HW 10. = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "HW 10. = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi)"

Transcription

1 HW 10 Problem 15.1 Elastic modulus and tensile strength of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature [20 C (68 F)]. Compare these with the corresponding values in Table Figure 15.3 is accurate; the elastic modulus and tensile strength have to be evaluated at room temperature [20 C (68 F)] Fig.15.3 is accurate; the material poly(methyl methacrylate) is pure. The elastic modulus is the slope of the linear elastic region of the 20 C curve in Fig E = (stress) (strain) = 30 MPa 0 MPa = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi) The value for E as per Table 15.1 lies in the range 2.24 to 3.24 GPa (325,000 to 470,000 psi). Thus, the plotted value of E is slightly higher but still close enough to the given value(s). The tensile strength corresponds to the maximum value of stress on the engineering stress vs. engineering strain curve. Here, this is the stress at which the curve ends, i.e., 52 MPa (7500 psi). The range given in Table 15.1 is 48.3 to 72.4 MPa (7000 to 10,500 psi). The value estimated from the plot falls within this range. E = 3.3 GPa Tensile Strength = 52 MPa

2 Problem 15.6 E r (10) for the given viscoelastic polymer 1. Stress decays with time according to the following relation: (t) = (0) exp t 2. 0 = (0) = 2.76 MPa (400 psi) 4. At t = 60s, (t) = 1.72 MPa (250 psi) [ i.e., (60) = 1.72 MPa ] 1. The stress decays according to the given relation 2. The values of (0) and (t) and 0 are measured accurately 3. The strain is maintained at a constant value after the polymer is suddenly pulled in tension Step 1: To determine the value of in the expression 1.72 = 2.76 exp (-60/ ) exp (-60/ ) = 1.72/2.76 Taking natural log on both sides: (-60/ ) = ln(1.72/2.76) => = s (t) = (0) exp t Step 2: E r (t) = (t) / 0 (Equation 15.1) At t = 10s, equation 15.1 becomes: E r (10) = (10) / 0 The value of (t) at t=10s, i.e., the value of (10) can be evaluated using the given stress decay equation: (t) = (0) exp t, (t) (10) = 2.76 exp (-10/126.88) = 2.55 MPa

3 E r (10) = 2.55/0.6 = 4.25 MPa 4.25 MPa

4 Problem (a) schematic plot of the logarithm of relaxation modulus versus temperature as a function of molecular weight (b) schematic plots of the logarithm of relaxation modulus versus temperature as a function of cross-linking 1. The polymer is amorphous 2. The variation of the logarithm of relaxation modulus with temperature for an amorphous polymer is schematically represented by Curve C in Fig The polymer is indeed amorphous 2. Curve C (in Fig. 15.8) accurately represents the variation of the logarithm of relaxation modulus with temperature for an amorphous polymer (a) Fig.1. Log relaxation modulus as a function of molecular weight and temperature Increasing molecular weight increases the glass-transition and melting temperatures.

5 (b) An increase in the degree of crosslinking leads to an increase in the modulus in both glassy and rubbery regions. Fig1. Effect of increased cross-linking on log relaxation modulus The increase in the degree of cross-linking may also increase the glass transition temperature and, at a high density of cross-links, substantially reduce softening associated with glass transition and prevent melting (rubbery region extends up to the temperature at which the polymer decomposes). Fig1. Effect of increased cross-linking on log relaxation modulus Both Fig.1 and Fig.2. are valid answers

6 Problem (1) whether or not it is possible to decide which has the higher tensile modulus (E); (2) if it is possible, which has the higher tensile modulus and why (3) if it is not possible, why not for the given pairs of polymers Descriptions of three pairs of polymers (1 ) The data regarding the polymers is accurate (2) The polymers are pure (a) No Not possible. The random acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer will be likely to have to have a lower degree of crystallinity compared to the alternating acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer since random copolymers do not usually crystallize. The higher the degree of crystallinity, the higher is the tensile modulus of the polymer. Hence, on this basis, it appears that the alternating material would have a higher modulus. However, the random copolymer has a higher degree of crosslinking (10% versus 5% for the alternating copolymer). An increase in crosslinking leads to an increase in the tensile modulus. On this basis, it appears that the random copolymer would have the higher tensile modulus. Thus, it is not possible to determine which would have the higher tensile modulus. (b) Yes It is possible. Linear polymers are more likely to crystallize that branched polymers. The higher the degree of crystallinity, the higher is the tensile modulus of the polymer.

