12 Page 1 of 15

2 Calculating the Rate (i) in an Ordinary Annuity Using the PVOA equation, we can calculate the interest rate (i) needed to discount a series of equal payments back to the present value. In order to solve for (i), we need to know the present value amount, the amount of the equal payments, and the length of time (n). Exercise #9. Sylvia has an investment account that shows a balance of \$2, on January 1, She wants to make five withdrawals of \$700 each on December 31 of years 2011 through Sylvia wants the account to have a balance of \$0 on December 31, In order to proceed with her plans, what annual interest rate does Sylvia need on her account, assuming that annual interest earnings are added to the principal on December 31 of each year? PVOA= \$2, \$700 \$700 \$700 \$700 \$700 1 year 1 year 1 year 1 year 1 year 1/1/11 12/31/11 12/31/12 12/31/13 12/31/14 12/31/ n = 5 years; i =??% per year Calculation of Exercise #9 using the PVOA Table The interest rate for the ordinary annuity described above can be computed with the following equation: PVOA = PMT times [ PVOA factor for n = 5 years; i =?? per year ] \$2, = \$700 times [ PVOA factor for n = 5 years; i =?? per year ] \$2, / \$700 = [ PVOA factor for n = 5 years; i =?? per year ] = [ PVOA factor for n = 5 years; i =?? per year ] = PVOA factor for n = 5 years; i = 12% per year Let's review this calculation. We insert into the equation the components that we know: the present value, payment amount, and the number of periods. In line four, we calculate our factor to be We now know both the PVOA factor (3.605) and the number of years (n = 5). We go to the PVOA Table and look across the n = 5 row until we come to the factor Tracking up the column, we see that the factor is in the column with the heading of 12%. Since the periods in question are annual periods, the answer of i = 12% means the investment has to earn 12% per year. *12% times the previous account balance Page 2 of 15

3 Exercise #10. Matt is moving to Texas and needs to borrow \$5,616 on January 1, His budget will allow him to make quarterly payments of \$800 on the first day of January, April, July, and October. Matt's loan includes 8 quarterly payments; the first payment is due on April 1, What is the rate (compounded quarterly) that Matt will be paying (and the lender will be receiving) under this arrangement? Before calculating the interest rate, we organize the information on a timeline: PVOA= \$5,616 \$800 \$800 \$800 \$800 \$800 \$ months 3 months 3 months 3 months 3 months 1/1/11 4/1/11 7/1/11 10/1/11 1/1/12 10/1/12 1/1/ n = 8 three-month periods; i =?? per quarter Calculation of Exercise #10 using the PVOA Table The number of periods/payments in the ordinary annuity described above can be computed with the following PVOA equation: PVOA = PMT times [ PVOA factor for n = 8 quarters; i =?? per quarter ] \$5,616 = \$800 times [ PVOA factor for n = 8 quarters; i =?? per quarter ] \$5,616 / \$800 = [ PVOA factor for n = 8 quarters; i =?? per quarter ] 7.02 = [ PVOA factor for n = 8 quarters; i =?? per quarter ] 7.02 = PVOA factor for n = 8 quarters; i = 3% per quarter Let's review this calculation. We insert into the equation the components that we know: the present value, the recurring payment amount, and the number of periods. In line four, we calculate our factor to be We now know both the PVOA factor (7.02) and the number of periods (n = 8). We go to the PVOA Table and look across the n = 8 row until we come to the factor Tracking up the column, we see that we are in the 3% column. Since the periods in question are quarterly periods, the answer of i = 3% means the loan has an annual rate of 12% per year (3% times 4 quarters per year). Page 3 of 15

4 Effective Annual Rate of Interest (Effective Yield) To convert a nominal rate to an equivalent effective rate: = + i = Nominal or stated interest rate m = Number of compounding periods per year Example: What effective rate will a stated annual rate of 6% yield when compounded semi-annually? = +. =. Continuous compounding Where e = = Example: Find the value at the end of 2 years of Fred Moreno s R100 deposit in an account paying 8% annual interest compounded continuously. =.. =. Page 4 of 15

5 Present value of a Perpetuity = Example: Ross Clark wishes to endow a chair in finance at his alma mater. The university indicated that it requires R per year to support the chair, and the endowment would earn 10% per year. Determine the amount Ross must give the university to fund the chair. =. Mixed Stream = Use ordinary present value or future value formulas for each stream and then sum them up. Page 5 of 15

6 NUMBER OF PERIODS You can determine the number of periods required for an initial investment to grow to a specified amount with this formula: = + PV = present value, the amount you invested FV = future value, the amount your investment will grow to i = interest per period Example: You put \$10,000 into a savings account at a 9.05% annual interest rate compounded annually. How long will it take to double your investment? =,.,.. =. n = 8 years Annuity Payments Calculate Payments When Present Value Is Known The Present Value is an amount that you have now, such as the price of property that you have just purchased or the value of equipment that you have leased. When you know the present value, interest rate, and number of periods of an ordinary annuity, you can solve for the payment with this formula: =, Page 6 of 15

