1 Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2 Paper ID GTJ Available online at: Ahmed Yehia Abd Elaziz 1 and M. Hesham El Naggar 2 Axial Behaviour of Hollow Core Micropiles Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings ABSTRACT: The use of hollow core bars in micropiles has greatly increased over the past ten years. Hollow core construction, also termed self drilled, is becoming a popular option because it allows a faster installation processes and ground improvement at the same time. This paper presents a field study on the behaviour of single hollow core micropiles in stiff silty clay deposit. Four hollow core micropiles were installed using an air flushing technique employing large drilling carbide bits. Ten axial tests were conducted on the four micropiles, including three compression tests, two tension monotonic axial tests, four compression cyclic tests, and one tension cyclic axial tests. The results of the full-scale loading tests are presented and analyzed in terms of load displacement curves. The results of the monotonic testing phase showed that the bond strength values (a bond ) suggested by the Federal Highway Administration in 2000 for the silty clay deposits may be underestimated when considering hollow core micropiles as type B micropile grouting. The response of the micropiles to cyclic loading is considered satisfactory. No sign of full debonding occurring at the pile-soil interface was observed after 15 load cycles with cyclic load amplitude of 33 % of the micropile design load. The stiffness of most micropiles remained almost constant after the cyclic loading. However, the pile head movement increased after the cyclic loading due to limited strain softening behaviour of the soil deposit occurs at the grout/ground interface. The results showed that the micopile s performance in stiff clay is not sensitive to minor changes in cyclic load amplitudes, but sensitive to the magnitude and rate of the total applied load. KEYWORDS: hollow core, micropile, monotonic, cyclic, bond strength, stiffness Introduction A micropile is a small diameter (typically less than 300 mm) drilled and grouted pile that is typically reinforced (FHWA 2000). It is constructed by drilling a borehole, placing a steel reinforcing element into the borehole, and grouting it by gravity, under pressure methods, or by a combination of both (post grouting). Micropiles have several advantages: they can be installed in limited head room areas using small drilling equipment at any angle causing minimal disturbance to adjacent structures, they allow a fast installation process, and they provide a high grout to soil bond strength. Micropiles depend on high capacity steel elements to transmit the loads from the super structure to the grout and to the surrounding soil through the grout body encapsulating them. The micropile grout to soil bond, known in literature as grout/ground bond, transfers the applied load to the surrounding soil through skin friction. Micropiles have been used initially for retrofits and underpinning of structures. The first generation of micropiles were conceived in Italy by Dr. Fernando Lizzie in the 1950s in response to the requirement for underpinning historic buildings where access for conventional piling equipment was not possible. The second generation of micropiles is a pressure grouted pile with a central Manuscript received March 25, 2011; accepted for publication August 15, 2011; published online September Research assistant, Geotechnical Research Center, Depart. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. 2 Professor and Research director, Geotechnical Research Center, Depart. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. mono all thread bar (with diameter up to 89 mm), which is encapsulated in a cement grout body. They are installed by using either an open or cased hole drilling method. A new generation of micropiles, termed Grout injection bore micropiles (IBO), was developed in the 1980s. The IBO utilizes a continuous-all-threaded hollow steel bar as the drilling and grouting conduit, which allows drilling and grouting simultaneously without the need of a casing during drilling. A sacrificial bit with openings that allow for pressure grouting of the surrounding soil is threaded onto the end of the hollow bar and is left in place following drilling. A drilling fluid (air, water, or grout) is introduced through the hollow bar and allows the spoils to flush from the borehole. This also improves the density and support capability of the surrounding soil. Despite the growing demand for hollow core bar micropiles, little work has been devoted to evaluating the nominal bond strength, a bond, especially in clayey soils, between the micropile grout and the surrounding soil. Jeon (2004) examined the loaddisplacement behaviour of 21 axial compression tests from 10 different sites. Eight of the tests were performed in cohesive soils and incorporated different types of micropiles: type B and C or D. The results showed that micropiles can have a significant increase of capacity over larger-diameter drilled shafts, especially at shallower depths. The typical increase in the unit skin resistance is on the order of 1.5, with values as high as 2.5. He argues that the increase is due to the grouting during installation. The hollow core micropile is typically classified as type B grouting according to the FHWA (2000) guidelines. Gómez et al. (2007) and Mitchell et al. (2007) analyzed the results of many field load tests and concluded that the bond strength values suggested by the FHWA (2000) for type B seem to be conservative Copyright VC Copyright by 2012 ASTM by ASTM Int'l (all International, rights reserved); 100 Tue Barr Jan Harbor 22 13:48:38 Drive, PO EST Box 2013 C700, West Conshohocken, PA
