1 Business Process Outsourcing: What Went Wrong & Why It Is S ll Relevant A Ginkgo Management Consul ng Publica on 2012 HAMBURG SHANGHAI SINGAPORE ZURICH
2 2 Introduction A er many years of domina ng headlines and up to double digit year-on-year growth, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) as a topic has experienced an overall decline in corporate interest of late. However, BPO s main benefits, namely economies of scale, associated cost savings and the ability for organiza ons to focus on their core business are as much in demand as ever. So what went wrong? In this note, Ginkgo analyses the reasons for BPO s fall from grace in the recent past and why it con nues to be a viable op on for companies. Lars Godzik, Founding Partner, Ginkgo Management Consulting
3 3 Business Process Outsourcing While the concept of outsourcing has been around for decades, outsourcing was only formally iden fied as a business strategy in In the subsequent years, many different forms of outsourcing were developed in the business world, with accompanying strategies and terminologies. As one of the key sub-categories of outsourcing, BPO rapidly gained recogni on and experienced strong growth in the late 90s and into the first decade of the 21 st century, with numbers of third party vendors sprou ng and organiza ons embracing BPO models worldwide. BPO is the delega on of opera ons and responsibili es of specific business processes or en re func ons to a third party service provider. This can include back office services and func ons, such as Finance & Accoun ng, HR, Procurement Transac on Centers, or IT & So ware opera ons, or front office outsourcing, which focuses on customer-related services, such as Call Center opera ons. The provider in return owns, administers and manages the selected processes based on defined and measurable performance criteria. As buyers part-relinquish control of these elements, BPO usually focuses on non-core but cri cal business func ons or processes. BPO is not to be confused with Shared Services. Both concepts offer companies the opportunity to centralize processes or func ons. However, in a Shared Services environment specific services, previously provided by mul ple parts of the company, are provided to the business by a single, centralized source or group within the organiza on. Resourcing and funding of the service is usually shared and the department supplying the services effec vely becomes an internal service provider, o en opera ng from a specifically set up Shared Services Center (SSC).
4 4 Beyond purely centralizing or consolida ng services, Shared Services are o en run like a business where the provision of the defined services comes at a cost, quality and efficiency compe ve with external alterna ves. Outsourcing Localised BPO Regional BPO As BPO requires a substan al investment, both financial and organiza onal, it tends to be reserved for large outsourcing deals focusing on standardized commodi es. Also, the higher its level of outsourcing maturity, the easier it is for a company to implement BPO. Insourcing Many Businesses Today Decentralised In-House Shared Services Centralised For companies not willing to take on such high stakes, seeking a more gradual approach to outsourcing, or looking for a quicker, less risky return on outsourcing investment, inhouse Shared Services present an alterna ve opportunity. Exhibit 1: Strategic Service Centraliza on Matrix This ar cle focuses on BPO, its benefits, reasons why it has not been mee ng organiza ons expecta ons, and how companies can mi gate risks involved in BPO rela onships to implement a successful BPO strategy.
5 5 Benefits of BPO Despite the considerable (and o en unwarranted) nega ve press BPO has endured of late, the concept of outsourcing non-core business processes and func ons to a third party specialist remains a very a rac ve proposi on to organiza ons. When BPO processes are accurately defined and implemented and the rela onship with the vendor properly managed, BPO provides a range of undeniable advantages. Cost Reduc ons. Companies can expect to see significant opera onal cost reduc ons when outsourcing internal tasks to a specialist that uses best-in-class methodologies. These savings occur in form of process improvements, process reengineering and op miza on, and economies of scale. Reduc on of opera ng costs is one of the main reasons for businesses to implement BPO. Improved Quality and Delivery Excellence. Third party providers offer organiza ons access to a poten ally larger and more specialized talent pool and op mized, homogeneous process structures. This allows for improved delivery of func ons and processes through consistent, centralized quality levels based on uniform, pre-defined quality measures. Organiza ons can also benefit from an overall increase in transparency regarding support requirements and can react to changing needs more rapidly. This, in return, has a posi ve effect on the overall flexibility of the business. Business Restructuring. Especially for businesses with red, crusty company structures and policies, BPO can offer the radical measure required to break down these constructs and provide the stepping stone towards organiza onal effec veness and leaner, more modern business conduct. Increased Business Focus. By outsourcing nonessen al func ons and processes, organiza ons free up resources, such as labor, investments or infrastructure, to focus on the core of the business. The expected result of this includes higher speed to market, quicker response mes, and increased overall business agility. Variable Cost Structure. BPO allows a company to change its cost structure by transforming a por on of its fixed costs into variable costs. Not only does this have a posi ve effect on a company s opera ng leverage ra o, but also renders variable costs more predictable.
