1 INTEGRATED NATIONAL ADAPTATION PILOT INAP Ecosystem Based Adaptation High Mountain Ecosystems Angela Andrade Technical Coordinator INAP Klaus Schutze Páez Coordinator Comp B
2 CLIMATE CHANGE IN COLOMBIA VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE: First National Communication -High Andean Ecosystems. -Marine and Coastal areas. -Human Health. Annual mean temperature increase C/per decade. Variation in annual rainfall averages ( 4 to +6 % per decade). Sea levell rise: 3-5 mm/year (Pacific coast) and 1-2 mm/year (Caribbean coast). Increased exposure to tropical vector diseases. Glacier retrieval in Andean mountains
3 HIGH MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS IN COLOMBIA - Territories located above 2740 m. - 4% of the Country. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT Paramos (Moorlands) and High Andean Forest are ecosystems under threat. Water and carbon storing capacity affected due to temperature increase and rainfall reduction. Hydrological and temperature changes lead to biodiversity loss and affect ecosystem services, e. g. Hydrological potential, water supply and water regulation.
4 GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To support Colombia's efforts to define and implement specific pilot adaptation measures and policy options to meet the anticipated impacts of climate change. PROJECT COMPONENTS A. Making Climate, climate variability and climate change information available for adoption of adaptation measures and policies. B. Design and implementation of an adaptation program that supports maintenance of environmental services in Chingaza, in the Andes. C. Design and adoption of an adaptation program in the Colombian Caribbean Insular Areas. OBJECTIVE COMPONENT B: To develop an adaptation to climate change program focused on the reduction of the vulnerability of the Chingaza Massif to climate change. Protection of Paramo ecosystems. Adaptation of local populations to the decrease in water availability D. Responses to the increased exposure to tropical vector-borne diseases (malaria and dengue) induced by Climate Change. E. Project Management
5 Ecosystem Based Adaptation Conceptual Framework Integrates the use of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in the Adaptation strategy, specially at local level. Reduce vulnerability of people and ecosystems and Increases resilience to CC. Considers the principles of the Ecosystem Approach: Ecological Integrity and Social Participation. Adaptation as a cultural process. Implementation Key for the definition of Adaptation measures, actions and implementation. Policy and territorial planning. Collective actions developed d by government, communities and other relevant stakeholders in order to empower local action to promote ecosystem management and increase resilience.
6 The definition of adaptation measures begins with the identification of the most vulnerable ecosystem services to climate change and its relationship with ecosystem structure and function. SUPPORTING: - C02 fixation: 70% soil and 30% biomass. - Soil formation - Biodiversity - Nutrient Cycle PROVISIONING: - Food - Medicines - Fuel - Wood and Fiber - Freshwater ECOSYSTEM SERVICES- HIGH MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS REGULATING: -Water regulation. -Erosion control. -Quantity and Quality of Water. -Natural Risks Reduction. -Water holding capacity. -Groundwater recharge. CULTURAL: -Aesthetic -Religious. -Recreation and tourism. -Cultural Heritage
7 Adaptation Measures: 1. Mainstreaming i GCC information into ecosystem planning and management in Chingaza for the maintenance of ecosystem services. 2. Reduction of adverse impacts on water regulation in the Río Blanco watershed. 3. Guidelines for incorporating GCC issues in planning process. 4. Improvements of productive agro-ecosystems in the Río Blanco watershed:
8 ACTIONS: Linking territorial planning with adaptation: Restoration of natural infrastructure, reduction of vulnerability to natural disasters. Implementing Ecosystem Management actions: - Watershed management - Soil and vegetation restoration - Farming systems research and implementation. Consolidating Conservation actions: - Strengthening protected areas management plans (PNN Chingaza). - Promoting ecological corridors. - Conservation of cultural areas. Developing research and monitoring: - Data production and analysis: emphasis in ecosystem services and ecosystem functioning. - Climate change scenarios and impact on ecosystems. - Biodiversity monitoring: invasive species. Promoting and strengthening Participatory process.
9 1. Mainstreaming GCC information into ecosystem planning and management in Chingaza for the maintenance of ecosystem services Carbon and water cycles protocols developed and under implementation in the Río Blanco and Río Claro watersheds. Water and carbon monitoring network installed. Information analysis and modeling to determine the functioning of Chingaza Massif, under CC scenarios Automatic Station Calostros at 2.500masl. Station- Confluence of Calostros River and Rio Blanco. Implementation of an integrated GIS at 3 levels: National(1: ), high mountain ecosystems at the national level; subnational (1: ) shows in more detail high mountain ecosystems and local (1:25.000) for monitoring adaptation measures and modelling. Glacier monitoring in the PNN Nevados.