2 2 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL when applied to this type of micropile for most soil deposits. The deviation of the bond strength of the hollow core micropiles from that of type B micropiles may be because the classification does not account for the different factors affecting the hollow core micropiles installation. These factors include the type of fluid used during installation, the speed and pressure used during installation and during grouting (dynamic grouting), and the effect of these factors on the surrounding ground. Telford et al. (2009) stated that the results of verification testing on hollow core micropiles confirm the capability of the micropiles to support high compression and tensile loads with small pile head movement. Bennett and Hothem (2010) conduct eight monotonic load tests on hollow bar micropiles using different lengths and diameters. They conclude that the axial stiffness properties of hollow bar micropiles can provide substantial reductions in surface settlement even in very soft soils. Scarce data is available on the response of the hollow core micropiles to cyclic loading. The limited data available on cyclic field load tests has been mostly focused on the pressure grouted micropiles in cohesionless soils with little effort directed to hollow core micropiles in clay. Cavey et al. (2000) presented the results of a series of cyclic load-reversal tests on pressure grouted micropiles embedded in loose to medium sand and silt. The results showed that the reversed cyclic loading induced significant reduction in the micropile capacity. Gómez et al. (2003) concluded from cyclic load tests on gravity grouted micropiles in rock that full debonding is not likely to occur, while post-peak behaviour of the bond strength was observed. Micropile performance characteristics such as the stiffness of the pile before and after cyclic loading, accumulation of pile head movement, and reduction of the micropile capacity that may be accompanied by partial or full debonding of the micropile are not well characterized, or even understood by the little field work available. Therefore, there is a need to better understand the performance characteristics of this micropile type with regard to the grout/ground bond and the effect of cyclic loading on the interaction between the micropile and the surrounding soil. A field study on the performance of hollow core micropiles in cohesive soils is presented here. The aim of this study is to evaluate the geotechnical performance of micropiles under: (1) monotonic axial loading, with special emphasis on evaluating the grout/ ground bond strength; (2) cyclic axial loading to evaluate the pile head accumulating displacement and the change in stiffness with the number of load cycles. The field study is part of a comprehensive investigation of the performance of hollow core micropiles under different types of load and in different configurations: single and pairs of micropiles. TABLE 1 Summary of SPT N field values obtained from the two boreholes. Borehole 1 Depth (m) Description SPT N field 1.0 Very stiff to hard, brown becoming grey at 3.0 m depth, clayey slit to clay till, upper silt seams Compact to dense, sand, 7.1 traces to some silt, occasional silt seams Compact grey silt 18 Borehole Stiff to very stiff, brown becoming grey at 3.5 m depth, silt clay till Compact to dense, sand, traces to some silt, occasional silt seams two boreholes, including the SPT field N values versus depth and the description of each layer. The soil stratigraphy interpreted from the two boreholes is given in Fig. 1. The soil deposit consists of clayey silt to silty clay till, from the ground surface to a depth of 5.7 m. Significant seams of gravel and traces of small cobbles have been observed during soil exploration. A layer of compact to dense sand with seams of silt appeared up until the end of the available boreholes depths (9.0 m). The groundwater table was found at a depth varying from 3.7 to 4.0 m below the ground surface at the time of boreholes. Because the piles were loaded in a rapid fashion, and due to the cohesive nature of the soil, the shear strength of the soil is represented by its undrained shear strength, s u. Several attempts were made to extract undisturbed samples from the boreholes using a thick wall Shelby tube at depths up to 5.7 m. All attempts failed in Test Site Conditions The piles were installed and tested at the University of Western Ontario Environmental Site. This site is located approximately 8 km north of the City of London, Ontario. Two boreholes were conducted as part of the current study within the pile s test area. The two boreholes are located 16.6 ms apart and both are located at the middle of the test area. Table 1 summarizes the logs of the FIG. 1 Soil stratigraphy.
3 ELAZIZ AND NAGGAR ON BEHAVIOUR OF HOLLOW CORE MICROPILES 3 TABLE 2 Soil properties. Depth (m) Specific Gravity G S Dry Unit Weight c dry (kn/m 3 ) Voids Ratio Saturated Unit Weight c sat (kn/m 3 ) Natural Water Content (wt. %) borehole 1 due to the fissured over-consolidated nature of the silty clay soil. The seams of gravel contributed to this failure due to its low recovery ratio. In borehole 2, samples were successfully extracted from depth between 3 to 5.0 m. Below a depth of 5.7 m, the deposit is almost cohesionless and the SPT values were deemed sufficient to represent it. However, the contribution of the silty sand soil is limited because the piles were only 5.75 m. The samples extracted using the Shelby tubes were tested in a triaxial cell under unconsolidated undrained condition (UU). For s u to be representative of the pile loading test conditions, it was important to use a loading rate during the UU triaxial tests that is compatible with the rate the tested pile experienced during the load test. Therefore, all triaxial tests were conducted at a strain rate equal to mm/min. Table 2 summarizes the physical soil properties and Table 3 shows the results of the triaxial tests. The value of s u was further evaluated from the SPT field value, N field, using the empirical formula proposed by Terzaghi et al. (1996). This correlation provided a subsurface profile of s u versus depth to cover the gap in the results obtained from the UU triaxial tests. Following the procedure given by Sivrikaya and Toǧrol (2006), the SPT values are correlated to the s u through the