7 The possibility of crystallization for both syndiotactic and isotactic polypropylene is similar, and, thus, the degree is crystallization is not a factor in determining the material with higher tensile modulus. Also, the tensile modulus is nearly insensitive to the degree of polymerization (i.e., molecular weight). Hence, the fact that branched polypropylene has a higher molecular weight does not come into consideration. Hence, the linear and isotactic polypropylene will have a greater tensile modulus. (c) No Not possible. Linear polymers have a higher degrees of crystallinity compared to branched polymers. The higher the degree of crystallinity, the higher is the tensile modulus of the polymer. On this basis, it appears that poly(vinyl chloride) should have a higher value of the tensile modulus. Each repeat unit of poly(vinyl chloride) has 3 of its 4 bonding sites occupied by H atoms whereas 1 site is occupied by Cl. In polyethylene, 4 bonding sites are occupied by H atoms. The atomic radius of Cl is greater than that of H and hence, poly(vinyl chloride) has a more complex repeat unit structure. The bulkier the repeat unit, the lower is the crystallinity. Hence, on this basis, it appears that polyethylene would have a higher degree of crystallinity and hence, a greater tensile modulus. Also, tensile modulus is relatively independent of number-average molecular weight. Therefore, it is not possible to determine which of the two materials has the greater degree of crystallinity, and hence the higher tensile modulus.

8 Problem (1) whether or not it is possible to decide which has the higher melting temperature (Tm); (2) if it is possible, which has the higher melting temperature and why (3) if it is not possible, why not for the given pairs of polymers Descriptions of three pairs of polymers (1 ) The data regarding the polymers is accurate (2) The polymers are pure (a) Yes, it is possible. The lower the branching, the higher is the density and the higher is the melting temperature. Also, the higher the molecular weight, the higher is the melting temperature.isotactic polystyrene has a higher density. It also has a higher molecular weight. Hence, it will have the higher melting temperature. (b) Yes, it is possible. The presence of larger side group (methyl) in polypropylene makes molecules less flexible, thereby increasing the Tm. Also, larger degree of polymerization (i.e., longer the chain), higher is the Tm. Hence, polypropylene will have the higher T m.. (c) No Yes Yes No, it is not possible. The repeat unit of polystyrene has a bulkier side group compared to polypropylene. On this basis it appears that polystyrene should have the greater T m. However, polystyrene has more branching and hence, lower density and a lower degree of polymerization. Both these factors lead to a decrease in its melting temperature. Hence, it is difficult to predict which of the two would have a higher value of Tm.

M n = (DP)m = (25,000)(104.14 g/mol) = 2.60! 10 6 g/mol

M n = (DP)m = (25,000)(104.14 g/mol) = 2.60! 10 6 g/mol 14.4 (a) Compute the repeat unit molecular weight of polystyrene. (b) Compute the number-average molecular weight for a polystyrene for which the degree of polymerization is 25,000. (a) The repeat unit

More information

Polymer Melt Rheology. Introduction to Viscoelastic Behavior. Time-Temperature Equivalence

Polymer Melt Rheology. Introduction to Viscoelastic Behavior. Time-Temperature Equivalence Topics to be Covered Polymer Melt Rheology Introduction to Viscoelastic Behavior Time-Temperature Equivalence Chapter 11 in CD (Polymer Science and Engineering) Polymer Melt Rheology δ τ xy Newton s Law

More information

Polymers: Introduction

Polymers: Introduction Chapter Outline: Polymer Structures Hydrocarbon and Polymer Molecules Chemistry of Polymer Molecules Molecular Weight and Shape Molecular Structure and Configurations Copolymers Polymer Crystals Optional

More information

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline 1 Why is rheology important? Examples of its importance Summary of important variables Description of the flow equations Flow regimes - laminar vs. turbulent - Reynolds number - definition of viscosity

More information

Elements of Addition Polymerization. Branching and Tacticity. The Effect of Crystallinity on Properties

Elements of Addition Polymerization. Branching and Tacticity. The Effect of Crystallinity on Properties Topics to be Covered Elements of Addition Polymerization Branching and Tacticity The Effect of Crystallinity on Properties Chapters 1 & 2 in CD (Polymer Science and Engineering) What Are Polyolefins? The

More information

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

More information

FTIR and DSC of polymer films used for packaging: LLDPE, PP and PVDC

FTIR and DSC of polymer films used for packaging: LLDPE, PP and PVDC FTIR and DS of polymer films used for packaging: LLDPE, PP and PVD John Petrovich SHAPE American High School Abstract: Polymers are compounds used in various materials. There are a plethora of methods

More information

KMχ /γ = (1.3E -23 )(88.2)(3.4138 E 20 ) 3.05 = 0.12834. T g = (302)*( 0.12834 / (1-0.12834) ) = 44.5 o K

KMχ /γ = (1.3E -23 )(88.2)(3.4138 E 20 ) 3.05 = 0.12834. T g = (302)*( 0.12834 / (1-0.12834) ) = 44.5 o K Problem Set #5 Solutions Chemical ngineering 60/60 Problem 8.4 We re given T g as 0 o C and given the viscosity at 5 o C, and asked to find the viscosity at 40 o C. We can use equation 8.48 (WLF equation).