10 Hectareas Escenario A Escenario B Más lluvioso a lo actual Similar a lo actual Seco en comparación a lo actual Muy seco en comparación a lo actual < -30 Precipitation for the period will decrease between 10 and 30% in the two scenarios A2 B2
11 Hectareas Escenario A2 Escenario B Ligeramente más calido que lo actual Más calido que lo actual Muy calido que lo actual > 4 The temperature for the period , will increase between 2 and 4 C in the two scenarios A2 B2
12 160 Glacier Retrieval in the Colombian Andes EA en Km² AR Tiempo en años Volcán-Nevado del Tolima Volcán-Nevado del Huila Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Volcán-Nevado Santa Isabel Volcán-Nevado del Ruiz Sierra Nevada de El Cocuy
13 2. Reduction of adverse impacts on water regulation in the Río Blanco watershed: Conservation of natural vegetation of riparian belts along side streams. Conservation and recovery of soils. Adoption of a management program to prevent and mitigate activities, including fires that would further reduce water retention capacity in the soil. 26 participatory ecological restoration processes underway and m restored in: headwaters, riversides, landslides areas. Recruitment of 36 native species and installation of nurseries in local farms. Establishment of herbariums by local communities. Identification of diseases in natural vegetation (Espeletia) and crops.
14 3.Guidelines for incorporating GCC issues in planning process. Guidelines incorporating GCC issues in 2 Municipal Territorial Plans: La Calera and Choachí, including as a framework, the Main Ecological Adaptive Structure EETA in order to reduce ecological and community vulnerability to CC. A geographical network of spaces that support essential ecological processes in order to guide adaptation beyond biodiversity conservation towards the maintenance of structure and functioning of ecosystems. The main objective of EETA is to maintain ecological integrity and ecosystem health Asociada y Producción Mantenimiento Nacimientos y Rondas Transición
15 Participation in several planning boards, such as the Environmental Municipal Council, the Environmental and Education Inter-institutional Committee, Watershed Management Plans, POMCAS, Local Committees for Prevention of Natural Disasters, CLOPAD, among others. Signed agreements for land use plans in 2 municipalities: La Calera and Choachi. Formulation and implementation of 8 Adaptive Life Plans (Social participating process at the local level implemented through agreements) in 8 veredas of the Río Blanco Watershed. Agreements including restoration commitments.
16 Main Ecological Adaptive Structure Ecosystem Water Services 1. EETA DE MANTENIMIENTO 2. EETA DE RONDAS, HUMEDALES Y NACIMIENTOS 3. EETA ASOCIADA Y DE PRODUCCION
17 4. Improvements of productive agro-ecosystems in the Río Blanco watershed: 120 farms characterized (ecological, social and financial terms). Future Farm Use Plans developed with local farmers. 4 adapted main farming systems characterized, and vulnerabilities to climate change identified (temperature and rainfall). Adaptation measures to climate change identified and being implemented: (home gardens; preparation of compost; live fences with native plants; soil and conservation practices) Implementation of activities responding to changes in water variability: water efficiency measures in 8 localities. Strengthening of local organizations and capacity building to face climate change.
18 INTEGRATED NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROJECT - INAP Main Achievements at Policy Level Contribution to the Colombian National Adaptation Policy to CC and the 2nd. National Communication. Contribution to public policies at National level: Water, Protected Areas and Poverty Eradication; Regional Health Plans; Urban and Land Use Planning. Mainstreaming CC scenarios for policy making in: Agriculture, Health, Social Care, Housing, Mining and Energy. Population policy for SAI. Improvements in research and consolidation of Climate Change thematic groups in IDEAM and other research and technical organizations. Fuente IDEAM,2010
19 Lessons Learned The success of the pilots depends on a successful participatory process. These activities are difficult to assess economically. It is important to effectively involve other sectors in the process. The use of media and other communication tools are key for dissemination A greater stewardship of scientific and academic research institutions is required. Difficulties in achieving adequate values of social, ecological and cultural adaptation costs. The consolidation of measures depends on the improvement of models, and scenarios. Development and implementation of monitoring protocols about the impact of climate change on ecosystems. The sustainability of the processes has to be strengthened in the long term. EbA has to be included in planning and policy making at different governance levels.
20 Thanks! Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Gracias! Angela Andrade Klaus Shutze Páez o: Klaus Schütze P Foto Páez