Food Security and Water in Central America in the context of Climate Change: Maureen Ballestero Chair GWP Costa Rica

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1 Maureen Ballestero Chair GWP Costa Rica Food Security and Water in Central America in the context of Climate Change: Reducing vulnerability through the construction of public policies in Central America and Costa Rica

2 This presentation is based on the work made by the Central American Commission of Environment and Development (CCAD) and the Department of Climate Change of the Ministry of Environment and Energy of Costa Rica.

3

4 Número de eventos Número de eventos Eventos extremos en Centroamérica: 20 NÚMERO DE INUNDACIONES EN Y NÚMERO DE TORMENTAS TROPICALES Y HURACANES EN Y Belice Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Panamá 0 Belice Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Panamá

5 Areas prone to droughts and floods

6 Projected changes in temperature and precipitation in Central America 2020, 2050 and 2080 Season Changes in Temp. C Dry +0.4 a a a +5.0 Wet +0.5 a a a +6.6 Changes in Precipitation (%) Dry 7 a a a +8 Wet 10 a a a +5 Source: CEPAL, Study about Economics of Climate Change.

7 Centroamérica: Escenarios de Temperatura media anual (re ) Con escenarios de bajas emisiones al 2050 se estima aumentos entre 1.0 a 2.0 C Con escenarios de emisiones tendencial 2100 se estima aumentos entre 2.5 y 4.2 C Source: CEPAL, Study about Economics of Climate Change.

8 Mm Escenarios de Precipitación acumulada anual (re ) Con escenario de bajas emisiones a 2100, la reducción regional es de 11% y rango entre 3% y 17% dependiendo del país. Con escenario tendencial de emisiones a 2100, la reducción regional es de 28% y rango es entre 18% y 35% C. El Salvador El Salvador

9 Escenario de población de Centroamérica Aumentará de 43 M en 2010 a 73 M en 2075 y declinará levemente a 69 M en 2100 Mayor presión sobre demanda del agua y ecosistemas hasta aprox ,000,000 70,000,000 60,000,000 50,000,000 40,000,000 30,000,000 20,000,000 Belice Panamá Costa Rica Nicaragua El Salvador Honduras Guatemala 10,000,000 0

10 Poverty in Central America Country Poverty (% of population) Costa Rica 18.5% El Salvador 46.6% Guatemala 54.8% Honduras 67.4% Nicaragua 61.9% Panama 25.8% Fuente: CEPAL, Statistics of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2011

11 REGIONAL POLICY FRAMEWORK CENTRAL AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY (PACA) AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH REGIONAL STRATEGY (ERAS) CENTRAL AMERICAN STRATEGY OF RURAL TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT (ECADERT) CLIMATE CHANGE REGIONAL STRATEGY (ERCC) CENTRAL AMERICAN POLICY ON INTEGRATED RISK MANAGEMENT (PCGIR) POLICY ON FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY OF CENTRAL AMERICA AND DOMINICAN REPUBLIC CENTRAL AMERICAN STRATEGY OF INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (ECAGIRH) APPROVAL PENDING

12 Water & Food Nutrition Security guidelines within regional instruments Strengthening of national and regional capabilities for the generation of early warning weather forecasts and the elaboration of specialized forecasts for agriculture, health and the environment. Development of the agro climatic information subsystem within the framework of SICAgro. Strengthening of response and recovery capabilities, with emphasis on loss & damage and vulnerability analysis. Strengthening of public and private capabilities for monitoring and evaluating the impact of CC on oceans and inland water bodies and its effect on the distribution and abundance of hydro-biological resources.

13 Water & Food Nutrition Security guidelines within regional instruments Promotion of use of improved systems for conservation of soils, water, forests and biodiversity. Promotion of alliances with research centers and universities in order to generate knowledge applied to the integrated management of water resources. Capability building of women and men in watershed and environmental management, with emphasis on IWRM and risk management in rural areas. Modernization of private services offered to the agriculture sector, including irrigation.

14 Water & Food Nutrition Security guidelines within regional instruments Development, validation, diffusion and transference of technologies for efficient water use in productive activities and human and animal use. Creation of favorable conditions for production development, through the improvement of infrastructure and support services to the rural economy, by the States (Productive infrastructure in support of economic activities: wells and other water sources, irrigation and drainage systems). Initiatives of efficient and sustainable use of water in small-scale irrigation for fruit activities.

