1 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 Eurocode 7 - Geotechnical design - Part 2 Ground investigation and testing Dr.-Ing. Bernd Schuppener, Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute, Karlsruhe, Germany
2 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 2 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Part 1: General rules 2.4 Geotechnical design by calculation General (2) It should be considered that knowledge of the ground conditions depends on the extent and quality of the geotechnical investigations. Such knowledge and the control of workmanship are usually more significant to fulfilling the fundamental requirements than is precision in the calculation models and partial factors.
3 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Scope of Eurocode 7-2 (1) EN is intended to be used in conjunction with EN and provides rules supplementary to EN related to: planning and reporting of ground investigations; general requirements for a number of commonly used laboratory and field tests; interpretation and evaluation of test results; derivation of values of geotechnical parameters and coefficients.
4 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 4 Hierarchy of standards EC 7 Geotechnical design - part 2 Ground investigation and testing EN ISO Field testing Part 1 to to CEN ISO/TS Laboratory tests Part 1-12 EN ISO EN ISO Identification and classification of of soil and rock EN ISO Sampling and groundwater measurements
5 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 5 Content of Eurocode General 2. Planning of ground investigations 3. Soil and rock sampling and groundwater measurements 4. Field tests in soil and rock 5. Laboratory tests on soil and rock 6. Ground investigation report 23 Annexes
6 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Specific definitions used in EN derived value 1.5 Definitions value of a geotechnical parameter obtained from test results by theory, correlation or empiricism.
7 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Test results and derived values
8 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 8 Content of Eurocode General 2. Planning of ground investigations 3. Soil and rock sampling and groundwater measurements 4. Field tests in soil and rock 5. Laboratory tests on soil and rock 6. Ground investigation report 23 Annexes
9 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 9 2 Planning of ground investigations 2.1 Objectives 2.2 Sequence of ground investigations 2.3 Preliminary investigations 2.4 Design investigations Field investigations Laboratory tests 2.5 Controlling and monitoring
10 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop General 2.1 Objectives (1)P Geotechnical investigations shall be planned in such a way as to ensure that relevant geotechnical information and data are available at the various stages of the project. (6) Before designing the investigation programme, the available information and documents should be evaluated in a desk study. (7) Examples of information and documents that can be used are: geological maps and descriptions; previous investigations at the site and in the surroundings; aerial photos and previous photo interpretations; topographical maps;
11 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Objectives Ground (1)P Ground investigations shall provide a description of ground conditions relevant to the proposed works and establish a basis for the assessment of the geotechnical parameters relevant for all construction stages. (2) The information obtained should enable assessment of the following aspects, if possible: the suitability of the site with respect to the proposed construction and the level of acceptable risks; the deformation of the ground caused by the structure or resulting from construction works, its spatial distribution and behaviour over time;
12 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Objectives (2) The information obtained should enable assessment of the following aspects, if possible (continued): the safety with respect to limit states (e.g. subsidence, ground heave, uplift, slippage of soil and rock masses, buckling of piles, etc.); the loads transmitted from the ground to the structure (e.g. lateral pressures on piles) and the extent to which they depend on its design and construction; the foundation methods (e.g. ground improvement, whether it is possible to excavate, driveability of piles, drainage); the sequence of foundation works; the effects of the structure and its use on the surroundings;
13 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Objectives (2) The information obtained should enable assessment of the following aspects, if possible (continued): any additional structural measures required (e.g. support of excavation, anchorage, sleeving of bored piles, removal of obstructions); the effects of construction work on the surroundings; the type and extent of ground contamination on, and in the vicinity of, the site; the effectiveness of measures taken to contain or remedy contamination.
14 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Ground water 2.1 Objectives (3) The information obtained should be sufficient to assess the following aspects, where relevant: the scope for and nature of groundwater-lowering work; possible harmful effects of the groundwater on excavations or on slopes any measures necessary to protect the structure; the effects of groundwater lowering, desiccation, impounding etc. on the surroundings; the capacity of the ground to absorb water injected during construction work; whether it is possible to use local groundwater, given its chemical constitution, for construction purposes.