More information

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

More information

Solidification, Crystallization & Glass Transition

Solidification, Crystallization & Glass Transition Solidification, Crystallization & Glass Transition Cooling the Melt solidification Crystallization versus Formation of Glass Parameters related to the formaton of glass Effect of cooling rate Glass transition

More information

Stress Relaxation Study of Paper and Plastic Film based Packaging Material

Stress Relaxation Study of Paper and Plastic Film based Packaging Material Master's Degree Thesis ISRN: BTH-AMT-EX--2009/D-02--SE Stress Relaxation Study of Paper and Plastic Film based Packaging Material Rajdip Roy Lu Qi Department of Mechanical Engineering Blekinge Institute

More information

Long term performance of polymers

Long term performance of polymers 1.0 Introduction Long term performance of polymers Polymer materials exhibit time dependent behavior. The stress and strain induced when a load is applied are a function of time. In the most general form

More information

Developing an ANSYS Creep Model for Polypropylene from Experimental Data

Developing an ANSYS Creep Model for Polypropylene from Experimental Data Developing an ANSYS Creep Model for Polypropylene from Experimental Data Abstract Martin J. Dropik David H. Johnson, P.E. David E. Roth, P.E. Penn State-Erie, Erie, PA, USA This paper describes a procedure

More information

Determining the impact of electrical loss in coaxial cable

Determining the impact of electrical loss in coaxial cable Determining the impact of electrical loss in coaxial cable Here's a discussion on cable attenuation based on the differences in dielectric loss of low density polyethylene resins and quantify the consequent

More information

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R 3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

More information

Principles of Fracture Mechanics

Principles of Fracture Mechanics 8-1 CHAPTER 8 FAILURE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Principles of Fracture Mechanics 8.1 This problem asks that we compute the magnitude of the maximum stress that exists at the tip of an internal crack. Equation

More information

ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 3. Work Hardening Models

ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 3. Work Hardening Models Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity Yrd.Doç. e mail: azsenalp@gyte.edu.tr Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü In this section work hardening models that are applicable to different

More information

Shelf Life Prediction Of Medical Gloves

Shelf Life Prediction Of Medical Gloves Shelf Life Prediction Of Medical Gloves Presented for the ASTM WG Committee for Medical Glove Expiration Dating Guidance By Uday Karmarkar Akron Rubber Development Laboratory, Inc. ardl@akron.infi.net

More information

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids 12-1 Liquids I. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic Molecular Theory A. Fluids 1. Substances that can flow and therefore take the shape of their container B. Relative

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

Solution for Homework #1

Solution for Homework #1 Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen

More information

Tensile fracture analysis of blunt notched PMMA specimens by means of the Strain Energy Density

Tensile fracture analysis of blunt notched PMMA specimens by means of the Strain Energy Density Engineering Solid Mechanics 3 (2015) 35-42 Contents lists available at GrowingScience Engineering Solid Mechanics homepage: www.growingscience.com/esm Tensile fracture analysis of blunt notched PMMA specimens

More information

AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS

AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS David A. Grewell Branson Ultrasonics Corporation ABSTRACT This paper reviews effects of amplitude and force control during

More information

Lecture 14. Chapter 8-1

Lecture 14. Chapter 8-1 Lecture 14 Fatigue & Creep in Engineering Materials (Chapter 8) Chapter 8-1 Fatigue Fatigue = failure under applied cyclic stress. specimen compression on top bearing bearing motor counter flex coupling

More information

Viscoelasticity of Polymer Fluids.

Viscoelasticity of Polymer Fluids. Viscoelasticity of Polymer Fluids. Main Properties of Polymer Fluids. Entangled polymer fluids are polymer melts and concentrated or semidilute (above the concentration c) solutions. In these systems polymer

More information

Mechanical Properties - Stresses & Strains

Mechanical Properties - Stresses & Strains Mechanical Properties - Stresses & Strains Types of Deformation : Elasic Plastic Anelastic Elastic deformation is defined as instantaneous recoverable deformation Hooke's law : For tensile loading, σ =

More information

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Stress and strain fracture or engineering point of view: allows to predict the

More information

Glassy polymers and the nature of the glass transition. The factors that affect Tg

Glassy polymers and the nature of the glass transition. The factors that affect Tg Thermal Transitions: Crystallization, Melting and the Glass Transition Today: Glassy polymers and the nature of the glass transition The factors that affect Tg Plasticizers Chapter 8 in CD (Polymer Science

More information

Objectives. Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity and ductility of given materials.