6 6 Background Information Hidden BPO Cost Drivers & Benefits Arguably the largest a rac on of BPO is its ability to provide organiza ons with significant cost savings over conven onal business models. When developing a BPO model, companies have to be aware of a number of hidden cost drivers that form part of BPO set-up and management. These include addi onal costs for networks, staff training, and communica on, to name but a few. On the other hand, when quan fying the benefits of a BPO model, efficiency gains from consolida on, standardiza on and task re-engineering have to be incorporated, as well. In Ginkgo s experience, BPO can poten ally provide organiza ons with up to 55% cost reduc ons over conven onal business models, and regularly delivers 30-40% savings. 100% Up to 40% Task Migration Savings Up to 15% Task Process Improvement Savings 40% 10% 5% 5% 60% -7% -1% -2% -5% 45% Existing total cost base BPO cost base Additional telecom cost Additional management cost Alterations existing processes BPO cost base Consolidation & standardisation Improved retention skills & training Task reengineering Process improvement New total cost basis Source: Ginkgo Analysis BPO: Not Meeting Expectations? Despite its significant benefits and having enjoyed a considerable amount of a en on over the years, one has to raise the ques on why BPO has fallen from grace of late. A er being at the forefront of organiza onal efficiency developments and domina ng headlines with up to double digit year-on-year growth and posi ve industry forecasts, BPO has experienced a downturn in public recogni on while business leaders are displaying cooler a tudes towards the topic than before.
7 7 The main reason for this is that BPO has, in a number of well-publicized instances, not delivered the desired results and has fallen short of expecta ons. As a result, businesses are shying away from the concept and are wary of implemen ng BPO. The reasons why BPO has failed to meet expecta ons, however, is regularly due to businesses mismanagement of the BPO process and the rela onship with the service provider, as well as a poorly defined contract with unclear goals and targets, rather than a shortcoming of the concept itself. In Ginkgo s experience, the following are the main reasons why businesses fail to extract maximum value from BPO models. Complete Outsourcing of Competence. The number one reason why organiza ons fail in their BPO ventures is due to the fact that they tend to completely contract out their competence and intelligence in the relevant areas to the third party providers. This is highly dangerous and can have disastrous consequences as the organiza on loses all capabili es regarding the processes or func ons in ques on. As a result, the organiza on is not in a posi on to ac vely manage the third party provider anymore and loses control of the rela onship. As such, many organiza ons find themselves at their supplier s mercy and are unable to effect required process altera ons, such as scaling up or down, integra ng new processes to established ones, or taking part of the services back inhouse. Func ons and process can become disaggregated, band-aid approaches are used to support requests and service delivery becomes sub-standard, inevitably falling short of expecta ons. Inadequate Process Defini on. BPO requires considerable pre-go-live efforts. Unlike processes that are managed inhouse, where altera ons can be discussed, ad-hoc agreements made and temporary workarounds defined, once the processes are outsourced, this is no longer possible. It is only with sizeable efforts and costs that modifica ons can be made, and un l these are realized the process is ineffec ve and does not deliver. Therefore, it is vital to rigorously define the interfaces to secure con nued opera ons from the por on of the business to be outsourced before it is handed to the provider, and clear alignment with processes that are to remain in-house must be ensured. For this, a very detailed defini on of specifica ons is required, to outline clear procedures and execu on paths for the third party. It is important to remember that BPO is not a pragma c problem solver, but a reac ve business support instrument. Execu on within BPO is inherently dumb and simply follows predefined steps. If these steps are not fully provided, the process breaks down.
8 8 Case Study Design & Creation of a Regional BPO Model A global Fortune 50 manufacturer engaged Ginkgo Management Consul ng to op mize its opera ons in APAC. It supported 13 separate local en es with largely heterogeneous process landscapes and varying service levels per func on. A er an ini al analysis, Ginkgo suggested to create a regionalized BPO model, focusing ini ally on Finance and IT Opera ons. Ginkgo planned, designed and set up the model, including the outsourcing and centraliza on strategy, detailed service catalogue design of the services to be outsourced, market and vendor analyses, and vendor selec on via RFP. Ginkgo defined the required SLAs and supervised the migra on of the services to the third party vendor, managing the transi on and tweaking the service model as required. As a result, the manufacturer successfully transferred its services from geographically disparate en es to a centralized, ghtly managed BPO model, achieving up to 50% cost reduc ons in some markets. Excessive Cost Focus. At first glance, there seems to be li le that dis nguishes many third party BPO suppliers which in some cases can be true. Organiza ons o en perceive them to be of similar size, provide similar services, have similar geographic coverage, and provide similar approaches using similar technologies. With seemingly li le to set providers apart, pricing can become a main differen ator. As such, businesses primary focus is o en on cost as they select the vendor with the lowest price. This can be detrimental in two ways. Firstly, many providers have specific strengths that play towards par cular client requirements, be it a specific industry focus or tailored technology and applica ons. Without sufficient due diligence, organiza ons will not recognize these benefits and won t take advantage of them. Secondly, while focusing on the lowest offer, businesses frequently don t understand the total cost of ownership. O en providers quote only the basic fees and don t scope in addi onal charges, such as addi onal services or change orders.
