Unique & Revolutionary Continuous-Release Cattle Boluses

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1 POM- VPS (UK), LM (Ireland) Unique & Revolutionary Continuous-Release Cattle Boluses THE ONLY RUMEN-AVAILABLE COPPER BOLUSES Photo courtesy Irish Farmers Journal Proven to significantly improve energy utilisation 3 The only multiple trace element bolus proven to significantly improve fertility 1, 4 The world s only boluses designed to prevent Thiomolybdate Toxicity before it occurs Unique and revolutionary soluble glass technology Slow, constant release of elements for up to six months Unique ionic copper formulation

2 Understanding Dietary Thiomolybdate Toxicity Molybdenum and sulphur from the cow s diet combine in the rumen to form Thiomolybdate. Thiomolybdate will bind with copper in the rumen. When there is insufficient copper in the rumen, Thiomolybdate will move into the bloodstream in search of further copper. enzymes in the blood, which are vital for fertility and thrive, and renders them inactive. Does Iron Play A Role Yes, iron and sulphur in the rumen also combine with copper and create a stable compound which passes out of the animal, thus reducing the amount of copper in the rumen and increasing the likelihood of Thiomolybdate Toxicity. It is here where Thiomolybdate Toxicity occurs. Thiomolybdate combines with copper co-dependent Thiomolybdate Toxicity is highly damaging to the cow and can cause: infertility decreased conception rate anoestrus2 delayed onset of puberty decreased energy utilisation3 Why do Cosecure and CoseIcure boluses work Thiomolybdate Toxicity In The Ruminant Stage 1: In the Rumen Stage 2: In the Rumen Stage 3: In the Bloodstream Copper co-dependent enzyme Sulphur Iron Copper Iron and sulphur in the rumen combine with copper and create a stable compound. However, this stable compound passes out of the animal and reduces the amount of copper in the rumen. The Cosecure and CoseIcure boluses use a unique soluble glass technology, which provides a slow and constant release of elements into the rumen for up to 6 months*. Sulphur Molybdenum The Thiomolybdate (MoS 4) binds to the copper and stops the copperdependent enzymes from functioning. Thiomolybdate (MoS 4) Molybdenum is also ingested through the animal s diet. In the rumen it combines with sulphur to form Thiomolybdate (MoS 4). MoS 4 is very copper-hungry and will bind to any copper present. If there is not enough copper in the rumen, the MoS 4 moves into the blood stream in search of more copper. What can be done to prevent this Use In the bloodstream copper is vital for the function of the enzymes required for the onset of oestrus and energy metabolism. If Thiomolybdate enters the bloodstream, it will seek out these enzymes, bind with their copper, and make them inactive. Fertility and energy utilisation will be impaired. Thiomolybdate toxicity occurs. To prevent this from happening, we must prevent the Thiomolybdate from entering the bloodstream. To do this, sacrificial copper must be provided in the rumen. This can be hugely damaging to the animal s fertility and thrive. These enzymes need copper from the bloodstream to release hormones that are vital for: -the onset of oestrus ( & thus, fertility) -energy metabolism or Cosecure (POM-VPS, UK & LM, Ireland) and CoseIcure cattle boluses are the solution to this problem. They provide sacrificial copper in the rumen, which binds with Thiomolybdate and prevents it from entering the bloodstream. Thus thiomolybdate toxicity is prevented. Are they different from other boluses Yes. Bimeda revolutionary boluses are completely unique Through releasing sacrificial copper in the rumen, Cosecure and CoseIcure are the only boluses designed to prevent and treat Thiomolybdate Toxicity before it occurs. As Thiomolybdate (MoS 4) will first deplete copper in the rumen and, if there is not adequate copper there, bind to copper in the blood stream, it is vital that the bolus copper becomes active in the rumen. This is where Cosecure and CoseIcure boluses are active. omasum Caution: Check all other copper and selenium inputs before recommending Cosecure or CoseIcure. Use diagnostic tests as recommended by Bimeda. Cosecure/ CoseIcure boluses rumen reticulum abomasum Some capsules deliver copper in the form of copper oxide. However copper oxide UNIQUE SOLUBLE requires a low ph to GLASS TECHNOLOGY become active. As Supplies copper at a constant the normal range of rate for up to 6 months rumen ph is higher, between ph 5.5 and 6.5, it is chemically impossible for copper oxide to become active here. Copper oxide only becomes active in the abomasum (which has a ph range of 2 to 4), where it may simply be absorbed into the body and cannot stop the thiomolybdate uptake into the blood. Cosecure and CoseIcure are the only true dissolving boluses and their unique soluble glass formulation lasts for up to 6 months for Cosecure and up to 5 months for CoseIcure, dissolving at a slow but constant rate. *Cosecure boluses last for up to six months. CoseIcure boluses last for up to 5 months.

