ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT

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1 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_003 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT Prof. Dr. Ammar Yaser Ali and Ahmed Mohammed Mahdi Civil Engineering Dept. Collage of Engineering University of Babylon, Iraq ABSTRACT This research is devoted to investigate the behavior and ultimate strength of concrete corbels with hybrid reinforcement (steel and CFRP) bars subject to vertical distributed applied load only. Experimental investigation were carried on eighteen specimens and divided in two groups according to location of hybrid reinforcement. The experimental program variables include ratio of hybridization, location of hybrid reinforcement, and shear span-toeffective depth (a/d) ratio. All specimens had the same dimensions and tested as upside down double-symmetrical concrete corbels. The experimental program results obtained from the adopted hybridization reinforcement technique showed that a significant improvement in the behavior and carrying capacity of the tested corbels with an increase about (5.6% - 44%), and (2.3% - 20%) in the ultimate load with (a/d) (0.75, and 0.33) respectively, for specimens with main tension hybrid reinforcement with ratio (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100) %. For specimens hybrid in horizontal (closed stirrup) reinforcement, when increase the hybridization ratio of secondary reinforcement from (0 to 50) % and from (0 to 100) %, the ultimate shear strength will increase by about (16%, 10%) and (6.4%, 15.5%) with shear span-to-effective depth ratio (0.75, and 0.33) respectively. The increase in strength and stiffness was realized at the expense of a loss in ductility due to the brittle behavior of CFRP bars. The presence of CFRP bars increased the deflection and crack width at service state, and increased the concrete strain with increasing the hybridization ratio, this was expected due to lower the modulus of elasticity and bond strength of CFRP bars compared with steel bars. Keywords: Corbel, Behavior and ultimate strength, Hybrid reinforcement and Steel with CFRP bars

2 Prof. Dr. Ammar Yaser Ali and Ahmed Mohammed Mahdi Cite this Article: Prof. Dr. Ammar Yaser Ali and Ahmed Mohammed Mahdi. Analysis for Behavior And ultimate Strength of Concrete Corbels with Hybrid Reinforcement. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 6(10), 2015, pp INTRODUCTION Corbels are short cantilevers with a shear span to depth ratio lower than unity which tend to act as deep beams or simple trusses rather than flexural members [1], they are generally built monolithically with the columns or walls. They are also used particularly in precast structures where their principal function is the transfer of vertical and horizontal forces to supporting principal members. Corbels are principally designed to resist the ultimate shear force Vu applied to them by the beam and they behave like short cantilevered deep beam so the common behavior is governed by shear rather than flexural. The applied loads are transferred predominately through shear, because of the usually low shear span to effective depth ratio. The mechanical behavior of concrete corbels at failure may be either a flexural failure or beam-shear failure after yielding of the reinforcement. The ultimate strength of a corbel can be calculated by taking it to be lesser of (a) shear strength of the corbel interface, which can be calculated using the shear friction theorem; and (b) vertical load that cause to the development of the flexural ultimate strength of the corbelcolumn interface [2]. FRP internal reinforcement is widely used in commercial applications as an alternative to conventional steel reinforcement primarily to enhance the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures. Three important physical characteristics of fiber reinforced polymer materials must be considered: high-tensile strength; lowmodulus of elasticity; and linear-elastic brittle behavior to failure [3]. CFRP bars using in the present study with steel bars as hybrid reinforcement in primary or secondary reinforcement. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM A total of eighteen corbels were tested under vertical distributed applied load. The experimental study consisted of two test groups. Group (A) included main hybrid reinforcement with percentage (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%), while Group (B) included horizontal (closed stirrup) hybrid reinforcement with percentage (50%, and 100%). The two (a/d) ratios evaluated were (0.75), and (0.33) used in each one of the test groups (A and B). As shown in Figure (1), the column supporting the two corbels cantilevering on opposite side was 200mm by 180mm in cross section and 575mm long. Corbels had cantilever projection length of 300mm, 180mm width, and total depth of 275mm at face of column and 150mm at the free end, and the effective depth 240mm with shear span 180 mm, or 80 mm. Columns were reinforced with four deformed bars having a 16mm diameter and stirrups having a 6mm diameter placed at pitch of 125mm. The primary reinforcement (main bars) having diameter 6mm of steel and/or CFRP bars with varying ratios of hybridization, placed at the top of the corbel with an effective cover of 35mm. Main bars were welded with cross bar of 8mm diameter, near the end of each corbels, to provide additional anchorage. The horizontal closed stirrup having diameter 6mm of steel and/or CFRP bars with varying ratios of hybridization. These closed stirrups were anchored by framing bars of diameter 6mm