Objectives. Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity and ductility of given materials. Lab 3 Tension Test Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Objectives Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity

More information

Linear Elastic Cable Model With Creep Proportional to Tension

Linear Elastic Cable Model With Creep Proportional to Tension 610 N. Whitney Way, Suite 160 Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA Phone No: (608) 238-2171 Fax No: (608) 238-9241 info@powline.com http://www.powline.com Linear Elastic Cable Model With Creep Proportional to

More information

100 Year Service Life of Polypropylene And Polyethylene Gravity Sewer Pipes. Summary Technical Report

100 Year Service Life of Polypropylene And Polyethylene Gravity Sewer Pipes. Summary Technical Report December 2014 100 Year Service Life of Polypropylene And Polyethylene Gravity Sewer Pipes A TEPPFA Project in cooperation with Borealis and LyondellBasell Summary Technical Report (Based on Extracts of

More information

T and Strain Rate: Thermoplastics 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 4 C 20 C 40 C

T and Strain Rate: Thermoplastics 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 4 C 20 C 40 C T and Strain Rate: Thermoplastics Decreasing T... --increases E --increases TS --decreases %EL Increasing strain rate... --same effects as decreasing T. σ(mpa) 80 60 40 4 C 20 C 40 C Data for the semicrystalline

More information

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids 1 Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids * 10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds & Dipole Moments - van der Waals constant for water (a = 5.28 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) vs O 2 (a = 1.36 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) -- water is polar (draw diagram)

More information

Thermoplastic composites

Thermoplastic composites Thermoplastic composites Definition By definition, a thermoplastic is a material based on polymer (macromolecular compound) which can be shaped, in a liquid (viscous) state at a temperature either higher

More information

A Beginner s Guide DMA

A Beginner s Guide DMA FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) A Beginner s Guide This booklet provides an introduction to the concepts of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). It is written for the materials

More information

Molar Mass of Polyvinyl Alcohol by Viscosity

Molar Mass of Polyvinyl Alcohol by Viscosity Molar Mass of Polyvinyl Alcohol by Viscosity Introduction Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH) is a linear polymer (i. e., it has little branching) of Ethanol monomer units: -CH 2 -CHOH- Unlike most high molar mass

More information

3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins

3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins 3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins 3.3.1. Introduction Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter 1. There has been significant appreciation of the importance of the rheological

More information

DETERMINATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FOR LONG-TERM LIFE PREDICTION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES

DETERMINATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FOR LONG-TERM LIFE PREDICTION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES DETERMINATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FOR LONG-TERM LIFE PREDICTION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES K. Fukushima*, H. Cai**, M. Nakada*** and Y. Miyano*** * Graduate School, Kanazawa Institute of Technology

More information

Lösungen Übung Verformung

Lösungen Übung Verformung Lösungen Übung Verformung 1. (a) What is the meaning of T G? (b) To which materials does it apply? (c) What effect does it have on the toughness and on the stress- strain diagram? 2. Name the four main

More information

Rheology of polymer systems/ Reologia dos sistemas poliméricos

Rheology of polymer systems/ Reologia dos sistemas poliméricos Rheology of polymer systems/ Reologia dos sistemas poliméricos 1. Viscosity/Viscosidade Jorge Morgado, IST Polymers Molecular materials in nature COMPLEX behaviour Viscosity of concentrated solu1ons and

More information

MODELING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND FREQUENCY ON BITUMEN-COATED HELICAL CABLE ELEMENTS

MODELING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND FREQUENCY ON BITUMEN-COATED HELICAL CABLE ELEMENTS MODELING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND FREQUENCY ON BITUMEN-COATED HELICAL CABLE ELEMENTS Bjørn Konradsen 1 Technological Analyses Centre, Hybrid Underwater Cables, Nexans Norway Steinar V. Ouren Material

More information

Injection Molding. Materials. Plastics 2.008. Outline. Polymer. Equipment and process steps. Considerations for process parameters

Injection Molding. Materials. Plastics 2.008. Outline. Polymer. Equipment and process steps. Considerations for process parameters Outline 2.008 Polymer Equipment and process steps Injection Molding Considerations for process parameters Design for manufacturing, tooling and defects 1 2.008 spring 2004 S. Kim 2 Materials Solid materials

