1 STATISTICAL PROFILE OF CAPE BRETON Prepared By: Nova Scotia Federation of Agriculture
2 1.0 Introduction Agriculture in the Local Economy Agriculture in Cape Breton is characterized by a diversity of farm production activities including livestock, horticultural crop and vegetable crop farms. The direct economic impact of these activities is significant. In 2000, agriculture in Cape Breton generated close to $21million in farm receipts or about 4.5% of all receipts in Nova Scotia. Operating expenses associated with farms in Cape Breton and Victoria Counties during the same year amounted to approximately $17 million or 4.3% of all Nova Scotia farm operating expenses. Farm businesses have a strong local orientation they both buy and sell in their local community. Indeed, the farm sector creates significant economic activity in the city of Sydney, which acts as a service centre for the approximately 244 farms located in the four counties. Agrirelated businesses located in the city of Sydney include processors, retailers, wholesalers and contractors. The port of Sydney also introduces a potential for direct export of many commodities. The total direct and indirect jobs associated with agriculture and their linkage to other industrial sectors in Cape Breton is conservatively estimated at 595, or approximately 1% of all jobs in the local economy. Given the availability of prime agricultural soils, the current level of farm production and the established agri-related business infrastructure that exists in Cape Breton it is evident that agriculture will continue to be a significant economic activity and land use on the island of Cape Breton for many years to come.
4 1.1 Population and Population Change Between 1996 and 2001 the total population of Cape Breton declined by 6.8%, dropping from 158,271 to 147,454 (Table A). The only area of Cape Breton to experience a population increase was Subdivision C of Inverness, whose population increased by only.4%. The overall rate of population decrease for the was much higher than the provincial average of -0.1%. Table A: Population of Cape Breton and Census Subdivisions, % change Cape Breton 158, , % Cape Breton 117, , % Cape Breton Regional Municipality 114, , % Inverness 20,918 19, % Subdivision A 6,595 6, % Subdivision B 6,132 5, % Subdivision C 3,808 3, % Town of Port Hawkesbury (urban) 3,809 3, % Richmond 11,022 10, % Subdivision A 4,437 4, % Subdivision B 2,074 1, % Subdivision C 4,161 3, % Victoria 8,482 7, % Subdivision A 3,595 3, % Subdivision B 4,439 4, % Source: Statistics Canada Economic Profile In 2001 Cape Breton had a total experienced labour force 1 of 59,475, which represents 13.44% of the total experienced labour force of Nova Scotia (Table B). Table B: Cape Breton, Experienced Labour Force by Industry, 2001 Industry Nova Scotia Cape Breton %of Nova Scotia's ELF %of Cape Breton's ELF Total - Experienced labour force (ELF) 442,095 59, % % Agriculture 8, % 1.0% Other resource-based industries 20,630 4, % 7.6% 1 Refers to persons 15 years and over, excluding institutional residents, who were employed or unemployed during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day, and who had last worked for pay or in selfemployment in either 2000 or 2001.
5 Manufacturing and construction industries 70,955 8, % 14.4% Wholesale and retail trade 71,085 9, % 15.5% Finance and real estate 20,620 1, % 3.0% Health and education 80,700 12, % 21.7% Business services 70,270 8, % 13.6% Other services 99,790 13, % 23.2% Figure 1: % of Experienced Labour Force by Industry: Cape Breton vs. Nova Scotia, % 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% Cape Breton Nova Scotia 5.00% 0.00% Agriculture Other resource-based industries Manufacturing and construction industries 1.3 Agricultural Profile of Cape Breton Number of Farms Wholesale and retail trade Finance and real estate Health and education Business services Other services In 2001, the total number of reported farms in Cape Breton was 244 (7% of total farms in province), which was up from the 236 farms reported in Beef (31.56%), miscellaneous specialty 3 (23.8%), Dairy (14.3%), and Field Crop Farms (9.4%) are the leading farm types in Cape Breton. From the amount of Dairy and Miscellaneous specialty farms decreased while Beef and Field Crop farms added gains (Table C). 4 2 In 1996 and 2001, the Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture defined a census farm as an agricultural operation that produces at least one of the following products intended for sale: crops (hay, field crops, tree fruits or nuts, berries or grapes, vegetables, seed); livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, game animals, other livestock); poultry (hens, chickens, turkeys, chicks, game birds, other poultry); animal products (milk or cream, eggs, wool, furs, meat); or other agricultural products (Christmas trees, greenhouse or nursery products, mushrooms, sod, honey, maple syrup products). 3 Miscellaneous specialty includes greenhouse flower and plant production, bulbs, shrubs, trees, sod, ornamentals, mushroom houses, honey production, maple syrup production, deer, mink, etc. 4 Farm typing is a procedure that classifies each census farm according to the predominant type of
6 Table C: Cape Breton, Total number of Farms by Farm Type, Farm type # of farms % of total # of farms % of total Dairy % % Cattle (Beef) % % Hog 0 0.0% 1 0.4% Poultry and egg 6 2.5% 4 1.6% Wheat 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Grain and oilseed (except wheat) 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Field crop (except grain and oilseed) % % Fruit % % Miscellaneous specialty % % Livestock combination 6 2.5% 4 1.6% Vegetable % 8 3.3% Other combination 5 2.1% % Total farms % % Source: Statistics Canada, 1996, 2001 Cape Breton has a much higher ratio of Beef farms when comparing it to the entire province (Figure 2). Table D shows that the highest proportion of these types of farms is found in Inverness. production. This is done by estimating the potential receipts from the inventories of crops and livestock reported on the questionnaire and determining the product or group of products that make up the majority of the estimated receipts. For example, a census farm with total potential receipts of 60% from hogs, 20% from beef cattle and 20% from wheat, would be classified as a hog farm. This farm type classification, referred to as "historical," is based on the Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC). 5 Total number of farms reporting total gross farm receipts greater than $2,499. In 1996 the total number of farms reporting total gross farm receipts less than $2,499 was 50; in 2001 the number was 43.
