EUROLAB 25 years. The role of metrology and testing to characterize materials and products. EUROLAB 25th Anniversary Seminar

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1 EUROLAB 25 years The role of metrology and testing to characterize materials and products April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 1 Origin of Conformity Assessment The New Approach for the European Economic Community 1985 Flexible regulatory framework providing access to the Common Market with freedom for movement of goods, persons, services, and capital, while protecting essential public needs, e.g. safety, health, environment. Essential requirements defined in EU-Directives: from machinery to toys. The EU-Directives have to be transposed into National Laws of the EU countries to became legally binding forces in the individual EU countries the EU in 2015 comprises 28 countries with 24 official languages. Harmonised EN Standards define the technical details European Standards are valid in the whole EU, conflicting National Standards have to be withdrawn: one standard, one test, accepted everywhere. CE marking declares that the product is safe and in conformity with the relevant EU Directives. April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 2 1

2 Conformity Assessment as requirement for market and trade Society Economy Regulators Demands for facilitating trade Demands for assessing products and services Technology Suppliers Market Products Services Customers Consumers Conformity Assessment determines whether materials, products, processes, systems or people meet specified requirements Accreditation assures the competence of the conformity assessment bodies Metrology and Testing form the scientific and technological base April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 3 EUROLAB Foundation Set up in Brussels April 1990 in connection with the formation of the European Union (EU), since 1998 Legal Entity under Belgian Law. Composed of National Associations of Measurement, Testing and Analytical Laboratories all over Europe and International Affiliates. Grouping over 2,000 Conformity Assessment Bodies representing over 100,000 technical experts and laboratory practitioners. EUROLABs Guideline: Laboratory and Conformity Assessment Services supporting European Technology and Trade. The EU: 28 States, Population 500 Million April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 4 2

3 EUROLAB Objectives Creating awareness among public and political authorities, industry and other partners of the work of the measurement, calibration, testing, inspection and certification sector. Representation by formulating and voicing the opinion of European laboratories regarding political and technical issues. Coordination by interfacing with partner organisations having activities of interest to the laboratory community. Action by providing adequate means for exchange of information and experience. Promotion of cost-effective measurement, testing, calibration and analytical services. April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 5 EUROLAB Members and Activities multiple services multiple services 6 April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 6 3

4 EUROLAB Members and Activities 7 April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 7 Metrology, Measurement and Testing as base to characterize technical objects Measurement determines quantity values of a measurand OBJECT: Material or Engineered Product Characteristics s Testing determines characteristics of an object Materials Properties Inherent characteristics are intrinsic characteristics, resulting from the processing and synthesis of matter. Examples: chemical composition, density. Procedural characteristics are extrinsic characteristics, resulting from the response of a material specimen to an input stimulus. They cannot be specified without reference to the test procedure followed. Example: mechanical strength April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 8 4

5 10000 Examples of Materials Properties: Density and Strength of different material types Tensile Strength (MPa) Engineering Alloys 1000 Composites 100 Polymers Pure Metals 10 Reference: Metrology and Testing in Density (g/cm 3 ) Building Science and Technology 1 Materials Measure 4/4 (2009) April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 9 Influence of Scale Effects on Materials Properties Example: Scale dependence of the Melting Point of Gold C: Melting Point of Gold. Fix Point of the International Temperature Scale ITS-90 Gold Partilcle Radius [nm] Ø 10 Nm Example: Scale dependence of Mechanical Strength and Stiffness of Carbon Nanotubes Compression Strength: 2 times than that of macroscopic Kevlar Tensile Strength: 10 times than that of macroscopic Steel Stiffness: 2000 times than that of macroscopic Diamond Reference: Metrology and Testing in Science and Technology. Measure 4/4 (2009) 1 April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 10 5

6 Methodology of Measurement Measurement begins with the definition of the measurand, the quantity intended to be measured. OBJECT Measurement procedure Measurement principle Measurement method Measuring system Measurement result: quantity value + unit ± uncertainty Expression of uncertainty in measurement GUM SI units Measurement standard Calibration Quantity Base Unit Symbol length metre m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A temperature kelvin K luminous intensity candela cd amount of substance mole mol The measured quantity value must be related to a reference through a documented unbroken traceability chain, ending at the Primary Standard, based on the International System of Units, SI (Le Système International d Unités). The SI-quantities are related to Natural Constants and are thus dematerialised references. April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 11 Methodology of Testing Testing begins with the definition of the characteristics of an object to be determined by applying a test load to the object with refrence to a test procedure. OBJECT Characteristics Testing procedure Test principle Test method Test system Certified Reference Material (CRM) Reference procedure Testing result: specified characteristic of an object by qualitative and quantitative attributes, and adequately estimated uncertainties CRMs are issued by an authoritative body providing one or more specified property values with associated uncertainties and traceabilities, using a valid procedure. Procedure documented in a standard, including the specification of test loads and testing instrumentation. Test results are expressed in different ways: some test results can be expressed in a metrological sense as quantity values; some test results are Boolean, such as the ability to be recycled or not; some test results, such as corrosion resistance, may be expressed as a ranking (poor, adequate, good for example), some can only be captured in text and images. April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 12 6

7 The combination of Measurement and Testing to characterise Technical Objects Measurement determines quantity values of measurands Testing determines characteristics of an object SI units Measurement standard OBJECT Characteristics Certified Reference Material Measurement procedure Testing procedure Reference procedure Calibration Measurement principle Measurement method Measuring system Test principle Test method Test system Result of the combination of Metrology and Testing: measured quantity values of a specified object characteristic, and adequately determined uncertainties Reference: Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing (2011), Figure 1.1 April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 13 The combination of Metrology and Testing Example: Determination of Elasticity and Strength Loading modes Tension Compr. Shear Load Procedure OBJECT Stress, Strain Force F Diameter d Elongation l Response to Loading static loading Stress-Strain Curve Bending Torsion Elasticity line, the slope depends on the nature of the specimen, e. g. metalic, ceramic Stress = F/A 0 F Elastic Modulus E = / = F/A Slip bands l 0 l F Strength F max /A 0 F max Fracture Steel Specimen, cross section A 0 = π d 2 Strain = l/ l 0 1 GPa Stress dynamic loading Fatigue Fracture Curve Conventional fatigue limit Strength F max / Asteels o Cycles to fracture April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 14 7

8 Materials Properties Characterisation: Metrology & Testing & Confidence Ring Confidence Ring Specimen specifics (e. g. scale, microstructure) Traceability: the parameters involved in materials characterisation must be related to references. Stimulus (Input load) Material response = Property Procedural aspects (incl. dependence on time) Response Examples of Materiall properties Property Stimulus Response Mechanical Strength Electrical Resistivity Thermal Conductivity Stress Voltage Heat Strain Current Temperature Optical Light Light Transparency Input Output Reference: Metrologia, 47 (2010) S1-S17 April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 15 Conclusion EUROLAB Guideline: Laboratory and conformity assessment services supporting European tecnology and trade Metrology & Testing Confidence Ring Conformity assessment of materials, products, processes, systems or people by measurement, calibration, testing, inspection, certification Market, Trade April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 16 8

9 Acknowledgment At this 25th Anniversary of EUROLAB I am very grateful to all collegues with whom I discussed over the years the topics presented in this talk. Some figures of the presentation were adopted from the Handbook of Metrology and Testing, which was worked out in an international cooperation wth contributions from Europe, Japan and the USA. April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 17 9

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