More information

Introduction To Materials Science FOR ENGINEERS, Ch. 5. Diffusion. MSE 201 Callister Chapter 5

Introduction To Materials Science FOR ENGINEERS, Ch. 5. Diffusion. MSE 201 Callister Chapter 5 Diffusion MSE 21 Callister Chapter 5 1 Goals: Diffusion - how do atoms move through solids? Fundamental concepts and language Diffusion mechanisms Vacancy diffusion Interstitial diffusion Impurities Diffusion

More information

#2 Investigation of Crystallinity in Polymeric Materials

#2 Investigation of Crystallinity in Polymeric Materials I. INTRODUCTION To close the yellow note, click once to select it and then click the box in the upper left corner. To open the note, double click (Mac OS) or right click (Windows) on the note icon. #2

More information

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TESTING OF MATERIALS

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TESTING OF MATERIALS LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TESTING OF MATERIALS 1. TENSION TEST: INTRODUCTION & THEORY The tension test is the most commonly used method to evaluate the mechanical properties of metals. Its main objective

More information

CONCEPT CHECK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding

CONCEPT CHECK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding CONCEPT CHECK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding Concept Check 2.1 Question: Why are the atomic weights of the elements generally not integers? Cite two reasons. Answer:

More information

Praktikum III. Experiment P4. Simulation of Polymer Behavior in Step Shear Rate Flow using the Reptation Model

Praktikum III. Experiment P4. Simulation of Polymer Behavior in Step Shear Rate Flow using the Reptation Model Praktikum III Fall Term 211 Experiment P4 Simulation of Polymer Behavior in Step Shear Rate Flow using the Reptation Model A lab report written by: Baumli Philipp baumlip@student.ethz.ch Date of the experiment:

More information

Chapter Outline. Diffusion - how do atoms move through solids?

Chapter Outline. Diffusion - how do atoms move through solids? Chapter Outline iffusion - how do atoms move through solids? iffusion mechanisms Vacancy diffusion Interstitial diffusion Impurities The mathematics of diffusion Steady-state diffusion (Fick s first law)

More information

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 1.1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Different materials possess different properties in varying degree and therefore behave in different ways under given conditions. These properties

More information

Effect of Sterilization Techniques on Polymers

Effect of Sterilization Techniques on Polymers Effect of Sterilization Techniques on Polymers Contents of Presentation Introduction to Polymers Properties and Stability of Polymers Affect of Ionising Radiation and Ethylene Oxide on Polymers The need

More information

CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading

CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading Some machine elements are subjected to static loads and for such elements static failure theories are used to predict failure (yielding or fracture).

More information

Thermal cover:layout 1 1/18/11 3:56 PM Page 2 TA Instruments

Thermal cover:layout 1 1/18/11 3:56 PM Page 2 TA Instruments TA Instruments Thermomechanical Analysis Sensitive Measurement, Unmatched Versatility TMA Q400EM/Q400 SPECIFICATIONS 98 The Q400EM is the industry s leading research-grade thermomechanical analyzer with

More information

Completely reversed, strain controlled fatigue tests of a steel alloy with E=210000 MPa resulted in the following data:

Completely reversed, strain controlled fatigue tests of a steel alloy with E=210000 MPa resulted in the following data: Kul-49.4350 Fatigue o Structure Example solutions 5 Problem 5-1. Completely reversed, strain controlled atigue tests o a steel alloy with E=10000 resulted in the ollowing data: a a, (o the stable curve)

More information

KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER - molecules in matter are always in motion - speed of molecules is proportional to the temperature

KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER - molecules in matter are always in motion - speed of molecules is proportional to the temperature 1 KINETIC TERY F MATTER - molecules in matter are always in motion - speed of molecules is proportional to the temperature TE STATES F MATTER 1. Gas a) ideal gas - molecules move freely - molecules have

More information

UROP- Annealed 3D printed parts- Final Write up Michael Rosplock Abstract

UROP- Annealed 3D printed parts- Final Write up Michael Rosplock Abstract UROP- Annealed 3D printed parts- Final Write up Michael Rosplock Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a basic annealing process on 3D printed tensile test samples. Several different

More information

4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) 172 4 Thermomechanical Analysis 4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) 4.1 Principles of TMA 4.1.1 Introduction A dilatometer is used to determine the linear thermal expansion of a solid as a function of temperature.

