1 PARTICIPATORY ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION IN THE RIO BLANCO WATERSHED: ECOSYSTEM BASED ADAPTATION ACTIONS TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE CHINGAZA MASSIF, HIGH MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS OF COLOMBIA Angela Andrade, Klaus Schutze y Angélica Cardona
2 Context High Mountain Ecosystems and Vulnerability to Climate Change Located over 2740msnm. 3.7% ( ha). 70% of National population depend on ES. 48% are protected areas. Glaciers tend to disappear in the coming 10 years. Current Andean forest cover: 23% Paramos and High Andean Forestry's are highly vulnerable to cc, affecting provision of ecosystem services. (2nd NC. 2010).
3 Pilot Adaptation Project in High Mountain Ecosystems a) What is the current and projected climate variability at regional scale and how can we best deal with the uncertainties of climate change trends? b) What are the effects of climatic variability in high mountain ecosystems (Glaciers, High Andean Forests and Páramos)? c) How can we best maintain or increase the resilience of high mountain ecosystems (Glaciers, High Andean Forests and Páramos) in a context of climate change and climate vulnerability? d) How can we best prepare social actors for managing resilience and proactively adapt to global change and climate vulnerability in high mountain ecosystems? e) How can we best influence public policies that focus on implementing environmental management processes?
4 STUDY AREA RIO BLANCO WATERSHED Belongs to the Chingaza Massif (2nd largest Paramo in Colombia, and the Chingaza National Park. It is located 70 km from Bogota, covering an area of ha (30% of the Massif). Provides water to a population of 8 million. It is used by the Water and Sewage Company in Bogotá. Population: inhabitants. 1 National Park; 3 Regional Environmental Authorities; 3 municipalities, 1Department.
5 Projected Climate trends in the area Escenario A2 Escenario B2 Average rainfall decrease for the period between 10 and 30%, for both A2 and B2 scenarios. Temperature increase: 2-4 for the period in both CC scenarios. 0 Más lluvioso a lo actual Similar a lo actual Seco en comparación a lo actual Muy seco en comparación a lo actual < -30 Rainfall Escenario A2 Escenario B Ligeramente más calido que lo actual Más calido que lo actual Muy calido que lo actual > 4 Temperature
6 How can we build resilience? 1. Vulnerability Assessment Models: Territorial Sensibility Slope Land Cover Change Climatic disruptions Fragmentation Index Ecological Integrity Index. Threats Climate Change Landslides Increase in the agricultural frontier Mining Infrastructure
7 Land Use Change map Tipo cambio Área (ha) % Pérdida bosques Pérdida espacios naturales naturales Ganancia bosques Ganancia espacios naturales Estable Total cambios
8 Land Cover Threats Increase of Agricultural Frontier Mass Movements
9 Forest fires. Mining
10 Infrastructure Climate Change
11 Integrated Vulnerability Assessment of Río Blanco Watershed
12 3. Surveys with key stakeholders at farm level: interviews and local visits. 2. Participative Analysis of Securities and ecosystem services: water, food, territory. SUPPORTING -C02 fixation: 70% soil and 30% biomass. -Soil formation -Biodiversity -Nutrient Cycle PROVISIONING -Food -Medicines -Fuel -Wood and Fiber -Freshwater CULTURAL Aesthetic Religious. Recreation and tourism. Cultural Heritage REGULATING -Water regulation. -Erosion control. -Quantity and Quality of Water. -Natural Risks Reduction. -Water holding capacity. -Groundwater recharge.
13 4. Participative Ecological Restoration, as an Adaptation Measure to address climate change impacts. Ecological Aspects Ecosystem Structure and Function Selection of priority species for propagation. Reduction of ecological stressors. Economic Aspects Ecosystem Services Selection of sites for restoration, to guarantee provision of water and water regulation. Social Aspects Improve living Conditions Community participation to implement restoration actions. Restoration agreements. Ecological and Social Resilience
14 a. Definition of the Ecological Adaptive Structure- EETA A geographical network of spaces that support essential ecological processes necessary to guide adaptation beyond biodiversity conservation and towards the maintenance of ecosystem structure and functioning and main ecosystem services. Main Objective: Maintenance, recovery and regulation of water resources and connect people with their territory. a) Land use recommendations in the framework of ecosystem functioning thresholds; b) Key elements to promote natural connectivity, including ecological restoration. c) Information gaps that need to be addressed to contribute to ecosystem resilience. d) Promotion of social organization mechanisms. e) Proposed compensatory mechanisms.