3 Thiomolybdate Toxicity & Iodine Deficiency Some cows suffer from both thiomolybdate toxicity and iodine deficiency Iodine deficiency is a geographical problem and occurs when: For cows suffering from iodine deficiency, Bimeda offer the CoseIcure bolus, which offers all of the benefits of the Cosecure boluses, but which also supplements iodine simultaneously. CoseIcure: Myths and misconceptions about copper & cows Myth 1: If copper is showing up in blood tests, there is no thiomolybdate toxicity Reality: Thiomolybdate (MoS 4) binds to copper and makes it useless. However, this useless copper will still show up in blood tests. for Thiomolybdate Toxicity for iodine deficiency for cobalt deficiency for selenium deficiency Low iodine is also a problem which can result in poor growth rates. Milk yield can also be less than expected. is in the form of copper oxide, it may only be available in the abomasum where it may simply be absorbed into the body and cannot stop the thiomolybdate uptake into the blood. Myth 3: If the cow s coat looks healthy after I ve administered a copper supplement, it must have worked Reality: Thiomolybdate Toxicity can have both visible (clinical) and invisible (subclinical) symptoms and consequences. Examples of the visible symptoms include the bald spectacles eyes and ginger coat. However, some of the more damaging consequences of thiomolybdate toxicity are invisible, such as reduced fertility and reduced energy utilisation. Just because an improvement in outwardly symptoms such as coat colour is observed, this does not mean that the more severe herd health issues have been rectified. However, as the copper in Cosecure and CoseIcure is rumen available, it binds with Thiomolybdate in the rumen, and prevents it from passing into the blood stream. This means Thiomolybdate can not bind with copper enzymes in the blood and thus Thiomolybdate Toxicity (and consequent infertility) is prevented. Feeds and water are low in iodine Lime & manure have been spread; which can reduce iodine levels in pasture Goitrogenic substances are present in feed, eg kale Chemicals block thyroid uptake of iodine Deficiency signs: Hairlessness in new-born calves Decreased milk yields Reduced hormone secretion and reproductive health Reduced bone growth and skeletal development Poor growth and weight loss Which bolus do I need Cosecure or CoseIcure For Thiomolybdate Toxicity For Thiomolybdate Toxicity and Iodine Deficiency Cosecure Boluses POM VPS (UK), LM (Ireland) CoseIcure Boluses: Copper 13.4%, Cobalt 0.5% Selenium 0.15%, Iodine 1% Myth 2: Some copper is good, so more copper must be better! Reality: More does not necessarily mean better. Where thiomolybdate toxicity occurs, it is vital that bolus copper is rumen-available. While some nutritional capsules may contain more copper, if this Copper 13.4% Cobalt 0.5% Selenium 0.3% Cosecure boluses contain rumen-available copper, preventing thiomolybdate toxicity before it occurs. Each pack contains 20 boluses (10 doses). For cows suffering from iodine deficiency, Bimeda offer CoseIcure boluses, which offer all of the benefits of the Cosecure boluses, but which also supplement iodine simultaneously. Each pack contains 20 boluses (10 doses). Did you know Cosecure & CoseIcure boluses also contain selenium and cobalt Selenium Selenium deficiency is a significant problem in some areas. Selenium protects against White Muscle Disease, strengthens the immune system and is important for fertility Cobalt Cobalt is essential for the optimum performance of Vitamin B12, which is vital for energy utilisation and thrive. The body has no capacity to store cobalt, therefore cobalt must be continuously supplied. Cosecure and CoseIcure boluses are ideal, as they provide a continuous supply of cobalt for up to 6 months.