More information

Section 3: Crystal Binding

Section 3: Crystal Binding Physics 97 Interatomic forces Section 3: rystal Binding Solids are stable structures, and therefore there exist interactions holding atoms in a crystal together. For example a crystal of sodium chloride

More information

σ y ( ε f, σ f ) ( ε f

σ y ( ε f, σ f ) ( ε f Typical stress-strain curves for mild steel and aluminum alloy from tensile tests L L( 1 + ε) A = --- A u u 0 1 E l mild steel fracture u ( ε f, f ) ( ε f, f ) ε 0 ε 0.2 = 0.002 aluminum alloy fracture

More information

Poly Processing Company

Poly Processing Company Poly Processing Company Team Innovation Understanding Environmental Stress Crack Resistance (ESCR) in Rotomolded Polyethylene Tanks Raed Al-Zubi, Ph.D. National Innovation Specialist, Poly Processing Company

More information

SHORE A DUROMETER AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES

SHORE A DUROMETER AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES SHORE A DUROMETER AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES Written by D.L. Hertz, Jr. and A.C. Farinella Presented at the Fall Technical Meeting of The New York Rubber Group Thursday, September 4, 1998 by D.L. Hertz,

More information

Environmental Stress Crack Resistance Of Polyethylene

Environmental Stress Crack Resistance Of Polyethylene Introduction to Environmental Stress Cracking and ESCR Over the past decade, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) materials have improved significantly and now meet more stringent performance standards; some

More information

http://lib-www.lanl.gov/la-pubs/00818430.pdf

http://lib-www.lanl.gov/la-pubs/00818430.pdf LA-UR-1-3461 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Title: INFLUENCE OF POLYMER MOLECULAR WEIGHT, TEMPERATURE, AND STRAIN RATE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PBX 951 Author(s): D.J. Idar,

More information

Unit X: Polymers Test 1.1

Unit X: Polymers Test 1.1 ame: Unit X: Polymers Test 1.1 Multiple hoice Questions 1 through 9 pertain to the reactions on the last two pages of this test. Where multiple answers exist only one need be reported. 1. Which process

More information

In order to solve this problem it is first necessary to use Equation 5.5: x 2 Dt. = 1 erf. = 1.30, and x = 2 mm = 2 10-3 m. Thus,

In order to solve this problem it is first necessary to use Equation 5.5: x 2 Dt. = 1 erf. = 1.30, and x = 2 mm = 2 10-3 m. Thus, 5.3 (a) Compare interstitial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diffusion. (b) Cite two reasons why interstitial diffusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diffusion. Solution (a) With vacancy diffusion,

More information

TIE-31: Mechanical and thermal properties of optical glass

TIE-31: Mechanical and thermal properties of optical glass PAGE 1/10 1 Density The density of optical glass varies from 239 for N-BK10 to 603 for SF66 In most cases glasses with higher densities also have higher refractive indices (eg SF type glasses) The density

More information

1 Material Properties of Plastics

1 Material Properties of Plastics j3 1 Material Properties of Plastics 1.1 Formation and Structure The basic structure of plastics (or polymers) is given by macromolecule chains, formulated from monomer units by chemical reactions. Typical

More information

Lecture 3: Models of Solutions

Lecture 3: Models of Solutions Materials Science & Metallurgy Master of Philosophy, Materials Modelling, Course MP4, Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Lecture 3: Models of Solutions List of Symbols Symbol G M

More information

17 / Thermal Properties

17 / Thermal Properties Chapter 17 / Thermal Properties This photograph shows a white-hot cube of a silica fiber insulation material, which, only seconds after having been removed from a hot furnace, can be held by its edges

More information

METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING

METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING Met E 206 MATERIALS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 1 Prof. Dr. Rıza GÜRBÜZ Res. Assist. Gül ÇEVİK (Room: B-306) INTRODUCTION TENSION TEST Mechanical testing

More information

Evaluation of Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Composite Polyvinyl Alcohol Films

Evaluation of Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Composite Polyvinyl Alcohol Films 1412 Chem. Pharm. Bull. 47(10) 1412 1416 (1999) Vol. 47, No. 10 Evaluation of Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Composite Polyvinyl Alcohol Films Lai Wah CHAN, Jin Song HAO, and Paul Wan Sia HENG*

More information

Tensile Testing Laboratory

Tensile Testing Laboratory Tensile Testing Laboratory By Stephan Favilla 0723668 ME 354 AC Date of Lab Report Submission: February 11 th 2010 Date of Lab Exercise: January 28 th 2010 1 Executive Summary Tensile tests are fundamental

More information

Tiangang TM BW-10LD (622)