following equation s u ¼ 6:25N 60 (1) where s u ¼ undrained shear strength of the soil, N 60 ¼ the corrected SPT number, N 60 is related to the SPT field value, N field, through the equation N 60 ¼ ðc B C E C R C S ÞN field (2) where N field ¼ field SPT number, C B ¼ borehole diameter correction factor ¼ 1.05 (for borehole diameter of 150 mm), C E ¼ energy correction factor, (ER/60) ¼ 0.75 for Donut hammer, C R ¼ rod length correction factor ¼ 0.85 for rod length 4 6 m, and 0.7 for depth less than 4.0 m, C S ¼ sampler type correction factor, standard sampler without liner ¼ 1.2. No correction for the effective overburden pressure is needed, as fine grained soils during penetration are undrained (Sivrikaya and Toǧrol (2006)). Introducing these values into Eq 2 then substituting into Eq 1 yields s u ¼ a c N field (3) where a c ¼ 4.13 (for depth less than 4 m) and ¼ 5 (for depth greater than 4 m). Figure 2 illustrates the profile for s u determined from Eq 3 considering the SPT field values obtained from the two available boreholes logs (Table 1 and Fig. 1), as well as the results of the three samples tested previously in the triaxial cell. Micropile Materials and Installation The tested micropiles consisted of 6.0 m geo-drilled injection bar and are shown in Fig. 3. The injection bar is made of high strength-impact resistant heavy wall steel tubing conforming to ASTM A (2006). The hollow core bars were supplied in 3 m sections and coupled together with 251 mm long coupler, to reach the desired length. The bar was continuously threaded over its 3 m length with a heavy duty left hand thread/deformation pattern. The thread/deformation pattern of the bar has been shown to exceed the bond characteristics of ASTM A615 (2009) reinforcing steel. The injection bar used had an outer diameter of 76 mm, and an inner diameter of 48 mm. The all-thread bar used had a specified yield stress of approximately 580 MPa and a cross-sectional area of 2503 mm 2. A 176 mm diameter tungsten carbide blades drill bit was used to advance the hollow core bar down the hole, as given in Fig. 4. This bit was chosen to overcome the gravels and cobbles observed during the soil investigation program. The micropiles were constructed using an excavator mounted TE 550 Hydraulic Drifter. TABLE 3 Summary of unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests. Depth (m) Undrained Shear Strength S u (kpa) Undrained Secant Modulus E 50 % (MPa) Failure Strain % FIG. 2 Undrained shear strength, s u, versus depth.
4 4 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL TABLE 4 Grout strength. Compression Strength f c (MPa) Tensile Strength f t (MPa) 7 days days results of the tested grout samples. Following the previous procedure, four micropiles were installed in the same day in a square arrangement, and spaced 776 mm center to center as demonstrated in Fig. 5. The micropiles were left for curing after installation and before testing for more than 5 weeks. Instrumentation and Test Setup FIG. 3 B7X1-76 Geo-drilled hollow core injection bars. During drilling, the air-flush technique was used to undercut the soils and flush the drill cutting to the ground surface. Air flushing, rather than the continuous flushing grout technique, was employed in order to examine its ability to advance the hollow core bar down hole with the same efficiency as grout flushing and without any losses in the grout material when flushing with grout of high water-cement ratio. This technique can be successful in cohesive deposits. During air flushing, the hollow core of the allthread bar is connected to an XAS 375 JD6 portable air compressor through the swivel at the top of the drilling rig. A controlled pressure of between 0.9 and 0.96 MPa was used to advance the hollow core bar downward and flush the debris out from the top of the hole. After reaching the desired depth, the swivel at the top of the drifter was changed and connected to the grout plant. The bar was grouted continuously to fill the annulus between the hollow core bar and the surrounding soil using a universal post-tensioning grout, Master Flow 1341 grout. The grout used has water cement ratio of about 0.32 supplied by the grout plant at a pressure of approximately 1.9 MPa. The grout cylinders obtained during the installation process were tested after 7 and 28 days for compression and tensile strength. Table 4 shows the Load Test Setup A reaction frame system (shown in Fig. 6) was used to execute the pile load tests. The reaction frame involved two steel reaction beams, main and secondary, anchored to four helical screw piles that were used as reaction piers. The main beam is 4.5 m in length and consists of two channels C attached back to back with a spacing of 86 mm. The two beams are connected with mm plates at 500 mm intervals and are reinforced by vertical stiffeners with 25.4 mm thickness at the same spacing. A special plate welded at the middle of the beam, both at the top and the bottom, to facilitate supporting the hydraulic jack during uplift tests. The secondary beam is 4.0 m length and consists of two channels C attached back to back at an interval of 51 mm, and by means of two channels C face to face, one at the top and one at the bottom. The webs of the upper and lower channels contain holes to allow connecting the beam to the loading frame. The helical screw piles, used as reaction piers, are square shaft helical piles of the Chance SS175 helical foundation system. The shaft of the pile consisted of lead section and extensions. The lead section consists of a 45 mm round corner square welded to three helical bearing plates, or helices. The helical plates were 9.5 mm thick with plate diameters of 200, 250, and 300 mm in diameter. The helical plate diameters increase with distance from the pilot point. Extension segments of 1.5 and 2.1 m length were added to the lead section during installation to reach the desired bearing soil stratum at 9 m below the ground surface (approximately 1.5 times the tested micropiles length). FIG mm diameter tungsten carbide bit. FIG. 5 Layout of the four installed micropiles.