15 Costa Rica ACTION PLAN FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY

16 Sectors of the National Climate Change Strategy Mitigation: Energy, Transportation, Agriculture & Livestock, Industry, Solid Waste, Tourism, Land-Use Change Adaptation: Water Resources, Agriculture & Livestock, Fishery, Health, Infrastructure, Coastal Zones, Biodiversity. Energy Industrial Processes Agriculture Land-Use Change Waste Management

17 CONTEXT: NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY AREAS OF THE NCCS AND ACTION PLAN Mitigation: Adaptation Metric Capability and Technology Development Public Awareness, Education, Cultural Change 3 Subareas Reduction of Gas Emissions by Source CO2 Capture and Storage Developmen t of National Carbon Market ACTION PLAN Funding

18 Based on work with multi-sectoral teams Consultation and consensus with other actors Action Plan of the National Climate Change Strategy Vision and Strategic Goals (NCCS and Political Level) Action Lines and Sectoral Policies (Management Level) MEDIUM AND LONG TERM RESULTS FRAMEWORK (Managemente Level) High Political Level Sectoral Technical Teams (MOPT, DSE-ICE, MAG, MINAET, AyA) Includes determination of: - Expected Results, with intermediate targets and result indicators. - Budget structure proposal. - Analysis of possible funding including Cooperation. - Risk matrix associated to results. Combination of Goals - Results - Outputs at the sectoral level. Emphasizes on the identification of strategic projects. Priorities and Projects Portfolio (Operational Level) Definition of OUTPUTS and activities (projects and interventions), in each case specifying budget, schedule and responsibilities. Technical Teams. ACTION PLAN STRATEGIC PLANNING + OPERATION PROGRAMMING

19 Goals and Results Adaptation Agriculture and Livestock Sector

20 Specific Goal Adaptation: Reduce the vulnerability of the Agriculture and Livestock the impacts of CC Output. Increase the use of technologies tolerant to associated changes of GCC (drought, heat, precipitation, pests and others). Output. Increase in the stock of capital (physical, human, financial, social) available to the most vulnerable producers

21 Metric Result: Increase level of MRV information about relationships between CRALS and CC. Outputs: Program for the Design and Implementation of MRV Country System for the Mitigation and Adaptation of Agriculture and Livestock Sector. Development of Capabilities and Technology Result: Strengthened capacities of Agriculture Sector to manage and face challenges from CC. Outputs: Defined Plan of Science, Technology and Innovation in Climate-Smart Agriculture. Development of Plan to Adapt the Legal, Institutional and Fiscal Framework to the use of mitigation and adaptation technologies. Strengthened information system for risk management and the improvement of information on adaptation.

22 Public Awareness and Cultural Change: Result: Increased consumption of products identified with lower carbon footprint Outputs: Increase in the number of products labeled with carbon footprint information, recognized by DCC, in retail stores (supermarkets). Increase in the number of Producer Associations and Companies of the Sector involved in certification programs recognized by DCC. Funding Result: Increased public and private funding aimed at mitigating and adapting CRALS to the impacts of GCC Outputs: Increase in the number of public programs aimed at mitigating and adapting CRALS to the effects of Climate Change. Increased private investment in the mitigation and adaptation of CRALS.

23 POLÍTICA DE ESTADO PARA EL SECTOR AGROALIMENTARIO Y EL DESARROLLO RURAL Competitividad Innovación y Desarrollo Tecnológico Gestión de territorios rurales y Agricultura familiar Cambio Climático y Gestión Agroambiental RECURSOS HIDRICOS

24 Goals and Results Adaptation Water Sector

25 Prioritization Criteria for Adaptation Actions Territorial: 8 Cantones with priority identified by current and future vulnerability studies (IMN). Main aquifers and surface water intakes for human consumption Coastal Zone due to aquifer vulnerability and current fragility of supply systems Work Unit of Interventions: Watershed and Sub-watershed

26 Adaptation Result: Reduced vulnerability of the Water Resources Sector to CC. Outputs: Resilience Enhancement Program for Ecosystems protecting priority surface water sources and groundwater sources. Consolidation of Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment Program. Conformation of Integrated Risk and Water Resources Management System. Metric Result: Stakeholders with available information for the integrated risk and water resources management. Outputs: National Information System for Integrated Water Resources Management (SINIGIRH). Strengthening of Hydro- Meteorological Network. Strengthened information system for managing risk and improving information on adaptation.

27 Capabilities and Technologies Result: Promotion of Effective Governance System of Water Resources Outputs: Support Program for the Implementation of Legal- Political Framework of High Level for the IWRM and CC. Strengthening Program of ASADAS (Community-based water supply and sanitation organizations), as structures of local participation for the IWRM and CC. Public Awareness and Cultural Change Result: Sensible users in terms of efficient use of water resources. Outputs: Development of a National Water Saving Plan (gender sensitive) in strategic sectors: residential, industrial, and agricultural. Technical Standard Program to promote use of efficient equipment in terms of water consumption.

28 Funding Result: Increased number of available public and private resources to improve adaptation capability of the water sector to CC. Outputs: Consolidation of economic instruments for the Water Resource Management (discharge fee and water-usage fee). Adaptation Fund is used to increase resilience of the Water Resource sector (in critical territories and key stakeholders)

29 NAME: Maureen Ballestero

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