1 Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth
2 Bulk deformation forming (rolling) Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness (or changing the cross-section) of a long workpiece by compressive forces applied through a set of rolls. This is the most widely used metal working process because it lends itself high production and close control of the final product.
3 Bulk deformation forming (rolling)
4 Bulk deformation forming (rolling) Rolling typically starts with a rectangular ingots and results in rectangular Plates (t > 6 mm), sheet (t < 3 mm), rods, bars, I-beams, rails etc Figure: Rotating rolls reduce the thickness of the incoming ingot
5 Flat rolling practice The product of the first hot-rolling operation is called a bloom A bloom usually has a square cross-section, at least 150 mm on the side, a rolling into structural shapes such as I-beams and railroad rails. Slabs are rolled into plates and sheets. Billets usually are square and are rolled into various shapes, such as round rods and bars, using shaped rolls Hot rolled round rods (wire rod) are used as the starting material for rod and wire drawing operations
6 Hot rolling and cold rolling The principal rolling processes are hot and cold rolling. Hot rolling is the most common method of refining the cast structure of ingots and billets to make primary shape. Bars of circular or hexagonal cross-section like I- beams, channels, and rails are produced in great quantity by hoe rolling with grooved rolls. Cold rolling is most often a secondary forming process that is used to make bar, sheet, strip and foil with superior surface finish and dimensional tolerances.
7 Schematic of various rolling processes Figure: Schematic of various flat-rolling and shape-rolling processes. Source: S. Kalpakjian, S.R. Schmid: Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, 5 th edition, Prentice-Hall International, 2006; pp. 348
8 Rolling definitions and forces (a) Schematic illustration of the flat rolling process (b) Friction forces acting on the strip surfaces. Source: S. Kalpakjian, S.R. Schmid: Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, 5 th edition, Prentice-Hall International, 2006; pp. 349
9 Independent variables in rolling Roll force Power Speed of exiting strip Final strip temperature Maximum draft Roll strip contact length Sheet or plate shape
10 Dependent variables for rolling Roll speed Amount of thickness reduction Billet thickness and with Billet materials Billet temperature Lubricant
11 Advantages of hot rolling Forces smaller Stresses lower Less power requirement No work hardening Large deformation possible Breaks up the cast structure into preferable form Closes porosity
12 Disadvantage of hot rolling Rolls need to be cooled Materials handling difficult Personnel must be protected
13 Hot rolling microstructure The initial rolling steps of the material typically done by hot rolling (above the recrystalisation temperature of the metal) A cast structure includes coarse and non uniform grains, this structure usually if brittle and may be porous Hot rolling converts the cast structure to a wrought structure with finer grains and enhanced ductility
14 Hot rolling and microstructure
15 Cold rolling Cold rolling is most often a secondary forming process that is used to make bar, sheet, strip and foil with superior surface finish and dimensional tolerances. Cold rolling is carried out at room temperature and, compared with hot rolling, produces sheet and strips with a much better surface finish (because of lack of scale), dimensional tolerances, and mechanical properties (because of strain hardening).
16 Advantage/disadvantage of cold rolling Advantage Work hardening increases strength Excellent surface finish Excellent tolerance on thickness and shape Disadvantage High forces Small reductions give rise to surface stresses and non-uniform stress distribution
17 Thread rolling Thread rolling is a cold-forming process by which straight or tapered threads are formed on round rods or wire by passing them between dies. Threads are formed on the rod or wire with each stroke of a pair of flat reciprocating dies. In another method, threads are formed with rotary dies, at production rates as high as 80 pcs per second.
18 Steps of thread rolling 1. A blank is placed between the two threading dies, and one of the dies moves in translation while the other die remains stationary. 2. The friction between the blank and the dies causes the blank to spin and rolled down the length of the stationary die. 3. The dies are tapered so that as the blank is getting rolled, the threads are being formed in the blank.