3 Analysis for Behavior And ultimate Strength of Concrete Corbels with Hybrid Reinforcement Figure 1 Details of reinforcing and geometry of tested corbels The hybridization processes are replaced part of the steel bars by CFRP bars with an equal area to improve properties of reinforcement system and benefit from nonmetallic material in the present study field. Hybridization process used an equal area of reinforcement and symmetry distribution to easy comparison, and explored the effect of considered variable. Two pilot, two control corbels (homogenous) and fourteen hybrid reinforcement corbels are tested with deferent (a/d) ratio (0.75, and 0.33). Twelve of them hybrid in main tension reinforcement and the other in horizontal (closed stirrup) reinforcement. Figure (2) shows hybridization processes in these groups

4 Prof. Dr. Ammar Yaser Ali and Ahmed Mohammed Mahdi a) Hybridization in Main Reinforcement. b) Hybridization in Horizontal Reinforcement. Figure 2 Hybridization processes 3. MATERIALS In the experimental program, (Ø6mm) deformed, mild steel bars and (Ø6mm) of CFRP bars are employed as tension reinforcement and closed stirrup. Because of the need to weld and bend in the reinforcement details of corbels according to the requirements of ACI-code , and the inability to do that with the CFRP bars, we 28

5 Analysis for Behavior And ultimate Strength of Concrete Corbels with Hybrid Reinforcement searched for a way that led us to do that, galvanized steel clamp was the acceptable way for this purpose. Ordinary portland cement (Type I) from Iraq plant named TASLUJA. Crushed gravel from Al-Nibaey region with maximum size of (14 mm). Natural sand from AL-NAJAF city in Iraq with maximum size of (4.75 mm) and fineness modulus of (2.46) [4]. Normal strength concrete was used to cast all specimens. Normal strength concrete mix was designed in accordance with ACI-211 mix design with nominal compressive strength of about (30MPa). In order to select the mix proportion for the concrete used in preparing the reinforced concrete corbels, three trial mixes were carried out in order to obtain cylinder strength of (30MPa) after age 28-days.The final mix used was 1:1.8:2.3 by weight. The water cement ratio was equal to 0.53 and cement content was 407 kg/m3. 4. TEST MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION The hydraulic universal testing machine has a capacity of (2000 kn) was used to test the corbel specimen, as shown in Plate (1). The deflections were measured by means of (0.01 mm) accuracy dial gauge. Strain of concrete measured used demic point and dial gauge with accuracy of (0.001 mm). 5. TEST PROCEDURE All corbels were painted with white color to observe the crack development and marked, demic discs were fixed on marking location. At first, the specimens loaded by 5 kn to seat the support and the loading system, then unloading to zero. The load increment was 15 kn along the test. The deflection corresponding to the applied load was measured at every load step at center of column. Also, recording the first crack load, the ultimate load, and the concrete strain were measured, for each corbel. Finally the maximum crack width was measured at the end the test by crack meter. Plate 1 Testing Machine 29

6 Prof. Dr. Ammar Yaser Ali and Ahmed Mohammed Mahdi 6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The overall behavior and strength of sixteen corbels reinforced with steel bars and/or CFRP bars will be investigated and discussed. During the experimental work, load versus deflection, first cracking load and ultimate loads, cracking patterns, maximum crack width, concrete strains and modes of failure were recorded for each tested corbel specimen. Table (3) shows first crack, ultimate load, ultimate deflection, and mode of failure. Table 1 Cracking load, ultimate load and failure modes of the tested corbels 6.1. Deflections and Cracks Pattern for Specimens with Main Hybrid Reinforcement Load-deflection curves of the tested corbels and cracks pattern at all stages of loading up to failure were constructed and shown in Figures(3) and (4), and Plate(2)

7 Analysis for Behavior And ultimate Strength of Concrete Corbels with Hybrid Reinforcement Figure 3 Load-deflection curve for specimens with main hybrid reinforcement and (a/d=0.75) Figure 4 Load-Deflection Curve for Specimens with Main Hybrid Reinforcement and (a/d=0.33) 31