9 9 Not only does this mean that a company may not have chosen the lowest cost provider at all, but it can also lead to a piecemeal, muddled approach to the BPO process. This frustra on can be avoided if businesses are familiar with overall BPO requirements, including pricing elements, their impact and importance, and are thus in a posi on to drive the supplier and predefine the offer content and structure. Lack of Local Process Integra on. Within the BPO process, an organiza on is required not only to define an exact process map for the provider, but must also ensure that internal stakeholders are sa sfied. This means that internal business con nuity has to be ensured for every process of the business units with touch-points to the supplier. O en, organiza ons do not have a clear overview and full understanding of local processes and prac ces. Therefore, some processes are uninten onally dropped in the transforma on from in-house to out-sourced service provision and, as a result, internal users find themselves confronted with incomplete, fragmented delivery of services. Thus, leads to a slowdown or even disrup on of opera ons which can require detailed reworking to be resolved. Complete Reliance on Vendor. A surprisingly frequent reason why BPO ventures fail is the unreasonable expecta on some companies have that once the third party provider has been appointed they will provide an all-inclusive, worry-free package, a one-stop shop to managing the en re engagement, while the buyer can take a back seat. Needless to say, this naive approach is a recipe for disaster and leads to certain failure.
10 10 Risk Mitigation of BPO Relationships Besides the aforemen oned preventable reasons why BPO has failed to meet expecta ons, businesses can take steps to mi gate the risks inherent to BPO models. Managing short and long term risk in a BPO rela onship is at least as important as seeking short term cost advantages from them, and can be achieved through careful analysis, precise planning and clearly defined agreements. Mapping of Delivery. While legal contracts are necessary in a BPO model, they should not be the key driver of risk mi ga on. The primary way to mi gate risk is be er prepara on and mapping of service delivery. Businesses need to recognize the vendor s strengths and play to them. This may well mean that customer will not get their way but consult the provider about the most effec ve delivery model. Marrying the provider s best prac ces and internal requirements in this way will more o en result in op mized service delivery. Security Planning. The threat and poten al impact of security breaches is a key element in the considera on of any BPO agreement. So much so that some companies appoint a dedicated security manager to larger BPO deals to handle physical and systems security. Companies must ensure that any BPO contract clearly outlines the processes involved for safeguarding their assets, spanning systems, data, IT, physical security, staffing and disaster recovery, and includes periodic security audits. A ri on of Supplier Employees. An area which is o en neglected when choosing a supplier is staff reten on. As the BPO market grows, the fight among providers for qualified talent increases, leading to high levels of a ri on and risk of loss of company specific process knowledge. Buyers should make sure that poten al suppliers take a partnering approach to BPO through a demonstrated interest in key staff reten on. This can be achieved by looking at a ri on levels, reten on policies and even conduc ng site visits. Future Planning. It is important that organiza ons plan beyond the immediately targeted BPO model and consider poten al future developments of their own. Companies must ensure that the solu on and technology offered is able to scale to changes in scope and is not overly customized. This also makes it easier to change supplier if needed. Furthermore, it is important to have an addendum in the contract that provides the organiza on with op ons at the end of the life of the contract and shows an exit plan, be it to simply extend the exis ng agreement or even take the services back in-house.
11 11 Summary Much of the nega ve press and a en on BPO has experienced of late is unjus fied. In fact, most of it stems from a lack of rigor and mismanagement of the BPO rela onship mainly on behalf of the buyer, and could have been avoided through ghter supervision and more clearly defined contract agreements. Organiza ons should use these failures as case studies and lessons learnt. As the BPO market con nues to grow and evolve, so does its makeup and focus. While the BPO landscape con nues to be dominated by the large end-to-end providers, such as Accenture or IBM and this area is beginning to see industry consolida on there is a discernible growth in smaller companies focusing on key business process areas trying to build a niche for themselves. Similarly, new, promising areas of BPO and offshoots are developing, such as Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO), the outsourcing of supply chain func ons and the no ceable increase in mul shoring. Overall, BPO is here to stay. The benefits provided by BPO models are too a rac ve for organiza ons to ignore. In addi on, as the BPO market becomes increasingly sophis cated and diverse, power is shi ing away from the vendors to the buyers who are in a posi on to dictate their requirements and have a large amount of single or mul -vendors to choose from. As long as organiza ons apply the required rigor and follow established BPO best-prac ces, they will con nue to reap the benefits of such models. Subsequently, if their BPO a empts fall short of expecta ons, they have no-one to blame other than themselves.
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