Tiangang TM BW-10LD (622) Tiangang TM BW-10LD Oligomeric Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer (HALS) Poly-(N-β-hydroxyethyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy-piperidyl-succinate) CAS number 65447-77-0 BW-10LD BW-10LD is a highly effective

More information

different levels, also called repeated, alternating, or fluctuating stresses.

different levels, also called repeated, alternating, or fluctuating stresses. Fatigue and Dynamic Loading 1 Fti Fatigue fil failure: 2 Static ti conditions : loads are applied gradually, to give sufficient i time for the strain to fully develop. Variable conditions : stresses vary

More information

PIEZOELECTRIC FILMS TECHNICAL INFORMATION

PIEZOELECTRIC FILMS TECHNICAL INFORMATION PIEZOELECTRIC FILMS TECHNICAL INFORMATION 1 Table of Contents 1. PIEZOELECTRIC AND PYROELECTRIC EFFECTS 3 2. PIEZOELECTRIC FILMS 3 3. CHARACTERISTICS PROPERTIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC FILMS 3 4. PROPERTIES OF

More information

Testing and appraisal of Lucobit polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance

Testing and appraisal of Lucobit polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance Abstract Testing and appraisal of polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance Hamid Sabbagh mollahosseini*,golazin Yadollahi**, Ershad Amoosoltani*** *, ***Executive of Engineering and

More information

Tutorial on Using Excel Solver to Analyze Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time Data

Tutorial on Using Excel Solver to Analyze Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time Data Tutorial on Using Excel Solver to Analyze Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time Data In the measurement of the Spin-Lattice Relaxation time T 1, a 180 o pulse is followed after a delay time of t with a 90 o pulse,

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Prof. U.S.P. Shet, Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M. Mallikarjuna. 4.7 Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles:

Prof. U.S.P. Shet, Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M. Mallikarjuna. 4.7 Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles: .7 Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles: The important variable factors which are used as the basis for comparison of the cycles are compression ratio, peak pressure, heat addition, heat rejection

More information

OUT SIDE BACK COVER OUT SIDE FRONT COVER

OUT SIDE BACK COVER OUT SIDE FRONT COVER OUT SIDE BACK COVER OUT SIDE FRONT COVER CONTENT IRPC OVERVIEW PETROCHEMICAL BUSINESS POLYOLEFINS PRODUCTS 8 HDPE 9 HDPE PIPE COMPOUND 10 PP HOMOPOLYMER 11 PP BLOCK COPOLYMER 12 PP RANDOM COPOLYMER 13

More information

Alcohols. Characterized by OH group Name: add ol. to name of hydrocarbon. Methanol. Butanol. Sterno. Alcohols burn in air. A mixture of ethanol +

Alcohols. Characterized by OH group Name: add ol. to name of hydrocarbon. Methanol. Butanol. Sterno. Alcohols burn in air. A mixture of ethanol + 1 2 3 Functional Groups Alcohols Structures of Alcohols haracterized by group Name: add ol to name of hydrocarbon 3 5 : how many structural isomers? See D-RM Screens 11.5 & 11.6 Methanol Butanol 1-propanol

More information

Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K

Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 1. Large number of atoms/molecules in random motion 2.

More information

Measurement of Material Creep Parameters of Amorphous Selenium by Nanoindentation and the Relationship Between Indentation Creep and Uniaxial Creep

Measurement of Material Creep Parameters of Amorphous Selenium by Nanoindentation and the Relationship Between Indentation Creep and Uniaxial Creep University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Masters Theses Graduate School 8-2004 Measurement of Material Creep Parameters of Amorphous Selenium by Nanoindentation

More information

Unit 12 Practice Test

Unit 12 Practice Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

More information

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work.

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. Compare fuel value of different compounds. What drives these reactions to proceed

More information

INVESTIGATION OF VISCOELASTICITY AND CURE SHRINKAGE IN AN EPOXY RESIN DURING PROCESSING

INVESTIGATION OF VISCOELASTICITY AND CURE SHRINKAGE IN AN EPOXY RESIN DURING PROCESSING TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS INVESTIGATION OF VISCOELASTICITY AND CURE SHRINKAGE IN AN EPOXY RESIN DURING PROCESSING T. Shimizu *, H. Koinuma, K. Nagai Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,

More information

Developments in Low Temperature Testing of Rubber Materials

Developments in Low Temperature Testing of Rubber Materials Developments in Low Temperature Testing of Rubber Materials Technical report 01/4, 2nd edition Nov 2010 Göran Spetz Elastocon AB SWEDEN Introduction The low temperature properties of rubber materials are

More information

1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids

1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids 1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties What is fluid mechanics? As its name suggests it is the branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of fluids - both liquids and gases.

