# Payment streams and variable interest rates

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1 Chapter 4 Payment streams and variable interest rates In this chapter we consider two extensions of the theory Firstly, we look at payment streams A payment stream is a payment that occurs continuously, just like the stream of water out of a tap We model this as the limit of the following sequence: annual payments, monthly payments, weekly payments, daily payments, hourly payments, payments every minute, payments every second, et cetera Mathematically speaking, we are taking the limit p Secondly, we look at variable interest rates In combination with continuous payment streams, this give us the most general framework for cash flows This is used in second- and third-year finance modules to price complicated financial instruments like options 41 The force of interest A long time ago, in Example 153, we computed that a nominal rate of 8% pa payable quarterly corresponds to an effective rate of 8243% pa As shown in Figure 14, this means that a series of four payments of 2 each at the end of every quarter is equivalent to a single payment of 8243 at the end of the year The 8 other results in Example 153 show that a series of twelve payments of 12 = 2 3 each at the end of every month is equivalent to a single payment of 83 at 8 the end of the year, that a series of 52 payments of 52 each at the end of every week is equivalent to a single payment of 8322 at the end of the year, and 8 that a series of 365 payments of 365 each at the end of every day equivalent to a single payment of 8328 at the end of the year More generally, a series of p payments of i (p /p each at the end of every period of 1/p year equivalent to a single payment of p i = (1 + i(p 1 p at the end of the year As the conversion period gets shorter, p gets larger, and it looks like the effective rate tends to a limiting value In the limit, the interest is paid continuously Although this is essentially a theoretical concept, MATH151 65

2 it is important both for conceptual reasons and as an approximation for when the conversion period is short To study this limit, we fix the effective interest rate i and let p go to infinity Remember that the nominal rate i (p is given by ( i (p = p (1 + i 1/p 1 (41 We want to compute the limit of this quantity as p To this end, we introduce h = 1/p, the length of the period between two interest payments (p is the number of interest payments per year Substituting this in (41, we find i (1/h = 1 h ( (1 + i 1/h 1 If p goes to infinity, then h = 1/p goes to zero, so the limit we want to compute is lim p i(p = lim i (1/h (1 + i 1/h 1 = lim h h h Now comes the smart bit Recall the definition of the derivative of a function f at a point x : df dx (x = lim f(x + h f(x h h If we take f(x = (1 + i x and x =, then we get precisely the limit we want to compute! Turning this around, we find that lim p i(p = lim i (1/h (1 + i 1/h 1 = lim = d h h h dx (1 + ix x= You can get the same result with l Hôpital s rule for limits, if you know that However the result is arrived at, we now have to find the derivative of f(x = (1+i x To differentiate this function, rewrite it as f(x = e x log(1+i, so f (x = log(1 + i e x log(1+i = log(1 + i(1 + i x and f ( = log(1 + i Thus, lim p i(p = d dx (1 + ix x= = log(1 + i We may refer to lim p i (p as the nominal rate payable continuously, but in practice another term is used to refer to this quantity Definition 411 The force of interest, denoted δ, is the limit of the nominal interest rate i (p as p The computation above gives us the relation between the force of interest δ and effective interest rate i: δ = log(1 + i (42 We can also write this relation as i = e δ 1 If we put δ = 8 in here, as in Example 153, we get i = e 8 1 = Indeed, the AERs in the answer tend to a limiting rate of 82387% As a side note, if we take the limit p in (15, we get ( 1 + i = lim 1 + δ p, p p 66 MATH151

3 i t = t = 1 d t = t = 1 i (p p t = 1/p 2/p t = 1 d (p p t = 1/p 2/p t = 1 t = δ t = 1 Figure 41: The following five situations are equivalent: A payment of i at the end of the year, a payment of d at the beginning of the year, a series of p payments of i (p /p each at the end of every 1/p of a year, a series of p payments of d (p /p each at the beginning of every 1/p of a year, and a continuous payment for one year at rate δ per year This extends Figure 14, in which only the first four situations were given and above we found that 1 + i = e δ We thus arrive at ( 1 + p δ p = e δ lim p This is one of the standard limits We have now defined five standard symbols: i, d, i (p, d (p and δ A concise summary of their definitions is given in Figure 41 The figure shows five equivalent ways to pay interest on a principal of 1 The first four rows have already been explained in the previous section The last row shows a continuous payment stream, lasting one time unit, with rate δ per time unit The equivalence of these payments lead to the following algebraic relations, which follow from (13, (15, (17 and (42: i = e δ 1, i (p = p ( e δ/p 1, (43 d = 1 e δ, d (p = p ( 1 e δ/p (44 MATH151 67