7 Figure 2: % of Total Farms by Farm Type: Cape Breton vs. Nova Scotia, % 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% Cape Breton Nova Scotia 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Dairy Cattle (Beef) Hog Poultry and egg Wheat Grain and oilseed (except wheat) Field crop (except grain and oilseed) Fruit Miscellaneous speciality Livestock combination Vegetable Other combination Table D: Total Number of Farms by Farm Type by, Farm Type Nova Scotia Cape Breton Cape Breton Inverness Richmond Victoria Total Farms Dairy Cattle (Beef) Hog Poultry and egg Wheat Grain and oilseed (except wheat) Field crop (except grain and oilseed) Fruit Miscellaneous specialty Livestock combination Vegetable Other combination Total number of farms reporting total gross farm receipts greater than $2,499. In 2001 the total number of farms reporting total gross farm receipts less than $2,499 was 43.
8 Farm Revenue Cape Breton reported close to $21 million in farm receipts in 2000, which increased from close to $19 million in 1995 (Table E). In 2000, the farm receipts in Cape Breton made up 4.5% of the total farm receipts in the province. The average farm receipts in Cape Breton increased from $66,025 to $72,780 between 1995 and Table E: Total Farm Receipts for Cape Breton and Nova Scotia, % change Nova Scotia $384,333,174 $460,424, % Cape Breton $18,883,237 $20,890, % Cape Breton $7,694,241 $8,616, % Inverness $9,189,992 $10,564, % Richmond $533,828 $630, % Victoria $1,465,176 $1,079, % Source: Statistics Canada, 1996, 2001 The Cape Breton Regional Municipality reported over 40% of the total farm receipts in Cape Breton, while Subdivision B of Inverness had the highest receipt per farm average at close to $110,000. In 2000, all subdivisions of Cape Breton all had receipt per farm averages which were below the provincial average of $117,365 (Table F). Table F: Total Farm Receipts by Census Subdivision for Cape Breton, 2000 Total Farms Total Farm Receipts % of s total % of Cape Breton Total Receipts per Farm Cape Breton 287 $20,890, % $72,790 Cape Breton 97 $8,616, % 41% $88,829 Cape Breton Regional Munic. 97 $8,616, % 41% $88,829 Inverness 138 $10,564, % 51% $76,554 Subdivision A 39 $528,387 5% 3% $13,548 Subdivision B 64 $7,118,313 67% 34% $111,224 Subdivision C 35 $2,917,786 28% 14% $83,365 Richmond 17 $630, % 3% $37,081 Subdivision C 17 $630, % 3% $37,081 Victoria 35 1,079, % 5% $30,838 Victoria B 35 1,079, % 5% $30,838
9 In 2000, Close to 20% of the total farms in Cape Breton reported receipts of $50,000 or greater. Sixty-one farms reported receipts of $10,000 to $24,999 which constitutes 21.2% of the total farms in the county and makes this category the most prevalent. 45% of farms reported receipts of less than $10,000 in 2000 (Table G). The percentage of farms in the farm receipt categories stayed relatively constant from Table G: Total Number of Farms in Cape Breton by Farm Receipts, Farm Receipts Category # of farms % of total # of farms % of total Under $2, % % $2,500 to $4, % % $5,000 to $9, % % $10,000 to $24, % % $25,000 to $49, % % $50,000 to $99, % % $100,000 to $249, % % $250,000 to $499, % % $500,000 and over 4 1.4% 6 2.1% Total farms % % Figure 3: % of Total Farms by Farm Receipts Category: Cape Breton vs. Nova Scotia, % 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% Cape Breton Nova Scotia 5.00% 0.00% Under $2,500 t o $5,000 t o $10,000 to $25,000 to $50,000 to $100,000 $250,000 $500,000 $2,500 $4,999 $9,999 $24,999 $49,999 $99,999 to to and over $249,999 $499,999