5 ELAZIZ AND NAGGAR ON BEHAVIOUR OF HOLLOW CORE MICROPILES 5 The anchor piles were located at 2.0 m from the center of the test micropile (i.e., at a distance greater than 10 times the tested micropiles diameter). The load was applied using a hydraulic jack with a maximum capacity of 980 kn and 150 mm stock, located above the pile head and reacting against the reaction frame. The load was measured using a load cell with a maximum capacity of 890 kn located between the pile head and the loading jack. The load cell was situated on top of a 38 mm thick and 300 mm square steel plate attached to the pile head. Pile Instrumentation Each micropile was instrumented by five embedded vibrating wire strain gages of type EM-5 and spaced at 1.5 m along the pile shaft. The hollow core steel consists of all-thread bar from outside and smooth steel surface from inside. During the planning phase of the experimental program, there was a concern that placing the strain gages inside the hollow core of the bar may render it ineffective if the grout inside hollow core separates from the smooth internal wall of the steel bar as the applied loads increase during the load test. Accordingly, the strain gauges were inserted within the grout annulus outside the hollow core bar after grouting was completed. To facilitate inserting the strain gauges in the grout, the strain gages were hanged to 12 mm steel bars. Unfortunately, the lower gauges were damaged during pushing the cages in the grout and only the top two strain gauges survived. The two gauges that survived were located at the top of the micropile and at depth of 1.5 m below the pile butt. Four linear displacement transducers (LDT) were used to measure the movement of the pile head. The LDTs had 100 mm stroke with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. The LDTs were distributed in a square arrangement over the steel plate attached to the pile head. The LDTs were mounted on two reference steel extensions supported independently from the loading system. The loading and LDTs arrangements are shown in Fig. 7. The load cell and the LDTs were connected to a data acquisition system to record and store the load and movement at the pile head during the load test. Monotonic Tests FIG. 6 Compression axial load test setup. Two compression load tests were conducted on micropiles MP1 and MP3 in sequence, followed by two tension tests conducted on MP2 and MP4. A finial compression test was conducted on MP2. A quick maintained load test procedure was considered in this study, where the load was applied in increments and each increment was maintained for at least 5 min. Generally, the micropiles were tested in compression in accordance with the ASTM D1143 (1994) quick maintained load test procedure. In tension, they were tested in accordance to ASTM D-3689 (2007) quick maintained load test procedure. Due to the relatively close spacing between the piles (spacing to diameter ratio, S/D ¼ 4.4), and because the cohesive nature of the soil deposits, a long testing schedule was followed. The testing schedule incorporated a waiting period of at least 10 days between any two consequent tests to allow the soil surrounding the piles some time to rest and regain strength. The piles were loaded monotonically, where each load increment was applied and maintained for at least 5 min until the maximum load of the test was achieved. When the pre-specified maximum load was reached, a 10 min creep test was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Post-tensioning Institute (2004) to examine the geotechnical failure of the piles. Cyclic Tests FIG. 7 Loading and instrumentation at the pile head. Five axial cyclic load tests were conducted on the micropiles to simulate the effects of seismic loading of an earthquake. Each pile was subjected to 15 cycles of axial loading. The 15 load cycles were applied to simulate the cyclic loading typical of a M7.5 earthquake (Rollins et al. 2006). The 15 cycles were applied in a rate of one cycle per minute, i.e., quasi-static test. The load applied during each cycle ranges from 1.33 to 0.67 the anticipated design load of the micropiles. The amplitude of the load was chosen to simulate a large horizontal ground motion PGA of 0.45g, which results in a vertical motion of about 0.3 g (2/3 PGA). The method used in these tests does not follow the ASTM D 1143 cyclic loading test procedure. Monotonic Test Results and Analysis One of the main objectives of this study is to examine performance of this type of micropiles geotechnically rather than structurally. The bond at the bar/grout interface is not an issue for all thread bars used nowadays in micropiles. It is always the grout/ ground interface that is the limiting factor. In accordance with the FHWA (2000), the structural capacity of the installed micropiles
6 6 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL FIG. 8 Load-deflection curve for three compression tests. FIG. 9 Load-deflection curve for two tension tests. would be 1570 kn in compression and 1160 kn in tension using a factor of safety of From a geotechnical prospective, FHWA (2000) considers the hollow core micropiles as type B micropiles, pressure grouted. FHWA (2000) specifies preliminary values for the nominal bond strength for type B micropiles embedded in stiff silty clay soils between 70 and 190 kpa. However, these values vary with ground conditions and installation techniques and higher bond values may be used but only upon proper documentation and load test data. Hence, given the values of s u obtained from the soil investigation, the highest bond value suggested by the FHWA (2000) will be considered. Therefore, the theoretical ultimate geotechnical capacity of the micropiles with 176 mm diameter would be 600 kn for either compression or tension loading. Accordingly, the pile load test was carried to a maximum load at the pile head equal to 600 kn. Figures 8 and 9 show the load-displacement curves for the three compression and two tension tests, respectively. Micropile MP2 was loaded monotonically in tension first then in compression. Figure 8 shows that the responses of MP1 and MP3 are almost identical, while MP2 shows a more flexible response especially at the beginning of loading. This may be attributed to the fact that the pile was loaded in tension prior to the compression load test. Hence, its compression behaviour was affected by a permanent upward displacement, and the result was a relatively larger displacement at the beginning of the compression load test. As the compressive loading continued, the stiffness increased and became similar to that of MP1 and MP3. Figure 9 reveals that the two tension piles behaved differently. Micropile MP2 displayed a stiffer response compared to MP4. Nonetheless, the two piles, as well as the piles tested under compression were loaded to a maximum load between 575 and 600 kn with