15 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Sequence of ground investigations Desk studies Preliminary investigations Design investigations Supervision of construction (EC 7-1) Controlling and monitoring (EC 7-1)
16 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Design investigations Locations and depths of the investigation points (2) When selecting the locations of investigation points, the following should be observed: the investigation points should be arranged in such a pattern that the stratification can be assessed across the site; the investigation points for a building or structure should be placed at critical points relative to the shape, structural behaviour and expected load distribution (e.g. at the corners of the foundation area); for linear structures, investigation points should be arranged at adequate offsets to the centre line, depending on the overall width of the structure, such as an embankment footprint or a cutting;
17 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Design investigations Locations and depths of the investigation points (2) When selecting the locations of investigation points, the following should be observed (continued): - for structures on or near slopes and steps in the terrain (including excavations), investigation points should also be arranged outside the project area, these being located so that the stability of the slope or cut can be assessed. - Where anchorages are installed, due consideration should be given to the likely stresses in their load transfer zone; the investigation points should be arranged so that they do not present a hazard to the structure, the construction work, or the surroundings (e.g. they may cause changes to the ground and groundwater conditions);
18 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Design investigations Locations and depths of the investigation points (2) When selecting the locations of investigation points, the following should be observed (continued): the area considered in the design investigations should extend into the neighbouring area to a distance where no harmful influence on the neighbouring area is expected; for groundwater measuring points, the possibility of using the equipment installed during the ground investigation for continued monitoring during and after the construction period should be considered.
19 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Design investigations (6)P The depth of investigations shall be extended to all strata that will affect the project or are affected by the construction. For dams, weirs and excavations below groundwater level, and where dewatering work is involved, the depth of investigation shall also be selected as a function of the hydro-geological conditions. Slopes and steps in the terrain shall be explored to depths below any potential slip surface. NOTE For the spacing of investigation points and investigation depths, the values given in Annex B.3 can be used as guidance.
20 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 20 Annex B.3 Examples of recommendations for the spacing and depth of investigations (1) The following spacing of investigation points should be used as guidance: for high-rise and industrial structures, a grid pattern with points at 15 m to 40 m distance; for large-area structures, a grid pattern with points at not more than 60 m distance; for linear structures (roads, railways, channels, pipelines, dikes, tunnels, retaining walls), a spacing of 20 m to 200 m; for special structures (e.g. bridges, stacks, machinery foundations), two to six investigation points per foundation; for dams and weirs, 25 m to 75 m distance, along vertical sections.
21 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 21 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations (5) For high-rise structures and civil engineering projects, the larger value of the following conditions should be applied: z a 6 m; z a 3,0 b F. where b F is the smaller side length of the foundation.
22 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 22 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations (6) For raft foundations and structures with several foundation elements whose effects in deeper strata are superimposed on each other: z a 1,5 b B where b B is the smaller side of the structure,
23 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 23 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations (7) Embankments and cuttings, the larger value of the following conditions should be met: a) For dams: 0,8h < z a < 1,2h z a 6 m where h is the embankment height. b) For cuttings: z a 2,0 m z a 0,4h where h is the dam height or depth of cutting.
24 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 24 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations Road Trench For roads and airfields: z a 2 m below the proposed formation level. For trenches and pipelines, the larger value of: z a 2 m below the invert level; z a 1,5b Ah where b Ah is the width of excavation.
25 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 25 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations (9) For small tunnels and caverns: b Ab < z a < 2,0b Ab where b Ab is the width of excavation. The groundwater conditions described in (10) b) should also be taken into account.
26 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 26 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations (10) Excavations a) Where the piezometric surface and the groundwater tables are below the excavation base, the larger value of the following conditions should be met: z a 0,4h z a (t + 2,0) m where: t is the embedded length of the support; and h is the excavation depth.
27 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 27 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations b) Where the piezometric surface and the groundwater tables are above the excavation base, the larger value of the following conditions should be met: z a (1,0 H + 2,0) m z a (t + 2,0) m where H is the height of the groundwater level above the excavation base; and t is the embedded length of the support.
28 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 28 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations (12) For cut-off walls: z a 2 m below the surface of the stratum impermeable to groundwater.
29 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 29 Annex B.3: Spacing and depth of investigations (13) For piles the following three conditions should be met: z a 1,0b g z a 5,0 m z a 3D F where D F is the pile base diameter; and b g is the smaller side of the rectangle circumscribing the group of piles forming the foundation at the level of the pile base.