More information

Module #17. Work/Strain Hardening. READING LIST DIETER: Ch. 4, pp. 138-143; Ch. 6 in Dieter

Module #17. Work/Strain Hardening. READING LIST DIETER: Ch. 4, pp. 138-143; Ch. 6 in Dieter Module #17 Work/Strain Hardening READING LIST DIETER: Ch. 4, pp. 138-143; Ch. 6 in Dieter D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Trans. AIME, v. 224 (1962) pp. 1047-1061 Work Hardening RECALL: During plastic deformation,

More information

Product Information. Thermal Properties of Elvax Measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Summary

Product Information. Thermal Properties of Elvax Measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Summary Product Information Thermal Properties of Elvax Measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Summary The melting and freezing points of various Elvax ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers were measured

More information

TA Instruments User Training

TA Instruments User Training TA Instruments User Training DSC 原 理 與 應 用 2012 年 9 月 7 日 國 立 台 灣 大 學 化 學 系 潘 貫 講 堂 (B 棟 積 學 館 2 樓 演 講 廳 ) 基 礎 應 用 許 炎 山 TA Instruments, Waters LLC 美 商 沃 特 斯 國 際 股 份 有 限 公 司 台 灣 分 公 司 TA Taipei office:

More information

Environmental Stress Crack Resistance of Polyethylene Pipe Materials

Environmental Stress Crack Resistance of Polyethylene Pipe Materials Environmental Stress Crack Resistance of Polyethylene Pipe Materials ROBERT B. TAMPA, Product Development and Service Engineer* Abstract Slow crack growth is a phenomenon that can occur in most plastics.

More information

Lecture 4: Thermodynamics of Diffusion: Spinodals

Lecture 4: Thermodynamics of Diffusion: Spinodals Materials Science & Metallurgy Master of Philosophy, Materials Modelling, Course MP6, Kinetics and Microstructure Modelling, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Lecture 4: Thermodynamics of Diffusion: Spinodals Fick

More information

Plastics, Rubber and Composites Processing and Applications 31(2002). 377-384

Plastics, Rubber and Composites Processing and Applications 31(2002). 377-384 Investigation of cure induced shrinkage in unreinforced epoxy resin Mauro Zarrelli*, Alexandros A Skordos and Ivana K Partridge Advanced Materials Dept, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedford, MK43 AL,

More information

Rheologica Acta Rheol. Acta 22, 90-101 (1983)

Rheologica Acta Rheol. Acta 22, 90-101 (1983) Rheologica Acta Rheol. Acta 22, 90-101 (1983) From melt flow index to rheogram*) A. V. Shenoy, S. Chattopadhyay, and V. M. Nadkarni Polymer Science and Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Division,

More information

Back to Basics Fundamentals of Polymer Analysis

Back to Basics Fundamentals of Polymer Analysis Back to Basics Fundamentals of Polymer Analysis Using Infrared & Raman Spectroscopy Molecular Spectroscopy in the Polymer Manufacturing Process Process NIR NIR Production Receiving Shipping QC R&D Routine

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

CHAPTER 7 DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 7 DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 7-1 CHAPTER 7 DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Basic Concepts of Dislocations Characteristics of Dislocations 7.1 The dislocation density is just the total dislocation length

More information

PHASE TRANSITIONS IN POLYMERIC AND MICELLAR SYSTEMS

PHASE TRANSITIONS IN POLYMERIC AND MICELLAR SYSTEMS PHASE TRANSITIONS IN POLYMERIC AND MICELLAR SYSTEMS Summer School on Neutron Scattering and Reflectometry NG3 SANS Team NIST Center for Neutron Research June 3-7, 008 ABSTRACT Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

More information

Resistance of Plastics to Gamma Irradiation

Resistance of Plastics to Gamma Irradiation Elastomers 1 MATERIAL TOLERANCE LEVEL (kgy) COMMENTS Butyl 50 Sheds particulate after irradiation. Ethylene Propylene 100 200 Crosslinks, yellows slightly. Diene Monomer (EPDM) Fluoro Elastomer 50 Avoid

More information

Biomedical Engineering. Ceramic Materials. Dr-Ing. Ewald Pfaff. Materials and Processing. Laboratory visit

Biomedical Engineering. Ceramic Materials. Dr-Ing. Ewald Pfaff. Materials and Processing. Laboratory visit Biomedical Engineering Material a Science ce Ceramic Materials Dr-Ing. Ewald Pfaff Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Fundamentals Materials and Processing Exercise Hip Joint Laboratory visit Questions Preparation

More information