7 PVA = Present Value of an ordinary annuity (payments are made at the end of each period) i = interest per period n = number of periods Example: You can get a \$150,000 home mortgage at 7% annual interest rate for 30 years. Payments are due at the end of each month and interest is compounded monthly. How much will your payments be? PVA = 150,000, the loan amount i = interest per month (.07 / 12) n = 360 periods (12 payments per year for 30 years) payment = Calculate Payments When Future Value Is Known The Future Value is an amount that you wish to have after a number of periods have passed. For example, you may need to accumulate \$20,000 in ten years to pay for college tuition. When you know the future value, interest rate, and number of periods of an ordinary annuity, you can solve for the payment with this formula: =, FVA = Future Value of an ordinary annuity (payments are made at the end of each period) i = interest per period n = number of periods Example: In 10 years, you will need \$50,000 to pay for college tuition. Your savings account pays 5% interest compounded monthly. How much should you save each month to reach your goal? FVA = 50,000, the future savings goal i = interest per month (.05 / 12) n = 120 periods (12 payments per year for 10 years) payment = Page 7 of 15

8 PRESENT VALUE Present Value Of A Single Amount The relationship between the present value and future value can be expressed as: = + Table use =, PV = Present Value FV = Future Value i = Interest Rate Per Period n = Number of Compounding Periods m = Compounding periods per year Example: You want to buy a house 5 years from now for \$150,000. Assuming a 6% interest rate compounded annually, how much should you invest today to yield \$150,000 in 5 years? FV = 150,000 i =.06 n = 5 m = 1 =, +. =,. Page 8 of 15

9 Present Value of a Mixed Stream Finding the present value of a mixed stream of cash flows is similar to finding the future value of a mixed stream. We determine the present value of each future amount and then add all the individual present values together to find the total present value. Present Value of Annuities The Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity could be solved by calculating the present value of each payment in the series using the present value formula and then summing the results. A more direct formula is: Page 9 of 15

10 =, PVA = Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity PMT = Amount of each payment i = Discount Rate Per Period n = Number of Periods Example 1: What amount must you invest today at 6% compounded annually so that you can withdraw \$5,000 at the end of each year for the next 5 years? PMT = 5,000 i =.06 n = 5 Use tables =,, PVA = 21, Application: Loan amortization =, Example: You want to determine the equal annual end-of-year payments necessary to amortise fully a R6000, 10% interest loan over 4 years. =. Page 10 of 15

11 Present Value of an Annuity Due The Present Value of an Annuity Due is identical to an ordinary annuity except that each payment occurs at the beginning of a period rather than at the end. Since each payment occurs one period earlier, we can calculate the present value of an ordinary annuity and then multiply the result by (1 + i). PMT = Payments i = Discount Rate Per Period =, + Example: What amount must you invest today a 6% interest rate compounded annually so that you can withdraw \$5,000 at the beginning of each year for the next 5 years? PMT = 5,000 i =.06 n = 5 =,. Page 11 of 15

12 FUTURE VALUE Future Value Of A Single Amount Future Value is the amount of money that an investment made today (the present value) will grow to by some future date. Since money has time value, we naturally expect the future value to be greater than the present value. The difference between the two depends on the number of compounding periods involved and the going interest rate. The relationship between the future value and present value can be expressed as: Formula: = + Using tables =, FV = Future Value PV = Present Value i = Interest Rate Per Period n = Number of Compounding Periods m = Compounding periods per year Example: You can afford to put \$10,000 in a savings account today that pays 6% interest compounded annually. How much will you have 5 years from now if you make no withdrawals? PV = 10,000 i =.06 n = 5 m = 1 FV = 13, Page 12 of 15

13 Example 2: Another financial institution offers to pay 6% compounded semiannually. How much will your \$10,000 grow to in five years at this rate? Interest is compounded twice per year so you must divide the annual interest rate by two to obtain a rate per period of 3%. Since there are two compounding periods per year, you must multiply the number of years by two to obtain the total number of periods. PV = 10,000 i =.06 / 2 =.03 n = 5 * 2 = 10 FV = 13, Future Value of Annuities The Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity could be solved by calculating the future value of each individual payment in the series using the future value formula and then summing the results. A more direct formula is: =, FVA = Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity PMT = Amount of each payment i = Interest Rate Per Period n = Number of Periods Example: What amount will accumulate if we deposit \$5,000 at the end of each year for the next 5 years? Assume an interest of 6% compounded annually. PV = 5,000 i =.06 n = 5 =,. Page 13 of 15

14 Application: Deposits needed to accumulate a future sum =, Example: You want to determine the equal annual end-of-year deposits required to accumulate R30000 at the end of 5 years, given an interest rate of 6%. =. Future Value of an Annuity Due The Future Value of an Annuity Due is identical to an ordinary annuity except that each payment occurs at the beginning of a period rather than at the end. Since each payment occurs one period earlier, we can calculate the present value of an ordinary annuity and then multiply the result by (1 + i)., =, + Example: What amount will accumulate if we deposit \$5,000 at the beginning of each year for the next 5 years? Assume an interest of 6% compounded annually. PV = 5,000 i =.06 n = 5, =,. Future Value of a Mixed Stream Determining the future value of a mixed stream of cash flows is straightforward. We determine the future value of each cash flow at the specified future date and then add all the individual future values to find the total future value. Page 14 of 15

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