30 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 30 2 Planning of ground investigations Sampling (2)P For identification and classification of the ground, at least one borehole or trial pit with sampling shall be available. Samples shall be obtained from every separate ground layer influencing the behaviour of the structure. (3) Sampling may be replaced by field tests if there is enough local experience to correlate the field tests with the ground conditions to ensure unambiguous interpretation of the results. (7) Samples should be taken at any change of stratum and at a specified spacing, usually not larger than 3 m. In inhomogeneous soil, or if a detailed definition of the ground conditions is required, continuous sampling by drilling should be carried out or samples recovered at very short intervals.
31 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 31 2 Planning of ground investigations 2.5 Controlling and monitoring (1)P A number of checks and additional tests shall be made during the construction and execution of the project, when relevant, in order to check that the ground conditions agree with those determined in the design investigations and that the properties of the delivered construction materials and the construction works correspond to those presumed or specified. (2)P The following control measures shall be applied: check of ground profile when excavating; inspection of the bottom of the excavation.
32 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 32 3 Soil and rock sampling and groundwater measurements 3.1 General 3.2 Sampling by drilling 3.3 Sampling by excavation 3.4 Soil sampling 3.5 Rock sampling 3.6 Groundwater measurements in soils and rocks
33 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Soil sampling (1)P Samples shall contain all the mineral constituents of the strata from which they have been taken. They shall not be contaminated by any material from other strata or from additives used during the sampling procedure. (2)P Three sampling method categories shall be considered (EN ISO ), depending on the desired sample quality as follows: category A sampling methods: samples of quality class 1 to 5 can be obtained; category B sampling methods: samples of quality class 3 to 5 can be obtained; category C sampling methods: only samples of quality class 5 can be obtained.
34 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Soil sampling (6)P Soil samples for laboratory tests are divided in five quality classes with respect to the soil properties that are assumed to remain unchanged during sampling and handling, transport and storage.
35 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Soil sampling Table Quality classes of soil samples for laboratory testing and sampling categories to be used Soil properties / quality class Unchanged soil properties particle size water content density, density index, permeability compressibility, shear strength Properties that can be determined: sequence of layers boundaries of strata broad boundaries of strata fine Atterberg limits, particle density, organic content water content density, density index, porosity, permeability compressibility, shear strength A Sampling category according to EN ISO B C
36 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 36 4 Field tests in soil and rock 4.1 General 4.2 General requirements 4.3 Cone penetration and piezocone penetration tests (CPT, CPTU) 4.4 Pressuremeter tests (PMT) 4.5 Flexible dilatometer test (FDT) 4.6 Standard penetration test SPT 4.7 Dynamic probing tests (DP) 4.8 Weight sounding test (WST) 4.9 Field vane test (FVT) 4.10 Flat dilatometer test (DMT) 4.11 Plate loading test (PLT)
37 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Cone penetration tests (1) The objective of the cone penetration test (CPT) is to determine the resistance of soil and soft rock to the penetration of a cone and the local friction on a sleeve. (2)P The CPT consists of pushing a cone penetrometer vertically into the soil using a series of push rods. The cone penetrometer shall be pushed into the soil at a constant rate of penetration. The cone penetrometer comprises the cone and if appropriate a cylindrical shaft or friction sleeve. The penetration resistance of the cone q c as well as, if appropriate, the local friction on the friction sleeve shall be measured.
38 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Cone penetration and piezocone penetration tests (CPT, CPTU) Porewater pressure measurement: u 1 : on the cone face u 2 : at the cylindrical extension of the cone u 3 : directly behind the friction sleeve
39 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Cone penetration and piezocone penetration tests (CPT, CPTU) q c cone resistance (bar) f s sleeve friction (bar) friction ratio R ft =100 F s /q c Sandy fill fine and medium sand Glacial till
40 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Cone penetration and piezocone penetration tests (CPT, CPTU) friction ratio R ft = f S /q c 100 q c cone penetration resistance friction ratio R ft = f S /q c 100
41 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Cone penetration tests - Annex D D.1 Example for deriving values of the effective angle of shearing resistance and drained Young s modulus D.2 Example of a correlation between the cone penetration resistance and the effective angle of shearing resistance D.3 Example of a method to determine the settlement for spread foundations D.4 Example of a correlation between the oedometer modulus and the cone penetration resistance D.5 Examples of establishing the stress-dependent oedometer modulus from CPT results D.6 Example of a correlation between compressive resistance of a single pile and cone penetration resistance D.7 Example of a method to determine the compressive resistance of a single pile.