no signs of approaching failure in any of them. This clearly demonstrates that the a bond suggested by the FHWA (2000) for type B micropile underestimates the hollow core micropiles geotechnical capacity. It was anticipated that the results from the two survived strain gauges at each pile would give more data on the load transfer at the top of the pile. Unfortunately, the data obtained from the strain gauges was inconsistent as it changed from compression to tension during the monotonic axial compression tests. This might be because of a tilt in the axis of the strain gage with the vertical during installation. Also, it was observed that no slippage took place between the grout inside the hollow core and the enclosing bar, which was the concern of inserting the strain gages inside the bar. It is recommended for further field load testing on this type of micropiles to install the strain gages inside the hollow core bar, after installation and before grouting, with no concern of slippage occurring unless structural failure of the pile is reached. To examine the possibility of failure of the tested micropiles, the results are examined using ultimate load criteria; Davisson s (1972) offset limit The Davisson s (1972) offset limit failure criteria states that the deflection at failure load is S f ¼ e s þ 4:0 þ D=120 (4) where S f ¼ the deflection at the ultimate load, e s ¼ the amount of elastic shortening of the pile, D ¼ the pile diameter (in mm). The amount of elastic shortening of the pile depends on the load transfer mechanism from the pile to the surrounding soil. Generally, e s is computed from (FHWA (1992)) e s ¼ ðq b þ a s Q s L Þ (5) A p E p where L ¼ pile length, A p ¼ gross cross section area of the pile, E p ¼ modulus of elasticity of the pile, Q b ¼ the load transmitted at the pile tip, Q s ¼ the load transmitted at the pile shaft, a s ¼ a coefficient depending on the nature of unit friction resistance distribution along the pile shaft (e.g., uniform or linear distribution). For no load transfer via shaft resistance (End bearing piles), a s ¼ 0.0. In the case of micropiles, most of the load is transferred to the soil through shaft resistance, relying on the strong grout/ground bond developed during installation and grouting. A micropile is believed to reach geotechnical failure when reaching an end bearing condition. Accordingly, it is reasonable to assume the value of Q b to be zero in this case. Due to the over-consolidation behaviour of the cohesive soil deposit at the site, a uniform distribution of the shaft friction is considered, and a s was taken equal to 0.5. The elastic shortening of the pile, e s, is a function of its axial stiffness, E p A p. The axial stiffness of a micropile subjected to tensile loads can be evaluated in a simplified manner by treating it as an anchor, considering its single reinforcing core without accounting for the contribution of its grout. For tension test, the axial stiffness is
7 ELAZIZ AND NAGGAR ON BEHAVIOUR OF HOLLOW CORE MICROPILES 7 TABLE 5 Micropiles creep at maximum applied load. Test Applied Load P (kn) Creep from 1 to 10 min (mm) MP1 Compression MP2 Tension MP3 Compression MP4 Tension MP2 Compression FIG. 10 Load deflection curve for three compression tests with failure criteria RðEAÞ tension ¼ E bar A bar (6) where (EA) tension ¼ axial tension stiffness of the micropile, E bar ¼ modulus of elasticity of the steel ¼ MPa, A bar ¼ cross section area of the hollow core bar. The composite stiffness of the micropile in compression is more complicated, due to the many factors involved in the installation process, and the possible contribution of the surrounding soil, but can be simplified as RðEA Þ compression ¼ E grout A grout þ ð Ebar A bar Þ (7) where, (EA) compression ¼ axial compression stiffness of the micropile, A grout ¼ cross section area of the grout, E grout ¼ modulus of elasticity of the grout, which is assigned at MPa (obtained from stress-strain test on grout samples in accordance with ASTM C469 (2010)). Figures 10 and 11 present the load-settlement curves of the tested piles, along with Davisson s (1972) failure criteria. Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate clearly that the maximum loads of 600 kn for compression piles and 580 kn load for tension piles are below the specified failure criteria and that no sign of failure was observed. This is further confirmed by the small values of creep recorded at the pile head presented in Table 5. To estimate the ultimate capacity of the micropiles, a mathematical formula was developed. The formula is based on the available results and performance of the micropiles upon the applied load level. The shape of the load-displacement curve shown in Fig. 8 resembles that of a parabola. As a result, the equation for a parabola can be adapted to approximately describe that loaddisplacement relationship; such as D ¼ ap 2 þ bp (8) where D is the pile gross displacement, P is the applied load, a and b are curve fitting parameters found to be and 0.002, respectively. Using the aforementioned equation, the load-displacement curves were extrapolation until the Davisson limit criteria shown in Fig. 10. Considering this observation and analysis of the results, and by extrapolation the failure load using Davisson s (1972) criteria, as illustrated in Fig. 10, the average nominal bond strength along the micropile length (at diameter equal to 176 mm) would be 240 kpa. This is more than 25 % higher than the nominal bond strength suggested by the FHWA (2000) for type B micropiles installed in stiff silty clay or clayey silt deposit. An inspection of the pile diameter enlargement should also be considered due to the dynamic installation process. A cutoff of 2 m depth was performed after the load test was finished. The increase in the pile diameter at that depth was in the range of 5 10 % of the bit diameter. This increase in the pile diameter must be treated with caution, as it is not uniform along the pile shaft. The increase in pile diameter reaches its maximum value at the pile base, where the grout is pressured through the bit holes at high pressure during grouting, and decreasing until it reaches the bit diameter near the pile head. Using air as a flushing fluid (pressure less than 1 MPa during installation), and 2 MPa pressure during grouting in a very stiff silty clay deposit may lead to an average increase along the shaft of % in the pile diameter (William Form Engineering Corp (2010)). Taking this factor into consideration, the average nominal bond strength around the micropile will be in the range of 200 to 240 kpa along the pile length depending on the enlargement of the pile diameter. These results suggest that the hollow core micropiles should be treated, geotechnically, as a new type of grouted micropiles. FIG. 11 Load deflection curve for two tension tests with failure criteria. Debonding and Apparent Elastic Length Bruce et al. (1993) proposed the concept of elastic ratio, for evaluating micropiles performance. They showed that the