4 Assuming that the interest rate is positive, the rates are ordered as Exercises d < d (2 < d (3 < < δ < < i (3 < i (2 < i 1 Given that δ = 8, find the values of i, d, and v 2 Given that d = 8, find the values of v, i, and δ 3 Given that i = 8, find the values of v, d, and δ 4 Given that v = 95, find the values of d, i, and δ 42 Annuities paid continuously The concept of a continuous payment stream can also be applied to annuities An annuity paid continuously is a payment stream with a constant rate that lasts for a specified period of time As with the other annuities, we are interested in the present and accumulated value of annuties paid continuously Definition 421 Consider a payment stream lasting for n time units with a rate of one unit of capital per time unit The present value of this stream at the start (t = is denoted by ā n and the future value at the end (t = n is denoted by s n Formulas for ā n and s n are derived by taking the limits of a (p n p : ā n = lim p a(p n = lim 1 v n = 1 vn, p i (p δ s n = lim p s(p n = lim (1 + i n 1 = (1 + in 1, p i (p δ and s (p n as (45 where the final equality follows from δ = lim p i (p, see Definition 411 The formulas for ā n and s n differ from those for a n and s n only in that the formulas for annuities payable continuously have the force of interest δ in the denominator, whereas the formulas for standard annuities have the interest rate i in the denominator The reason for this is that in one year, an annuity payable continuously consists of a payment stream over the entire year and a standard annuity consists of a single payment at the end of the year If the payment stream has rate δ and the payment at the end of the year is i, then these payments are equivalent, as was found in the previous section (see Figure 41 Thus, an annuity immediate with annual payments of i is equivalent to an annuity payable continuously with rate δ, so ia n = δā n and is n = δ s n There is no need to distinguish between annuities immediate and annuities due for annuities payable continuously Indeed, an annuity due payable pthly is the same as an annuity immediate payable pthly moved forward in time by 1/p time units As p, the annuity payable pthly becomes an annuity payable continuously and the time shift tends to zero Algebraically, this follows from lim p i (p = lim p d (p = δ As an illustration, let us continue Example 313 in which we looked at a constructor that is building a house 68 MATH151

5 Example 422 (Continuation of Example 313 As before, the contractor has to pay 15, at t = to purchase the land and 25, at t = 1 4 to purchase the materials The house is also still sold for 75, at t = 3 4 The difference is that the 3, salary for the workers is not paid at once (at t = 1 12, but continously from the time the ground is purchased (at t = until the house is sold (at t = 3 4 This continous payment forms an annuity paid continuously lasting for three quarters of a year The salary is 3, over three quarters, so the rate is 4, pounds per year Thus the present value of the workers salary is 4ā 3/4 Using equation (45, we find that ā 3/4 = 1 v3/4 δ = 1 (1 + i 3/4 log(1 + i Thus, the net present value of the whole project is (1 + i 3/4 log(1 + i If the interest rate is 6%, then this is 25(1 + i 1/4 + 75(1 + i 3/4 ( = 2858 This is higher than the net present value for the situation before in Example 313, where the workers were paid at t = 1 12 There, we found that the net present value was Loosely speaking, the payments to the workers are later on average when they are paid continuously from t = to t = 3 4 than when they are paid at once at t = 1 12 Thus, these payments are discounted by more when the workers are paid continuously, and this causes the net present value to increase from to 2858 Exercises 1 (From the CT1 exam, April 8; quite difficult An investor is considering investing in a capital project The project requires an outlay of 5, at outset and further payments at the end of each of the first 5 years, the first payment being 1, and each successive payment increasing by 1, The project is expected to provide a continuous income at a rate of 8, in the first year, 83,2 in the second year and so on, with income increasing each year by 4per annum compound The income is received for 25 years It is assumed that, at the end of 15 years, a further investment of 3, will be required and that the project can be sold to another investor for 7, at the end of 25 years (a Calculate the net present value of the project at a rate of interest of 11% per annum effective (b Without doing any further calculations, explain how the net present value would alter if the interest rate had been greater than 11% per annum effective MATH151 69