8 Prof. Dr. Ammar Yaser Ali and Ahmed Mohammed Mahdi 32

9 Analysis for Behavior And ultimate Strength of Concrete Corbels with Hybrid Reinforcement Plate 2 Cracks pattern for specimens with main hybrid reinforcement 6.2. Deflections and Cracks Pattern for Specimens with Secondary Hybrid Reinforcement Load-deflection curves of the tested corbels and cracks pattern at all stages of loading up to failure were constructed and shown in Figures(5) and (6), and Plate(3). Figure 5 Load-deflection curve for specimens with secondary hybrid reinforcement and (a/d=0.75) Figure 6 Load-deflection curve for specimens with secondary hybrid reinforcement and (a/d=0.33) 33

10 Prof. Dr. Ammar Yaser Ali and Ahmed Mohammed Mahdi Plate 3 Cracks pattern for specimens with secondary hybrid reinforcement 7. CONCLUSIONS Based on the experimental testing results and the theoretical analysis results obtained by ANSYS Program version (14.5) for the models of reinforced concrete corbels with hybrid reinforcement together with parametric study, the following conclusions can be stated within the scope of this study: The crowded corbel reinforcement according to the requirements of ACI code provisions and the small size of corbels when compared with other structural elements make the use of hybrid reinforcement better solutions for this problem. The problems associated with the brittle nature of CFRP bars can be overcome by combining CFRP and steel bars to take advantage of features with collected together in hybrid reinforcement technology. Presence of CFRP bars as an alternative to steel bars led to increase the ultimate shear strength of concrete corbels by about (5.6-44) %, and (2.3-20) % for specimens with hybrid in main reinforcement only (group A) with (a/d) (0.75, and 0.33) respectively when an increase in the hybridization ratio (20-100)%. When increase the hybridization ratio of secondary reinforcement from (0 to 50)% and (0 to 100)%, the ultimate shear strength will increase by about (16%, 10%) and (6.4%, 15.5%) for span of shear-to-effective depth ratio (0.75, and 0.33), respectively. The first cracking loads were increased by about (0-43.4)% and decreased by about (0-18.6)% with increasing hybridization ratio (20-100)% for specimens 34

11 Analysis for Behavior And ultimate Strength of Concrete Corbels with Hybrid Reinforcement hybridization in main reinforcement only with (a/d) (0.75, and 0.33) respectively and decreased by about (18.6%) and (13.9%) for specimens hybridization in closed stirrup only with (a/d) (0.75) and a little effect in first crack load with (a/d) (0.33) when increased the hybridization ratio (50% to 100%). For concrete corbels with hybrid reinforcement in main tension and with (a/d) (0.75), the mode of failure altered from tension to compression flexural failure followed by diagonal splitting with increasing the hybridization ratio. While the corbels with (a/d) (0.33), the mode of failure classified as shear-friction failure without changing. For concrete corbels with hybrid reinforcement in horizontal closed stirrup and with (a/d) (0.75), the mode of failure altered from flexural tension failure to premature diagonal splitting failure with increasing the hybridization ratio. While the corbels with (a/d) (0.33), the mode of failure classified as shear-friction failure without changing. Deflection at service loads increase for all specimens with increase the hybridization ratio, due to brittle behavior, lower modules of elasticity, and lower bond strength for CFRP bars, in sup-group AI (main hybrid reinforcement with (a/d) (0.75)) the deflection increasing (18.75% - 125%) and for sup-group AII (main hybrid reinforcement with (a/d) 0.33)) the increasing (18.4% %), for sup-group BI, and BII (secondary hybrid reinforcement with (a/d)(0.75, and 0.33) the increasing (20% %), (12.2% %), respectively with increase the hybridization ratio (50% to 100%). The ultimate shear strength predicted by the numerical analysis were close to that measured during experimental testing with maximum difference (2.8%) as average. The first cracking load obtained from numerical data showed results lower than the experimental data recorded with difference about (8.75%) as average. 8. REFERENCES [1] ACI Committee 318, 2011, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI ), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, USA, pp [2] Mattock, A. H., Chen, K.C, and Soongswang, K., 1976, The Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Corbels, Journal of PCI Journal, March, pp [3] ACI Committee 440, 2006, Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars (ACI 440.XR), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, pp [4] Javaid Ahmad and Dr. Javed Ahmad Bhat. Ductility of Timber Beams Strengthened Using CFRP Plates. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 4(5), 2013, pp [5] Iraqi Specification No.45, 1984, Natural Sources for Gravel that is used in concrete and construction, Baghdad, [6] Iraqi Specification No.5, 1984, Portland cement, Baghdad, [7] Yaman S.S. Al-Kamaki, Riadh Al-Mahaidi and Azad A. Mohammed. Behavior of Concrete Damaged By High Temperature Exposure and Confined with CFRP Fabrics. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 5(8), 2014, pp

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