8 8 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL TABLE 6 Summary of the monotonic testes phase results. Type of Test P max (kn) Total Displacement d t (mm) Residual Displacement d r (mm) Elastic Displacement d e (mm) Elastic Length L e (m) MP1 Compression MP2 Tension MP3 Compression MP4 Tension MP2 Compression measurement of the elastic deflections can be used to evaluate the length of the pile that is being stressed, i.e., engaged in transferring the load through the grout-ground bonding, in order to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of the load transferred to the ground. The elastic ratio, ER, is defined as the ratio between the elastic deformation of the pile (elastic rebound) and the applied load, that is ER ¼ d e (9) DP where ER ¼ elastic ratio, d e ¼ the elastic rebound measured or estimated during unloading cycle, DP ¼ the magnitude of the unloading calculated as the maximum applied load minus the final load after unloading. Another important parameter that is used to assess the performance of the tested micropiles is the apparent elastic length, L e,givenby L e ¼ d erea DP (10) where L e ¼ elastic length of the pile, REA ¼ the combined elastic axial stiffness of the micropile section in compression or the elastic axial stiffness of the steel bar in tension. It must be noted that L e and ER are intrinsically related; one of them can be used to evaluate the other. The value of d e for a pile is estimated for a pile as the total movement minus the residual movement after unloading cycle. Practically, upon unloading, the pile will still have some level of elastic deformation caused by locked-in bond stresses as examined by Gómez et al. (2003). This causes the elastic rebound to be underestimated as well as the load transfer portion of the bond zone, i.e., the apparent elastic length. This behaviour is shown clearly during the analysis of the cyclic load test phase presented later on. For fully bonded micropile, i.e., no casing zone, the value of L e can be related to the portion of the micropile subjected to substantial axial load. Hence, it can be used to estimate the ultimate average bond strength acting along the micropile where debonding is most probably to occur. Also, It can be used to assess whether an end bearing condition is developed or not. Bruce et al. (1993) explained the development of the end bearing condition as a probability of micropiles failure, which they attributed to the small diameter of the micropiles. Table 6 illustrates the results obtained from the monotonic test phase on the micropiles by computing the total, residual and elastic movement as well as the corresponding elastic length calculated using Eq 10. It is noted from Table 6 that the developed elastic length is less than the total length for all micropiles. This emphasizes that no-geotechnical failure has occurred for any of the tested micropiles and that the ultimate load is much higher than the maximum load applied during the monotonic load test. Due to the over-consolidated nature of the stiff silty clay layer, a post-peak behaviour may take place along grout/ground interface at the apparent elastic length rather than full debonding of this portion of the micropile, with the rest of the micropile length still contributing to the grout/ground bond strength. This phenomenon could be examined through cyclic load testing. The results of the cyclic load tests will help in assessing whether a full debonding or softening (post-peak behaviour) of the micropiles would take place in this type of soils. This may be an important issue for design of micropiles subject to machinery loading, and/ or micropiles installed in seismic areas. Cyclic Load Test Results and Analysis Four compression and one tension cyclic load tests were conducted on the four micropiles. The micropiles were tested cyclically in the following sequence: cyclic tension on MP4, cyclic compression on MP1, MP3, MP4, and MP2. In each test, a micropile was subjected to 15 cycles of loading and un-loading at rate TABLE 7 Design, amplitude and maximum applied load for all the cyclic load tests. Type of Cyclic Test Design Load (kn) Amplitude of the Cyclic Load (kn) Maximum Applied Load/Cycle, (kn) Minimum Applied Load/Cycle, (kn) MP1 Compression MP2 Compression MP3 Compression MP4 Compression 300 a Tension a MP4 was tested monotonically in tension only, and one half of the applied load was consider as the design load in both compression and tension.
9 ELAZIZ AND NAGGAR ON BEHAVIOUR OF HOLLOW CORE MICROPILES 9 FIG. 12 (a) Load and displacement versus time of the cyclic compression tests on MP1. (b) Load and displacement versus time of the cyclic compression tests on MP2. (c) Load and displacement versus time of the cyclic compression tests on MP3. (d) Load and displacement versus time of the cyclic compression tests on MP4. of one cycle per minute. That was governed by the reliability of the used hydraulic jack. In each loading cycle, the examined micropile was tested to a peak load equal to 133 % of the anticipated design load (DL) and unloaded to a minimum load equal to 67 % of the anticipated design load DL. The DL considered hereby is about one half of the maximum load applied during the monotonic load test, i.e., kn. Table 7 shows the amplitude of the cyclic load applied as well as the DL calculated for each micropile. The cyclic load test started by loading the micropile statically to the DL following the quick maintained load test procedure; the load was applied in increments, and each increment maintained for 5 min. Upon reaching the DL, the micropile was loaded to the maximum load and then unloaded to the minimum load (as given in Table 7) in a relatively rapid loading rate. The micropile cyclic loading and displacement versus time are plotted in Figs. 12(a) 12(d) and 13 for the four cyclic compression tests and the single tension cyclic test, respectively. This test procedure was chosen to approximately mimic the axial response of a micropile subjected to an earthquake of PGA of 0.45 g. The PGA is reflected vertically as 0.3 g (2/3) PGA, which results in around 100 kn above and below the DL. The response of piles to cyclic loading is quite complex (El Naggar and Wei, 2000), therefore, the results of the cyclic tests are analyzed considering several aspects. The response of each pile was examined using the magnitude of the load applied at the pile head with regard to changes in the movement of the pile head at each cycle, as illustrated in Figs. 14 and 15 for the compression and tension cyclic load tests, respectively. Generally, all tested micropiles, under compression and tension, show FIG. 13 Load and displacement versus time of the tension cyclic load test on MP4.
