The Water, Energy, Food Nexus: Lebanese Policy and Institutional Analysis

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1 The Water, Energy, Food Nexus: Lebanese Policy and Institutional Analysis Nadim Farajalla, Patricia Haydamous, Charbel Rizk, Silva Kerkezian and Rana El Hajj-Mitri Climate Change and the Environment in the Arab World Program Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs American University of Beirut

2 I- Nexus Source: Holger Hoff, 2011, Understanding the Nexus, Bonn 2011 Background Paper

3 I- Nexus Integrated systems approach Seeks efficiency and sustainability Aims at reducing trade-offs Works on cross- sector management

4 II Lebanese Sectors Lebanon s Socio-Economic Figures Population: ~ 1% annual growth 4, 400,000 currently 5,200,000 by year 2030 Young Demographic composition (31% under 18 years) 87% urbanization rate Increasing economic growth

5 II Lebanese Sectors 1. Water Annual precipitation of 8.6 BCM Net available water is around 2.7 BCM Demand - 60% for agriculture, 29% domestic 11% industry Total annual renewable sources: 926m 3 /person to drop to 839 m 3 by 2015 Discontinuous Supply Infrastructure - old or outdated in some areas and poorly maintained. Water pollution from wastewater, solid waste landfills, industrial waste and agrochemical use.

6 + II Lebanese Sectors 2. Energy Lebanon imports gas oil (diesel), fuel oil and natural gas for its electric power generation Six thermal power plants and 5 small sized hydropower plants. Total supply comes 85% from thermal power plants, 4.5% from hydropower plants, and 10.5% from neighboring countries.

7 II Lebanese Sectors 2. Energy Supply is 77% of total demand; the remaining 23% are supplied by private generators. Source: Carboun; Technical Losses and Power Shortages in MW (2009)

8 II Lebanese Sectors 2. Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions Source: Lebanon s Second National Communication to the UNFCCC

9 II Lebanese Sectors Total production value - 73% crops and 27% poultry and livestock. The agriculture sector covers only about 20% of the food demand Small contribution to Lebanon s GDP and dropping - 7% in 1994 to about 5.5% in National budget for agriculture ~ 0.5% Lebanon imports: Cereals 80% Red Meat 82% Fish 75% Dairy 37% 3. Agriculture and Food High urbanization rate which is eating into agricultural land. Around 15 to 20% of people experiencing food insecurity

10 Rain (mm) II Lebanese Sectors 4. Climate Change Mediterranean climate; precipitation between October and March Annual Rainfall in Beirut Year AUB Linear (AUB)

11 II Lebanese Sectors 4. Climate Change Increase in temperature by 1 C along the coast and to 2 C in the mountains by 2040, Increase in temperature by 3 C on the coast and to 5 C in the mountains by 2090 Reduction in precipitation of 10 to 20% by 2040 and 25 to 45% by Drought season to start earlier by as much as one month Snow might decrease by as much as 70% Snow line could start from 1900 m by 2090

12 III Sector Policies 1. Water National Water Sector Strategy aims at providing continuous water supply for households and irrigation, and improving water treatment. New plans to renew networks and complete distribution and transmission systems, new storage facilities, and optimization of surface water resources. Artificial groundwater recharge to increase storage and to avoid or reduce salinization. The wastewater plants - currently seven completed and only two operational. Improve irrigation efficiency. Reuse treated wastewater and sludge Increased focus on demand management. Groundwater Assessment and Database project National Environmental Action Plan Water Sector

13 III Sector Policies 2. Energy The EDL policy paper 2010 Aims at.new sustainable, reliable, and efficient delivery of electricity. Policies presented cover infrastructure, supply/demand problems and the financial problems Policies regarding infrastructure new electricity generation - increasing installed capacity Complete transmission lines and further expand to more substations. On the supply side - fuel sourcing, renewable resources based on diversifying the type and source of the resources 60% natural gas and more than 12% renewables by 2020 Plans to look into wind and photovoltaic farms as energy sources, and encourage the use of waste to energy methods as well as initiatives to produce hydropower.