15 Ecological Adaptive Structure- EETA Conservation Riversides, Wetlands and Catchments Areas which have to be protected, rich in biodiversity and contribute maintaining hydrological regulation. Riversides : 7-30m; Catchment areas:10-100m. Transition and Productive Areas Secondary forests; Natural regeneration. Land use changes: grazing to agroforestry systems
16 b. Building an Ecological Restoration Plan. Catchment areas, wetlands and riversides. Geodynamic process: landslides, severe erosion. Land use conflicts/ land degradation. Forest fires. Degraded land of PNN Chingaza and Forest Reserve of Río Blanco and Negro. Potential area to be restored: 48%
17 c. Promoting Participative Ecological Restoration Actions - Community participation. Development of Adaptive land use Plans, at local level for the management of global commons : local agreements for building ecological and social resilience, including activities such as watershed management, land restoration, farm planning, ecological monitoring and social networking; Identification and implementation of restoration actions which require collective work mingas.
18 - Selection of sites for the implementation of ecological restoration actions in priority areas: Current land cover/land use and soil status. Water quantity/quality, and current use. Stakeholders and communities depending on water services.
19 - Community Agreements for Ecological Restoration. Agreements for the definition of restoration areas. Signature of Commitment Acts for the implementation of Restoration Actions. Delivery of inputs for the implementation of actions.
20 - Propagation of plant species for restoration in priority areas. Identification of species: pioneer species; early growing species; and others that help natural succession, including those identified by local knowledge. Collection, propagation and maintenance of the species. Advice to communities in local villages. Construction of satellite greenhouses and an experimental center to promote participatory research, capacity building and training of local communities and research.
21 - Reduction of tensors and planting native species in selected areas. Implementation of isolation actions. Communitarian actions for planting. Building drinking places and establishment of pastures for livestock outside isolated areas. PROPIETARIO SITIO PREDIO ALTURA (msnm) José Ever Cifuentes R La Esperanza COORDENADAS DESCRIPCIÓN EVALUACIÓN FINAL Lat N Lon W Sin vegetación arbórea. Abastece de agua a varias familias de la vereda de La Jangada. Se realizó el aislamiento, se sembraron los árboles y se instaló el bebedero. Se utilizaron todos los insumos entregados.
22 Ejemplo de los sitios caracterizados en la vereda Chatasugá, para la implementación del proceso de restauración ecológica. Pedro Barreto Ángel Sitio de ronda hídrica, en la quebrada La Carbonera, desprovisto de vegetación arbórea circundante. Se acuerda con el propietario un aislamiento de 100 metros de perímetro para la protección de este sitio. Pedro Barreto Ángel Nacedero desprovisto de vegetación arbórea circundante, con suelo expuesto; conecta con parche de vegetación relictual. Se acuerda con el propietario un aislamiento de 43 metros de perímetro para la protección de este sitio. Mercedes Pulido Nacedero desprovisto de vegetación arbórea circundante e invadido por pastos y especies herbáceas. Se acuerda con el propietario un aislamiento de 20 metros de perímetro para la protección de este sitio.
23 Example of Restoration at Farm Level. Alternatives to Grazing Systems: Confined cattle Multispecies fences Sylvopastoral systems Improved pastures Forage Banks
24 Results 1. Restoration actions implemented in 9 local communities, restoration agreements signed (6.440 planted trees, of 50 native species) ecological restoration process implemented. 3. Silvopastoral and agroforestry systems established in 121 farms homegardens in different localities, to promote propagation of native species and production of organic fertilizer main center for propagation, producing high quality plants for distribution among local communities. 6. Capacity building of local communities: restoration, agro forestry systems, efficient use of water. (Benefiting 800 families) Land Use plans including restoration in order to reduce territorial vulnerability adaptive land use plans at local level for the management of global commons. 9. Restoration actions included in education processes and cultural activities. 10.C/B analysis, indicating the avoided cost in water services, after 7 years of implementing restoration in catchment areas. (2.000US/catchment site/yr).
25 Lessons Learned Building resilience during Restoration An integrated vulnerability assessment is the first step to address the impacts of climate change through restoration. Vulnerability increases with non sustainable management practices. Restoration of ecosystem services is an ecosystem based adaptation (EbA) measure to climate change and build resilience. EbA through restoration is a learning by doing process. Restoration is a matter of social and economic development. The success of pilot adaptation projects using restoration, is a learning by doing process and depends on the participation of local communities and the recognition of traditional knowledge. Valuation of restoration has to be improved, including social, ecological and cultural costs. Impact on public policies and planning is relevant (land use/farm). Institutions have to be strengthened and adapted in order to improve resilience.
26 Gracias! Photo x Position x: 8.74, y:.18