10 10 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL FIG. 14 Load -displacement curves for the four compression cyclic test. FIG. 16 Accumulation of displacment for 15 cycles of loading and unloading. an increase in the pile head movement with the increase in the number of load cycles. However, the initial and finial displacements of the tested micropiles at the beginning and at the end of the cyclic portion of the test are not closing to each other. It seems that the performance of tested micropiles was affected by the sequence and amplitude of monotonic tests conducted on the piles prior to the cyclic tests. For example, micropiles MP1 and MP3 were tested under compression only; monotonically then cyclically. However, MP1 was tested to higher load amplitudes in both tests. Consequently, MP1 displayed higher initial and finial displacement than MP3 during the cyclic portion of the test. The effect of the sequence of the performed tests can be clearly seen in the response of MP4, which was tested monotonically then cyclically under tension, and eventually cyclically under compression. MP4 exhibited more displacement under cyclic compression that is nearly twice that under cyclic tension. Micropile MP2 showed a stiffer response to cyclic loading than all the other micropiles because it was tested initially under tension, then monotonically under compression followed by cyclically under compression. It can be concluded from the different between initial and finial displacements (at the beginning and end of cyclic loading) presented in Figs. 14 and 15 that the clayey soils at the pile-soil interface is experienced some plastic deformation over what experienced during the monotonic load test. This permanent deformation arises from the breaking of the interparticle bond between the clay particles accompanied by local realignment of those particles whenever the skin friction is mobilized at the monotonic load tests phases. To further examine the effect of the cyclic loading on the micropile head movement, the accumulating displacement of the pile head movement is plotted against the number of cycles in Fig. 16. At cycle zero, the displacement corresponds to the initial displacement of the micropiles when the maximum cyclic load was reached the first time. Figure 16 demonstrates that there was a small increase in the pile head movement due to the cyclic loading, but this increase was not accompanied by progressive degradation of the pile performance as the number of load cycles increased. Table 8 presents the percentage increase at the pile head displacement at the end of the cyclic loading relative the observed displacement at the end of the monotonic loading phase (and the beginning of cyclic loading). The stiffness of the micropiles at each load cycle can be approximated by the slope of the load-movement curve during each load cycle, i.e. K ¼ P max P min d max d min (11) TABLE 8 Percentage increase in pile head displacement at the end of cyclic loading. Type of Test Percentage Increase After 15 Cycles (%) FIG. 15 Load-displacement curves for the tension cyclic test on MP4. MP1 Compression 18 MP2 Compression 6 MP3 Compression 20 MP4 Compression 13 Tension 16.5
11 ELAZIZ AND NAGGAR ON BEHAVIOUR OF HOLLOW CORE MICROPILES 11 Conclusions Ten full scale pile monotonic and cyclic load tests were conducted on four instrumented micropiles to investigate the geotechnical behaviour of hollow-core bar micropiles. Hollow bars of type B 76 geo-drilled anchors, 76 mm OD and 48 mm ID were used employing a 176 mm carbide bit threaded onto the bar to advance it down the hole. Air flushing technique was used to flush the soil cuttings out of the hole. Three compression and two tension monotonic axial tests were conducted following the quick maintained load test procedure. This was followed by four compression and one tension one-way axial cyclic load tests. Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions may be drawn: FIG. 17 Pile head stiffness versus number of cycles for all conducted cyclic tests. where K ¼ the pile head stiffness, P max and P min ¼ the maximum and minimum applied loads during each load cycle, d max and d min ¼ the corresponding pile head movement. The pile head stiffness was calculated using Eq 11 and the results are plotted in Fig. 17. It can be noted from Fig. 17 that the stiffness of the micropiles did not show a steady trend during the load cycles, i.e., it increased slightly in some cycles and decreased in others. However, all the tested micropiles have approximately the same initial stiffness values (as showed in Table 9) except for MP2, which show a stiffer response than all the others. Not surprisingly, as MP2 under monotonic compression (Fig. 8) and monotonic tension (Fig. 9) gives a stiffer response as well. It seems that the pile MP2 experienced an increase in the base diameter during installations and grouting process. This increase could be more than the proposed % of its original diameter. The overall observed trend is that the change in stiffness is marginal with no cumulative degradation; rather a small increase was observed for some of the tested piles. It can be concluded from these observations that the micropiles did not exhibit any form of full debonding at the pile-soil interface. In addition, the cyclic load test phase demonstrates that the over-consolidated clay is not sensitive to small changes in magnitude and amplitudes of the cyclic load but it is affected by the sequence of load applied. It should be noted, however, that these observations are only relevant to the range of applied magnitudes of cyclic loading. The behaviour of hollow core micropiles could be different if higher cyclic loads are applied. TABLE 9 Initial and final stiffness of all the micropiles after the cyclic load test. Type of Cyclic Test Initial Stiffness (MN/m) Finial Stiffness (MN/m) MP1 Compression MP2 Compression MP3 Compression MP4 Compression Tension Categorizing the hollow core micropiles as type B underestimates the interface bond strength. Hollow core micropiles should be treated as a special grouted micropile, upon a proper documentation. This category should take into consideration factors such as the pressure, speed, and method of installation/flushing, and grouting pressure. 