42 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 42 Annex D Cone penetration tests Table D.1: Effective angle of shearing resistance (ϕ ) and drained Young s modulus of elasticity (E ) from cone penetration resistance (q c ) a b Values given are valid for sands. For silty soil a reduction of 3 should be made. For gravels 2 should be added. E' is an approximation to the stress and time dependent secant modulus. Values given for the drained modulus correspond to settlements for 10 years. They are obtained assuming that the vertical stress distribution follows the 2:1 approximation.
43 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 43 5 Laboratory tests 5.1 General 5.2 General requirements for laboratory tests 5.3 Preparation of soil specimens for testing 5.4 Preparation of rock specimens for testing 5.5 Tests for classification, identification and description of soil 5.6 Chemical testing of soil and groundwater 5.7 Strength index testing of soil 5.8 Strength testing of soil 5.9 Compressibility and deformation testing of soil 5.10 Compaction testing of soil 5.11 Permeability testing of soil 5.12 Tests for classification of rocks 5.13 Swelling testing of rock material 5.14 Strength testing of rock material
44 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Strength testing of soil - Annex P Table P.1 Triaxial compression tests. Recommended minimum number of tests for one soil stratum
45 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Compressibility and deformation testing of soil - Annex Q Table Q.1 Incremental oedometer test. Recommended minimum number of tests for one soil stratum Variability in oedometer modulus E oed Comparable experience (in the relevant stress range) None Medium Extensive Range of values of E oed 50 % % < Range of values of E oed < 50 % Range of values of E oed 20 % a a One oedometer test and classification tests to verify compatibility with comparable knowledge (see Q.1 (2)).
46 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Permeability testing of soil Annex S Table S.1 - Permeability tests. Recommended minimum number of soil specimens to be tested for one soil stratum. Variability in measured coefficient of permeability (k) Comparable experience None Medium Extensive k max /k min > < k max /k min k max /k min a a A single test and classification tests to verify compatibility with existing knowledge.
47 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 47 6 Ground investigation report 6.1 General requirements 6.2 Presentation of geotechnical information 6.3 Evaluation of geotechnical information 6.4 Establishment of derived values
48 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 48 6 Ground investigation report 6.1 General requirements (1)P The results of a geotechnical investigation shall be compiled in the Ground Investigation Report which shall form a part of the Geotechnical Design Report. (2)P The Ground Investigation Report shall consist of, if appropriate a presentation of all available geotechnical information including geological features and relevant data; a geotechnical evaluation of the information, stating the assumptions made in the interpretation of the test results.
49 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 49 6 Ground investigation report 6.2 Presentation of geotechnical information (1)P The presentation of geotechnical information shall include a factual account of all field and laboratory investigations. (2) The factual account should include the following information, as relevant:......
50 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 50 6 Ground investigation report 6.3 Evaluation of geotechnical information (1)P The evaluation of the geotechnical information shall be documented and include, if appropriate: the results and a review of the field investigations, laboratory tests and all other information; a description of the geometry of the strata; detailed descriptions of all strata including their physical properties and their deformation and strength characteristics; comments on irregularities such as cavities. 6.4 Establishment of derived values (1)P If correlations have been used to derive geotechnical parameters or coefficients, the correlations and their applicability shall be documented.
51 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop Test results and derived values
52 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 52 Summary Eurocode 7 part 2 Ground investigation and testing gives guidance for the planning of ground investigation with respect to the location, the depth, the type and the number of investigations, gives the essential requirements for the sampling in soil and rock, the handling and processing of the samples in the laboratory and defines what a Ground Investigation Report must contain.
53 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 53 Thank you
54 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 54 Annex B.3 Examples of recommendations for the spacing and depth of investigations (2) For the investigation depth z a the following values should be used as guidance. (The reference level for z a is the lowest point of the foundation of the structure or structural element, or the excavation base.) Where more than one alternative is specified for establishing z a, the one which yields the largest value should be applied.
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Peat Stability Risk and Hazard Assessment Ian Uglow Technical Director, SLR Consulting firstname.lastname@example.org 7 th October 2010 What goes into a Peat Stability Risk Assessment? You will need: An understanding
Tests and Analyses on Shear Strength Increment of Soft Soil under Embankment Fill Guanbao Ye Professor Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering,Tongji University, Ministry of Education,
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Date January 30 2015 Status Final Soil Investigations Wind Farm Zones Section IV-d Scope of Work geotechnical Survey Borssele Wind Farm Zone WIND FARM SITE I & II Colophon Project name Project number Version