6 43 Variable interest rates All the discussion up to now assumes that the interest rate stays constant However, this is not a realistic assumption In this section we consider situations in which the interest rate varies We start with a simple example Example 431 Suppose you invest 2 dollars in an account that pays 4% interest in the first year, 5% in the second year, and 6% in the third year How much do you have at the end of the third year? Answer You have (1+4 2 = 28 dollars after the first year, ( = 2184 dollars after the second year, and ( = dollars after the third year The following computation is not valid: the average rate is 5%, and \$2 at 5% over three years accumulates to ( = dollars Indeed, though the result is close to the correct answer, it is not the same We now consider a general model which covers the above example, but also simple and compound interest with constant rate The central quantity in this model is the accumulation factor Definition 432 The accumulation factor A(t 1, t 2 is the amount that one unit of principal at time t 1 accumulates to at time t 2 In Example 431, a principal of \$2 at time t = accumulates to \$28 at time t = 1, so the accumulation factor over this period is A(, 1 = 28 2 = 14, corresponding to an interest rate of 4% Similarly, A(, 3 = = Two examples are particularly important The accumulation factor for simple interest with constant rate i is given by A(t 1, t 2 = 1 + i(t 2 t 1 (47 The accumulation factor for compound interest with constant rate i is given by A(t 1, t 2 = (1 + i t2 t1 (48 As we discussed at the end of Section 11, simple interest is not consistent in that you receive less interest if you put money in an account for two years than if you put money in one account for a year and then take it out with interest and put it in another account for a year On the other hand, you get the same amount if compound interest is used We say that the principle of consistency holds with compound interest Definition 433 An accumulation function A satisfies the principle of consistency if the equation A(t 1, t 2 A(t 2, t 3 = A(t 1, t 3 holds for all values of t 1, t 2, and t 3 For instance, with compound interest we have: and A(t 1, t 2 A(t 2, t 3 = (1 + i t2 t1 (1 + i t3 t2 = (1 + i t3 t1, A(t 1, t 3 = (1 + i t3 t1, 7 MATH151

7 so A(t 1, t 2 A(t 2, t 3 = A(t 1, t 3 for all t 1, t 2, and t 3 On the other hand, with simple interest we have: A(t 1, t 2 A(t 2, t 3 = ( 1 + (t 2 t 1 i ( 1 + (t 3 t 2 i and A(t 1, t 3 = 1 + (t 3 t 1 i, = 1 + (t 3 t 1 i + (t 3 t 2 (t 2 t 1 i 2, which are not equal in general, so simple interest does not satisfy the principle of consistency Unless stated otherwise, we assume that A satisfies the principle of consistency We proceed to generalize the definitions of the quantities i, i (p, δ, v, d and d (p from the previous sections to arbitrary accumulation functions One unit of capital at time t accumulates to A(t, t + 1 in one time period Thus, the effective interest rate per unit time under the accumulation function A is given by i(t = A(t, t In general, the effective interest rate depends on the time t In Example 431, we have i( = 4, i(1 = 5 and i(2 = 6 Given the principle of consistency, the accumulation function over a whole number n of time periods can be expressed in terms of the interest rates: A(, n = A(, 1 A(1, 2 A(2, 3 A(n 1, n = ( 1 + i( ( 1 + i(1 ( 1 + i(2 (1 + i(n 1 (49 The nominal interest rate per unit time for a term h is the effective interest rate over the term h divided by the length of the term: i h (t = A(t, t + h 1 h This is related to nominal rate payable pthly, i (p, as defined in Definition 152, by i (p = i 1/p Furthermore, we have i = i 1 = i (1 The force of interest is found by taking the limit as h : A(t, t + h 1 δ(t = lim i h (t = lim h h h The accumulation function associated to compound interest is given in (48, A(t 1, t 2 = (1 + i t2 t1, so (1 + i h 1 δ(t = lim = d ( (1 + i t t= = d h h dt dt et log(1+i t= = e t log(1+i log(1 + i = log(1 + i, t= where we used the definition of derivatives to evaluate the limit This is another derivation for the relation δ = log(1+i which we found before in Equation (42 The relations (43 and (44 at the end of Section 41 may be understood more easily in this context MATH151 71

8 We can now model the situation of Example 431, where the interest rate was 4% in the first year, 5% in the second year, and 6% in the third year, more rigorously as: log(14, if t [, 1, δ(t = log(15, if t [1, 2, log(16, if t [2, 3 It can be argued that the force of interest should be considered as the fundamental quantity Suppose that the principle of consistency holds and that A is a differentiable function Define f(t = A(, t Then, A(t, t + h 1 δ(t = lim h h = 1 A(, t lim h A(, t A(t, t + h A(, t h 1 = A(, t lim A(, t + h A(, t h h = 1 f(t lim f(t + h f(t h h = f (t f(t, where we used the principle of consistency on the third line Thus, f satisfies the differential equation f (t = δ(ff(t Furthermore, f( = A(, = 1 by the consistency principle The solution of this differential equation is ( t f(t = exp δ(τ dτ We can find A(t 1, t 2 by noting that A(t 1, t 2 = A(t 1, A(, t 2 = A(,t2 A(,t 1 the consistency principle, and thus A(t 1, t 2 = f(t 2 f(t 1 ( t2 exp δ(τ dτ = ( t1 exp δ(τ dτ = exp = exp ( t2 ( t2 t 1 δ(τ dτ δ(τ dτ t1 δ(τ dτ Thus, the accumulation function can be found in terms of the force of interest: ( t2 A(t 1, t 2 = exp δ(τ dτ (41 This can be seen as a continuous version of (49 The effective rate of interest and the nominal rate of interest are both defined in terms of A In a sense, the force of interest can be seen as the most fundamental quantity t 1 by 72 MATH151