4 Also Available In The Cattle Bolus Range Cosecure shown to improve fertility in trial 1 A trial involving the dairy herd at the University of Leeds Farm was shown to increase the fertility of the cattle compared to the controls. The cattle had previously suffered from low conception rates and anoestrus. Some had shown visible signs of copper deficiency and Thiomolybdate Toxicity: spectacles and poor coat colour. However, blood reports and copper inputs confirmed that the cows were not copper deficient. This prompted Bimeda to investigate the problem. This research concluded that the trace elements of iron, sulphur and molybdenum were a problem in their own right, but confusingly caused the same symptoms as copper deficiency. From this information a trial was designed at the Leeds University Dairy Unit to use Cosecure boluses to treat the problem. These boluses would deliver a unique type of sacrificial copper which is released into the rumen and combines with sulphur and molybdenum (MoS 4 ). This prevents the MoS 4 passing into the blood stream and causing damage in its own right. A trial was set up to test the effects of trace element supplementation by means of a slow-release solubleglass bolus containing copper, cobalt and selenium (Cosecure) on the fertility of cattle. Thirty cows were bolused with Cosecure and thirty cows were left unbolused. Cattle bolused with Cosecure: Had significantly fewer inseminations than non-bolused animals Had a significantly shorter calving interval than non-bolused animals These results show that poor conception rates in dairy cattle resulting from high molybdenum intakes can be counteracted by a slow-release copper, cobalt and selenium glass bolus The copper released into the rumen from the bolus prevents the thiomolybdate being absorbed and prevents any clinical deficiencies. 1 1 The effect of Cosecure on the conception rate and trace element status of dairy cattle, A.M Mackenzie, MM Moeini and S.B Telfer Zincosel; for supplementation of animals at risk from zinc and selenium deficiencies, for the improvement of cobalt supply. What Are Zincosel Boluses Zincosel cattle boluses deliver a controlled, constant supply of zinc, selenium and cobalt to cattle and ruminating calves for up to six months. Using the same revolutionary soluble glass technology as Cosecure and CoseIcure boluses, Zincosel boluses can play a vital role in improving immune function, fertility and thrive. Why Do My Cows Need Zincosel Many cows suffer from zinc and selenium deficiencies, and inadequate cobalt supply. This can affect immune function, fertility and thrive. Zincosel boluses provide a continuous supply of these trace elements for up to six months. Each Zincosel Cattle bolus contains: 15.2% w/w zinc 0.15% w/w selenium 0.5% w/w cobalt Why Is Zinc So Important Immune Function - Zinc is essential for immune function. Even marginal deficiency affects immune response. Fertility Zinc also plays an important role in fertility and is essential for sexual maturity, reproductive capacity, and the onset of oestrus. Body Stores There are no significant body stores of zinc, so the animal must rely on a daily supply to meet requirements. Thrive- zinc deficiency is associated with reduced growth rate. Hoof & Skin Health Cows with zinc deficiency are at increased risk of foot rot, foots infections, para ketosis, loss of hair and dermatitis. Further benefits of Zincosel Cattle Boluses - Cobalt & Selenium Zincosel boluses also provide a constant supply of selenium and cobalt, which are also vital for thrive, fertility and immune function.

5 POM- VPS (UK), LM (Ireland) Dosage and administration key information: Boluses are sensitive to sudden changes in temperature, as may occur when very cold boluses are swallowed by the animal. It is important that the bolus is removed from the foil packaging, and brought to C (room temperature) prior to administration For ruminating cattle over 2 months of age and weighing more than 100kg: 2 boluses Great care should be taken not to cause any injury by rough handling, or by placing the gun too far inside the throat of the animal Ensure that each animal has swallowed two boluses by holding the mouth closed and observing for a short time Gentle massage of the throat may facilitate swallowing of the boluses To minimise the risk of regurgitation, avoid rough handling of animals Do not administer the recommended dosage to animals receiving concentrates more frequently than once every 4.5 months for Cosecure and Zincosel or once every 4 months for CoseIcure. For animals at pasture, do not administer the recommended dosage more than once every 6 months for Cosecure and Zincosel or once every 5 months for CoseIcure. For further information, refer to the product data sheet Note: Many factors contribute to animal thrive and fertility. Always consult your prescriber before using boluses Apply boluses using Bimeda applicator. See applicator instructions leaflet for further information References 1. The effect of Cosecure on the conception rate and trace element status of dairy cattle, A.M Mackenzie, MM Moeini and S.B Telfer 2. The effect of dietary molybdenum and iron on copper status, puberty, fertility and oestrus cycle in cattle, Phillippo M., et al. 3. Cytochrome c oxidase, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, and ceruloplasmin activities in copper-deficient bovines, Cerone SI, Sansinanea AS, Streitenberger SA, Garcia MC, Auza NJ 4. Effects of three types of trace element supplementation on the fertility of three commercial dairy herds. (2004) Black, D.H., French, N.P. Cosecure POM-VPS UK VM 18584/4000 LM IRL VPA 10800/001/001 Use Medicines Responsibly. Consult the prescriber before using. Bimeda UK: Unit 2, Bryn Cefni Industrial Park, Llangefni, Wales, LL77 7XA. Tel: +44 (0) Bimeda Ireland: Broomhill Road Tallaght, Dublin 24 Ireland Tel:

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