Ecosystem Services conservation in the Cantareira - Mantiqueira Corridor. Oscar Sarcinelli, PhD Student

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1 Ecosystem Services conservation in the Cantareira - Mantiqueira Corridor Oscar Sarcinelli, PhD Student

2 Presentation Structure: 1. What are ecosystem services and it s conservation; 2. Cantareira Mantiqueira Corridor and the Cantareira Water Supply System; 3. IPE actions for ecosystem services conservation in the Cantareira Mantiqueira Corridor

3 What are ecosystem services? Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems that perform fundamental life-support It s conservation is achieved trough ecosystem structures conservation (Constanza et al, 1997; Daly et al, 1997).

4 Milenum Ecosystem Assets, 2005 Some services from forest ecosystems... Genetic biodiversity conservation Wood provision Medicinal plants Climate regulation carbon sequestration Soil protection Polinization Clean water provision

5 Forest fragmentation and ecosystem services loss Brazil São Paulo State There were forests before humans came and deserts follow them (Chateaubriand)

6 History of forest ecosystem services loss Original forest of São Paulo State at ,8% of dense forest Victor, M.A.M A Devastação Florestal. São Paulo. Ed. Soc. Bras. Silvicultura. Victor, M. A. M. et al Cem anos de devastação: revisitada 30 anos depois. Brasília. Ministério do Meio Ambiente.

7 São Paulo State forest cover at 1854 (starting the coffee production cicle). 79,7% forest cover;

8 São Paulo State forest cover at (coffee production and starting industrialization). 44,8% original forest cover

9 São Paulo State forest cover at (green revolution in brazilian agriculture). 13,7% original forest cover

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11 São Paulo State current forest cover Cobertura florestal original Cobertura florestal atual

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25 Some ecosystem degradation data; Between 1945 and 2000 more forest was converted to crop land than XVIII e XIX centuries together today 24% of Earth surface are crop production lands; Inadequate management is responsible for 38% of the degradation of the hole cultivated land in the world (WRI, 2008) soil erosion, desertification and loss of biodiversity; Since1980 we lost 35% of mangroves, 20% of coral reefs;

26 Cantareira Mantiqueira Corridor and the Cantareira Water Supply System;

27 Study region

28 The Cantareira System provides fresh water for nine million people in the metropolitan region of São Paulo; Urbanization, land occupation for agriculture and forest fragmentation; There are still many forest remnants that mantain a hight degree of threatened diversity and endemism;

29 Fonte:

30 IPE actions for ecosystem services conservation in the Cantareira Mantiqueira Corridor

31 Costs of forest conversion into a agricultural land Deforestation Soil preparation Fertilizers Plantation Sedimentation Water quantity and quality loss Carbon emission loss of biodiversity Benefits Sells of production self consumption ecosystem structures and services

32 Landscape conservation and ecosystem services in the Atibainha reservoir

33 Armazenamento de carbono

34 Controle de erosão e sedimentação

35 Manutenção da fertilidade do solo

36 Total economic value for Atibainha reservoir forest cover

37 t CO 2 into the atmospher X Deforest all the Atibainha reservior = tons of soil into the reservoir every year X

38 Projeto SEMEANDO ÁGUA - Pagamento por serviços ambientais no corredor Cantareira-Mantiqueira Projeto EMBAÚBA - Recuperação de áreas degradadas no corredor Cantareira- Mantiqueira IPÊ/ESCAS Tel/Fax: (11) Website: Apoio: Tropical Forest Conservation Act TFCA

39 Fragmentos estudados Área analisada Rios Remanescentes Florestais Approach km Fragmentos estudados Área analisada Rios Remanescentes Florestais ± 1. Thresholds for - Biodiversity - Ecosystem Services Fragmentos 40 estudados Área analisada km Rios Remanescentes Florestais ± Ecosystem Services 2. PES - Water - Structure - Ecosystem Services Evaluation - Quantity and Quality Fragmentos km estudados Área analisada Rios Remanescentes Florestais ± 3. Restauration - Priority areas - Landscape variables - Low costs models km ±

40 Overview Structure a functional model of PES water involving local comunities; Mapping critical areas for forest restoration actions using law parameters, ecological landscape parameters, soil erosion parameters and hydrological parameters; Testing and evaluating ecological and economic models for different methods of forest restoration and direction of natural forest regeneration; Propose a forest restoration program for the Cantareira Mantiqueira corridor; Definition of optimal landscape configuration; Ecosystem services spatial arrangement and future scenarios projection;

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46 Nossa abordagem Regional Local Institucional

47 Information gathered by IPÊ projects Spatial data base: map of land use, watershed, hydrograph, topography, areas for permanent preservation, landscape dynamics, landscape metrics; Properties: properties limits, land use, willingness to accept forest conservation in PES water program; Economics: opportunity cost for principal agricultures, ecological and economics analyses for land conservation practices and forest restoration; Ecosystem Services: quantity and quality of water, forest carbon estimation and soil loss estimation; Biological: richness and composition of the vegetation in natural regeneration areas; Public policies

48 Obrigado!

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