14 III Sector Policies 2. Energy On the demand side, EDL s main strategy is to encourage more efficient use of energy through use of energy saving bulbs, solar water heaters, and setting up new energy efficiency laws. Financial and Legal policies: Increase in Tariffs Laws that encourage more green building and comply with international standards of efficient energy The National Energy Efficiency Action plan (NEEAP) Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation (LCEC) and Ministry of Energy and Water 14 separate but related initiatives, covering suggested policies by the EDL such as geothermal, waste to energy, promotion of energy efficient equipment, hydro power for electricity generation, and electricity generation from wind and solar power.

15 III Sector Policies 3.Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture Strategy : Ratifying and updating agriculture Laws Enhancing MOA s internal structure and MoA s relations with other governmental and non-governmental institutions and organizations. Improving agriculture infrastructure, and working on methods that reduce trade-offs across sectors. Monitoring: production, raw material, forests, and hunting practices. Upgrading the chains of production in terms of quality, process and marketing Financing SME projects Protecting natural resources: soil, forests, biodiversity, land management and marine life.

16 III Sector Policies Action Plans: 3.Agriculture National Reforestation Plan Safeguarding and restoring Lebanon s woodland Resources National Land Use Master Plan Strategy for Forest Fire Management Green Plan Water reservoirs, Land Reclamation, Reforestation. Hilly Areas Sustainable Agricultural Development Project.

17 III Sector Policies 4.Climate Change MOE; Climate Change unit UNFCCC Conventions, Kyoto protocol National Communications NEEDS TNA report Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) Country environmental analysis UNCCD Convention National Action Plan to Combat Desertification; subprojects dealing with land planning, water supply, demand management, promotion of sustainable agriculture, soil and natural resources conservation.

18 V Institutions Water Energy Food/Agriculture Climate Change Direct Line Ministries and related agencies Ministry of Energy and Water Regional Water Establishments Litani River Authority Ministry of Energy and Water EDL Ministry of Agriculture Green Plan Ministry of Environment Councils Council of the South Municipalities Local Committees Higher Council of Urban Planning National Council for Quarries Higher Council for Hunting Higher Council of Urban Planning National Council for Quarries CDR Centers Lebanese Center for water and wastewater management Lebanese water conservation center LCEC ALMEE Lebanese Association of Solar Industries CEDRO Association of Lebanese Industries National Agricultural Research Center Industrial Research Institute Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute LCPC (Lebanese Cleaner Production Center) Indirect Ministries Ministry of Finance Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Environment Ministry of Finance Ministry of Industry Ministry of Finance Ministry of Social Affairs Ministry of Public Health Ministry of Interior Ministry of Finance Ministry of Social Affairs Ministry of Public Health Ministry of Interior and

19 V - Institutions Policy and strategy planners: Concerned ministries and direct governmental institutions Budget Approval Ministry of Finance Funding coordination: CDR Common Donor Agencies :World Bank, USAID, EU, AFD Research Institutes: CNRS LARI Public and private universities

20 V - Nexus Approach Applied, Policies SECTORS P O L I C I E S Water Energy Food/Agriculture Climate Change Water Infrastructure Wastewater Dams Hydropower Dams Energy Hydropower Transmission Infrastructure Gas and oil pipeline Irrigation Schemes Dams Treated wastewater for irrigation Sludge reuse in agriculture Data collection and monitoring Mainstreaming policies 12% renewable Photovoltaic farms Wind farms National Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Action Food/agricul ture Seed Varieties Modern irrigation HASAD project The Green Plan Enhance product quality The National Action Plan (NAP) for combating desertification Hill lakes Climate Change NWSS NEAP Water Sector Technology Needs Assessment UNCCD convention UNFCCC convention

21 VI Institutional analysis Attempts have been made by different institutions for nexus planning in different WEF nexus related sector strategies and plans, etc. The institutional and legal frameworks, however are still inexistent and the attempts have been on a voluntary basis. The joining of the Energy and Water sectors in one Ministry could have positive implications on Water and Energy Nexus planning Councils and Higher Councils are structure that can support nexus planning but need reinforcement and diversification of representation Nexus planning decision support tools are still under testing and not functional with weak basic data.

22 VII Future recommendations Policy Improve the level of integration of policies Improve the resource efficiency factors in the different sector strategies Undertake a sustainability assessment or SEAs for all sector strategies Institutional Develop the necessary legal and institutional frameworks for nexus planning Create a planning body or develop the capacities of planning bodies such as councils and higher councils Develop the capacities of concerned stakeholders in nexus planning

23 Thank you

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