Cu soil-plant-animal cyclus: factors associated with bovine Cu status at the Gilgel Gibe valley, Ethiopia

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1 Cu soil-plant-animal cyclus: factors associated with bovine Cu status at the Gilgel Gibe valley, Ethiopia V. Dermauw, T. Van Hecke, K. Yisehak, G. Du Laing, E. Van Ranst, G. P. J. Janssens

2 Gilgel Gibe valley adapted with permission from Van Ranst et al., 2011)

3 Cu deficiency Cu Mo Fe PRIMARY Copper deficiency SECONDARY S Zn

4 Cu shortage at Gilgel Gibe valley Altitude influence (Dermauw et al., 2009): Cu Generally: Low Cu plasma High Fe en Zn plasma Cu But variation within altitude regions Objectives research: 1. Estimation prevalence Cu deficiency 2. Identification other factors responsible variability Cu status

5 % 1. Estimation prevalence Cu deficiency 50,00 45,00 40,00 35,00 30,00 25,00 20,00 15,00 10,00 5,00 0,00 Clinically deficient Deficient Marginal Adequate Evaluation hepatic Cu status Liver samples (53): 81% at least marginally Cu deficient Important problem!

6 2. Identification other factors responsible variability Cu status 3 REGIONS (altitude) adapted with permission from Van Ranst et al. (2011) - 19 cows - 1 observation day / cow

7 Factors? ANIMAL Evaluation Cu status: plasma Range management Covered distance (GPS) PLANT Botanical composition diet: Observation ingested plant species every 10 minutes Mineral composition diet: 66 plant samples SOIL Soil type (observation)

8 Soil type

9 Soil type Planosol / Vertisol Classification soils: FAO (World Reference Base for Soil Resources) - Associated with Wetlands - Non-diverse vegetation

10 Soil type Planosol / Vertisol -Typical communal grazing - Large herds - Larger distances (4.14 km) Classificatie bodems: FAO (World Reference Base for Soil Resources)

11 Soil type Nitisol / Ferralsol Nitisol / Ferralsol Classification bodems: FAO (World Reference Base for Soil Resources) - Well drained - Variable plants

12 Soil type Nitisol / Ferralsol Nitisol / Ferralsol Classificatie bodems: FAO (World Reference Base for Soil Resources) - Typical individual grazing - Small herds - Smaller distances (1.88 km)

13 Influence soil type on mineral composition of the diet Calculations based on: 1. Botanical composition diet (observation) Planosol/Vertisol Nitisol/Ferralsol 2. Mineral content 66 plant samples

14 Influence soil type on mineral composition of the diet Cu (ppm) Mo (ppm) Cu:Mo Fe (ppm) Zn (ppm) S (%) Planosol/ Vertisol Nitisol/ Ferralsol Requir. > 10 < 1 > > marginally deficient, adequate, marginally antagonistic, severely antagonistic, above MTC, requir. = requirements for beef cattle according to NRC (2000)

15 Influence soil type on mineral composition of the diet Cu (ppm) Mo (ppm) Cu:Mo Fe (ppm) Zn (ppm) S (%) Planosol/ Vertisol Nitisol/ Ferralsol Requir. > 10 < 1 > > marginally deficient, adequate, marginally antagonistic, severely antagonistic, above MTC, requir. = requirements for beef cattle according to NRC (2000)

16 Influence soil type on mineral composition of the diet Cu (ppm) Mo (ppm) Cu:Mo Fe (ppm) Zn (ppm) S (%) Planosol/ Vertisol Nitisol/ Ferralsol Requir. > 10 < 1 > > marginally deficient, adequate, marginally antagonistic, severely antagonistic, above MTC, requir. = requirements for beef cattle according to NRC (2000)

17 Influence soil type on mineral composition of the diet Cu (ppm) Mo (ppm) Cu:Mo Fe (ppm) Zn (ppm) S (%) Planosol/ Vertisol Nitisol/ Ferralsol Requir. > 10 < 1 > > marginally deficient, adequate, marginally antagonistic, severely antagonistic, above MTC, requir. = requirements for beef cattle according to NRC (2000)

18 Influence soil type on mineral composition of the diet Cu (ppm) Mo (ppm) Cu:Mo Fe (ppm) Zn (ppm) S (%) Planosol/ Vertisol Nitisol/ Ferralsol Requir. > 10 < 1 > > marginally deficient, adequate, marginally antagonistic, severely antagonistic, above MTC, requir. = requirements for beef cattle according to NRC (2000)

19 Which factors influence Cu status? No relationship Cu status and dietary Cu Higher Mo-values diet trend towards association with lower Cu status

20 Which factors influence Cu status? Higher proportion of added crop residues association with higher Cu status

21 Which factors influence Cu status? No clear relationship with other management and environmental factors Although cattle grazing at wetlands lower Cu status

22 Rationale behind lower bovine Cu status on wetlands Animal Cu-status Plant Concentration Cu Mo Soil Bioavailability Cu Mo

23 Cu deficiency at the Gilgel Gibe valley Cu Mo Fe PRIMARY SECUNDARY S Zn Copper deficiency

24 Cu deficiency at the Gilgel Gibe valley Cu Mo Fe PRIMARY SECUNDARY S Zn Copper deficiency

25 Cu deficiency at the Gilgel Gibe valley Cu Mo Fe PRIMARY SECUNDARY SEVERE S Zn Copper deficiency

26 Thank you for your attention. Any questions?

27 Suggestions to improve Cu status Supplement with CuSO 4 Expensive! Avoid wetlands pasture shortage, hence difficult. Possibly grazing of gestating cows (lower Cu status) on different pasture Draining wetlands difficult to achieve Making hay of grasses will lower Mo-toxicity sometimes difficult due to overgrazing of range land

28 Suggestions to improve Cu status Feeding of Psidium guajava (A) en Vernonia adoensis (B) High Cu and normal concentrations of antagonists Avoid leaves of Ensete ventricosum (C) Toxic Mo concentrations Further research is necessary

29 Function of copper in cattle

30 Evaluation of forages

31 Evaluation of bovine status

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