10 Table H: Total Number of Farms by Total Farm Receipts Category by, 2001 Farm Receipts Category Nova Scotia Cape Breton Cape Breton Inverness Richmond Victoria Total farms Under $2, $2,500 to $4, $5,000 to $9, $10,000 to $24, $25,000 to $49, $50,000 to $99, $100,000 to $249, $250,000 to $499, $500,000 and over Farm Expenses In 2001, the total farm business operating expenses for Cape Breton were $16,938,221. The average farm business operating expenses in Cape Breton were $59,018 which is lower than the provincial average of $99,081. Wages and salary, other expenses (excluding depreciation and capital cost allowance), and total feed and supplement purchases were among the greatest expenses for farms in Cape Breton (Table I). Table I: Farm Business Operating Expenses for Cape Breton and Nova Scotia, 2001 Farm business operating expenses Nova Scotia Cape Breton Farms reporting Amount $ Farms reporting Amount $ Total farm business operating Expenses 3, ,693, ,938,221 Fertilizer and lime purchases 2,820 12,909, ,325 Purchases of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc. 1,654 8,014, ,249 Seed and plant purchases (excluding materials purchased for resale) 1,729 10,315, ,106 Total feed and supplement purchases 2,226 84,288, ,488,244 Feed purchases from other farmers 553 4,476, ,738 Livestock & Poultry Purchases 1,397 35,804, ,306 Veterinary services, drugs, etc. 1,959 6,547, ,309 Custom work and contract work 1,762 12,309, NA Wages and Salary 1,944 74,014, ,057,570 All fuel expenses (diesel, gasoline, oil, wood, natural gas, etc.) 3,710 20,495, ,120,150
11 Repairs and maintenance to farm machinery, equipment and vehicles 3,554 19,727, ,975 Rental and leasing of farm machinery, equipment and vehicles 723 4,669, ,763 Repairs and maintenance to farm buildings and fences 2,603 8,316, ,208 Rental and leasing of land and buildings 827 3,565, ,311 Electricity, telephone and all other telecommunication services 3,216 10,493, ,646 Farm interest expenses 1,929 24,200, ,346 All other expenses (excluding depreciation and capital cost allowance) 3,589 53,022, ,525,501 Land Use In 2001, land in crops accounted for 23.1% of total land use in Cape Breton, While pasture land accounted for 21.5%. The remaining farmland accounted for 55.4% of the total county s farmland and includes such uses as summer fallow and Christmas tree production etc (Table J). Table J: Farmland use in Cape Breton and Nova Scotia, 2001 Land Use Land in crops (excluding Christmas tree area) Cape Breton # of acres % of total # of acres Nova Scotia % of total 16, % 294, % Tame or seeded pasture 3, % 56, % Natural land for pasture 11, % 81, % All other land (including summer fallow and Christmas tree area) 40, % 573, % Total 73, % 1,005, % Farm Size In 2001, the average farm size in Cape Breton was 256 acres which is exactly the same as the provincial average (Table K). The counties of Inverness and Victoria had an average farm size well above the provincial average, while Cape Breton and Richmond both had averages well below that of the entire province.
12 Table K: Total Acres and Average Farm Size in Cape Breton and Nova Scotia, 2001 Total Farms Total Acres Average farm size (acres) Nova Scotia 3,923 1,005, Cape Breton , Cape Breton 97 15, Cape Breton Regional Municipality 97 15, Inverness , Subdivision A 39 8, Subdivision B 64 20, Subdivision C 35 11, Richmond 17 2, Subdivision C 17 2, Victoria 35 14, Victoria B 35 14, In 2001, approximately 23% of all farms in Cape Breton were less than 70 acres in size while close to 16% of all farms were 400 acres or larger. The single largest farm size category in Cape Breton was acres, which accounted for 18% of farms in the county (Table L). Table L: Total Farms by Farm Size Category for Cape Breton and Nova Scotia, 2001 Total Farms Under 10 acres 10 to 69 acres 70 to 129 acres 130 to 179 acres 180 to 239 acres 240 to 399 acres 400 to 559 acres 560 acres & over Nova Scotia 3, Cape Breton Cape Breton Cape Breton Regional Municipality Inverness Subdivision A Subdivision B Subdivision C Richmond
13 Subdivision C Victoria Victoria B
14 APPENDIX A: Map of Cape Breton Source: Service Nova Scotia & Municipal Relations
15 Map of Inverness Source: Service Nova Scotia & Municipal Relations
16 Map of Richmond Source: Service Nova Scotia & Municipal Relations
17 Map of Victoria Source: Service Nova Scotia & Municipal Relations