19 Thread rolling Creates threads on screws, bolts etc. Advantages: No loss of material Good surface finish Increased strength through cold working a favourable grain flow
20 Machined thread and rolled thread Figure: (a) Features of a machined or rolled thread. Grain flow in (b) machined and (c) rolled threads. Unlike machining, which cuts through the grains of the metal, the rolling threads imparts improved strength because of cold working and favourable grain flow Source: S. Kalpakjian, S.R. Schmid: Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, 5 th edition, Prentice-Hall International, 2006; pp. 363
21 Thread rolling advantages The deformation involved in the rolling process work hardens the threads, resulting in increased strength Rolled threads have improved fatigue resistance. The grain structure in a rolled thread is continuous, as opposed to the cut grains found in a machined product. Rolled thread typically have superior surface finish and a lower cost relative to machined threads
22 Rolling mills Different types of rolling mills and equipment are available with diverse roll arrangements Although the requirement for hot and cold rolling is essentially same, there are important differences in the roll materials, process parameters, lubricants and cooling systems. Highly automated mills produce close tolerance, high quality plates, and sheets at high production rates and low cost per unit weight. Rolling speeds may range up to 40 m/s. The width of rolled products may range up to 5 m.
23 Rolling mills Two-high rolling mills are used for hot rolling in initial break down passes (primary roughing or cogging mills) on cast ingots with roll diameters ranging m. In the three-high mill (reversing mill) the direction of material movement is reversed after each pass, using elevator mechanisms and various manipulators. The plate being rolled, which may weigh as much as 145 tonnes, is raised repeatedly to the upper roll gap, rolled, and then lowered to the lower roll gap and rolled; and so on.. Four-high mills and cluster mills are based on the principle that small-diameter rolls lower roll forces and power requirements.
24 Shape rolling Straight and long structural shapes (such as channels, I-beams, railroad rails, and solid bars) are formed at elevated temperatures by shape rolling (profile rolling) in which the stock goes through a set of specially designed rolls Non-flat shapes can be produced by having rolls with shape: I -beams H- sections Rails Angle irons
25 Stages in shape rolling of H-section Figure: Stages in shape rolling of an I-beam part Source: S. Kalpakjian, S.R. Schmid: Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, 5 th edition, Prentice-Hall International, 2006; pp. 361
26 Ring rolling Thick ring small diameter transformed into thin ring, large diameter Used in jet engines, large ring gears Advantage: Circular shapes with no joines can be made with varieties of cross-sections
27 Roll materials The requirements for roll materials are: Strength and resistance to wear. Common roll materials are: Cast iron Cast steel Forged steel Tungsten carbides are also used for smalldiameter rolls Forged steel rolls, although more costly than cast rolls, have higher strength, stiffness and toughness than cast- iron rolls.
28 Factors affecting rolling The material being rolled The material of the rollers The shape being rolled The size of the stock being rolled The size of the rollers Power requirements
29 Defects in rolled sheet and plate Defects may be present on the surfaces of rolled plates and sheets, or there may be internal structural defects. Several surface defects (such as scale, rust, scratches, gouges, pits, and cracks) have been identified for sheet metals. These defects may be caused by inclusions and impurities in the original cast material or variation other conditions related to material preparation and to the rolling operation.
30 Defects in rolled sheet and plate Source: S. Kalpakjian, S.R. Schmid: Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, 5 th edition, Prentice-Hall International, 2006; pp. 356
31 Defects in rolled sheet and plate Wavy edges on sheets are the results of roll bending. The strip is thinner along its edges than at its centre, thus the edges elongate more than the centre. The cracks are formed as a result of poor material ductility at the rolling temperature. Alligatoring is a complex phenomenon and typically is caused by non-uniform bulk deformation of the billet during rolling or by the presence of defects in the original cast material.
32 References 1. S. Kalpakjian, S.R. Schmid: Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, 5 th edition, Prentice-Hall International, E. Paul Degarmo, J. R. Black, R. A. Kohser; Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 9 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, R. L. Timings, S. P. Wilkinson: Manufacturing Technology, 2 nd edition, Pearson Education Limited, London, 2000.
Example: 1 A 300-mm-wide strip 25 mm thick is fed through a rolling mill with two powered rolls each of radius = 250 mm. The work thickness is to be reduced to 22 mm in one pass at a roll speed of 50 rev/min.
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