9 Example 434 Stoodley s formula for the force of interest is s δ(t = p re st, where p, r and s are constants What is the accumulation factor A(, t? Answer Applying (41 yields ( t s A(, t = exp p + dτ 1 + resτ ( t = exp p + s rsest dτ 1 + resτ = exp ( [ (p + sτ log(1 + re sτ = exp ( (p + st log(1 + re st + log(1 + r = e (p+st 1 + r 1 + re st Stoodley s formula is sometimes used to model gradually increasing or decreasing interest rates, because the integral can be evaluated exactly Exercises 1 The effective rate of interest per annum on a certain building society account is at present 7% but in two years time it will be reduced to 6% Find the accumulation in five years time of 4 in this account 2 (From the 21 exam (a A capital of 1 at time t = grows to 11 at t = 2, while a capital of 1 at t = 2 grows to 12 at t = 5 Assume that the principle of consistency holds Compute the accumulated value at t = 5 of a payment of 5 at t =, showing clearly where the principle of consistency is used (b Assume in addition to the data in question (a that the force of interest varies according to δ(t = a + bt Show that a and that b (c Compute the present value at t = of a payment of 5 due at t = 3, assuming that the force of interest varies as in question (b (d An annuity pays 75 at t = 1, t = 2 and t = 3 Compute its present value at t =, assuming that the force of interest varies as in question (b 3 (From the CT1 exam, September 8 The force of interest, δ(t, is a function of time and at any time t, measured in years, is given by the formula: { 5 + 2t, for t 5; δ(t = 15, for t > 5 (a Calculate the present value of 1, due at the end of 12 years (b Calculate the annual effective rate of discount implied by the transaction in (a ] t MATH151 73

10 44 Cash flows in full generality In Section 31 we looked at cash flows, irregular sequences of payments The main formula from that section is (31: the value at tim t of a cash flow consisting of payments P k at time t k is (1 + i t t k P k k We may also incorporate continuous payment streams in the framework Furthermore, the rate of the stream may vary Say that the rate is given by ρ(t As before, a positive ρ indicates income and a negative ρ indicates expenditure Now consider the period between time t and t + t, with t small In this period, the payment stream pays approximately ( t ρ(t, because the rate is the amount paid divided by the length of the period The value of this payment at time t is approximately (1 + i t t ( t ρ(t If we sum up the values of all these payments and then take the limit t, we get the integral of (1 + i t t ρ(t Thus, we find that the value of varying payment stream at time t equals (1 + i t t ρ(t dt (411 We will not concern ourselves with convergence issues A special case is annuities payable continuously Definition 421 states that ā n denotes the value at time t = of a payment stream with rate 1 lasting from t = to t = n This can be brought in the framework considered here by defining the rate ρ(t as { 1, if < t n; ρ(t =, if t or t > n Then, ā n is the present value at t = of the payment stream with rate ρ(t Substituting this in (411 yields ā n = (1 + i t ρ(t dt = [ 1 = log(1 + i = n ] n log(1+i e t (1 + i t dt = = [ (1 + i t log(1 + i (1 + i (1 + i n 1 (1 + i n = log(1 + i log(1 + i log(1 + i n ] n e t log(1+i dt = 1 vn δ This is the same expression for ā n as we found earlier in Section 421 Some situations combine discrete and continuous cash flows Suppose that there are (discrete payments of P k at time t k, and also a continuous payment stream with rate ρ(t The value of the combined cash flow at time t = t is (1 + i t t k P k + k (1 + i t t ρ(t dt (412 This is a combination of (31 and (411 A further generalization is that the interest rate may also vary This was analyzed in the previous section, where 74 MATH151

11 we introduced the accumulation function A(t 1, t 2 The value of the combined discrete/continuous cash flow in this setting is P k A(t k, t + ρ(ta(t, t dt Compound interest with a constant interest rate i has accumulation function A(t 1, t 2 = (1 + i t2 t1, and substitution of this in the formula above retrieves (412 Exercises 1 (From the CT1 exam, April 8 The force of interest, δ(t, is a function of time and at any time t, measured in years, is given by the formula: 6, t 4; δ(t = 1 1t 4 < t 7; 1t 4 7 < t (a Calculate the value at time t = 5 of 1, due for payment at time t = 1 (b Calculate the constant rate of interest per annum convertible monthly which leads to the same result as in (a being obtained (c Calculate the accumulated amount at time t = 12 of a payment stream, paid continuously from time t = to t = 4, under which the rate of payment at time t is ρ(t = 1e 2t Success with the exam!!! MATH151 75

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