2. No full debonding occurred at the grout/ground interface during the cyclic load test for the range of loading considered in this study. 3. An increase in the accumulated pile head movement is detected throughout the cyclic loading, albeit at a small rate. The total final increase of pile head movement ranged between 6 and 18 % of the initial displacement at the beginning of the cyclic load phase. 4. All tested micropiles showed either unchanged or slightly increased pile head stiffness after 15 load cycles. 5. For hollow core micropiles installed in over-consolidated clay, the response may be affected by the sequence at which the loading is the applied loads. The foregoing conclusions are based on limited exploratory investigation considering only four hollow core micropiles. It is anticipated that the behaviour of the micropiles would be different if it is subjected to higher load amplitudes and/or higher number of cycles during the cyclic load tests. Acknowledgments The writers would like to acknowledge the kind support provided by Williams Form Hardware for funding and supplying the steel bars and drilling bits for the project; EBS Engineering and Construction Limited, for installing the micropiles and for help setting the reaction frame; and BASF for providing the grout at no cost. Special thanks to Mr. Martin Hodgson from Williams for his technical support throughout the research project. References ASTM Standard D , 1994, Standard Test Method for Deep Foundations Under Static Axial Compressive Load, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol , ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp ASTM Standard D , 2007, Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations Under Static Axial Tensile Load, Annual
12 12 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL Book of ASTM Standards, Vol , ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp ASTM Standard A519-06, 2006, Stander Specification of Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol , ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp ASTM Standard A615/A615M-09b, 2009, Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol , ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp ASTM Standard C469/C469M-10, 2010, Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson s Ratio of Concrete in Compression, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol , ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp Bennett, J. K. and Hothem, N. L, 2010, Hollow Bar Micropiles for Settlement Control in Soft Clay, Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Micropile, Washinton, D.C, USA Sept Bruce, D. A., Bjorhovde, R., and Kenny, J. R., 1993, Fundamental Tests on the Performance of High Capacity Pin Piles, Proceeding of DFI Annual meeting, Pittsburgh PA, Oct Cavey, J. K., Lambert, D. V., Miller, S. M., and Krhounek, R.C., 2000, Observations of Minipile Performance under Cyclic Loading Conditions, Ground Improve., Vol. 4(1), pp Davisson, M.T., 1972, High Capacity Piles, Proceedings of Soil Mechanics Lecture Series on Innovations in Foundation Construction, ASCE, IL Section, Chicago, pp El Naggar, M. H. and Wei, J. Q., 2000, Cyclic Response of Axially Loaded Tapered Piles, Geotech. Test. J., Vol. 23(1), pp Federal Highway Administration, 1992, Static Testing of Deep Foundations, FHWA Publication No. FHWA-SA , U.S. Department of Transportation, McLean, VA, p Federal Highway Administration, 2000, Micropile Design and Construction Guidelines Implementation Manual, FHWA Publication No. FHWA-SA , US Department of Transportation, McLean, VA, p Gómez, J. E., Cadden, A. W., and Bruce, D. A., 2003, Micropiles in Rock. Development and Evolution of Bond Stresses under Repeated Loading, Proceeding of the 12th Pan-American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Cambridge, MA, June Gómez, J. E., Rodriguez, C. J., Robinson, H. D., Mikitka, J., and Keough. L., 2007, Hollow Core Bar Micropiles Installation, Testing, and Interpolation of Design Parameter of 260 Micropiles, Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Micropile, Toronto, Canada Sept Jeon, S. S., 2004, Interpretation of Load Tests on Minipiles, Proceeding of Civil Engineers Geotechnical Engineering, ICE, 157(GE2), pp Mitchell, C. L. B., Mathieson, W. L., and Hopkins, T.W., 2007, Micropile Load Transfer Rates and Bond Stresses in the Puget Sound Region of Washington State, U.S.A, Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Micropile, Toronto, Canada Sept Post-Tensioning Institute, 2004, Recommendations for Prestressed Rock and Soil Anchors, Phoenix, AZ, p Rollins, K. M., Olsen, R. J., Egbert, J. J., Jensen, D. H., Olsen, K.G., and Garrett, B.H., 2006, Pile Spacing Effects on Lateral Pile Group Behavior: Load Tests, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., Vol. 132(10), pp Sivrikaya, O., Togrol, E., 2006, Determination of Undrained Strength of Fine-Grained Soils by Means of SPT and its Applications in Turkey, Eng. Geology, Vol. 86(1), pp Telford, W. W., Kokan, M. J., and Aschenbroich, H. K., 2009, Pile Load Tests of Titan Injection Bored Micropiles at an Industrial Plant in North Vancouver, Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Micropile, London, England, May Terzaghi, K., Peck R. B., and Mesri, G., 1996, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York. Williams Form Engineering Crop, 2010, Ground Anchored System No. 109, Belmont, MI, p. 76.
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