B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 1"

Transcription

1 Firing Order Every engine cylinder must fire once in every cycle. This requires that for a four-stroke fourcylinder engine the ignition system must fire for every 180 degrees of crank rotation. For a sixcylinder engine the time available is only 120 degrees of crank rotation. The order in which various cylinders of a multi cylinder engine fire is called the firing order. The number of possibilities of firing order depends upon the number of cylinders and throws of the crankshaft. It is desirable to have the power impulses equally spaced and from the point of view of balancing this has led to certain conventional arrangements of crankshaft throws. Further, there are three factors which must be considered before deciding the optimum firing order of an engine. These are: (i) Engine vibrations (ii) Engine cooling and (iii) Development of back pressure Consider that the cylinder number 1 of the four-cylinder engine, shown in Fig., is fired first. A pressure p, generated in the cylinder number 1 will give rise to a force equal to {pa [b/(a + b)]} and {pa [a/(a + b)]} on the two bearings A and B respectively. The load on bearing A is much more than load on bearing B. If the next cylinder fired is cylinder number 2, this imbalance in load on the two bearings would further aggravate the problem of balancing of the crankshaft vibrations & would result in severe engine vibrations. If we fire cylinder number 3 after cylinder number 1, the load may be more or less evenly distributed. Further, consider the effect of firing sequence on engine cooling. When the first cylinder is fired its temperature increases. If the next cylinder that fires is number 2, the portion of the engine between the cylinder number 1 and 2 gets overheated. If then the third cylinder is fired, overheating is shifted to the portion between the cylinders 2 and 4. Thus we see that the task of the cooling system becomes very difficult because it is then, required to cool more at one place than at other places and this imposes great strain on the cooling system. If the third cylinder is fired after the first the overheating problem can be controlled to a greater extent. B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 1

2 Next, consider the flow of exhaust gases in the exhaust pipe. After firing the first cylinder, exhaust gases flow out to the exhaust pipe. If the next cylinder fired is the cylinder number 2, we find that before the gases exhausted by the first cylinder go out of the exhaust pipe the gases exhausted from the second cylinder try to overtake them. This would require that the exhaust pipe be made bigger. Otherwise the back pressure in it would increase and the possibility of back flow would arise. If instead of firing cylinder number 2, cylinder number 3 is fired. then by the time the gases exhausted by the cylinder 3 come into the exhaust pipe, the gases from cylinder 1 would have sufficient time to travel the distance between cylinder 1 and cylinder 3 and thus, the development of a high back pressure is avoided It should be noted that to some extent all the above three requirements are conflicting and therefore a trade-off is necessary. For 4-Cylinder engines the possible firing orders are: or The former is more commonly used in the vertical configuration of cylinders. For a 6-Cylinder engine firing orders can be: or or or The first one is more commonly used. Other Firing Orders For 3 Cylinder engine Cylinder in-line engine Cylinder V shape engine , , , , Cylinder No. 1 is taken from front of the in-line engines whereas in V shape front cylinder on right side-bank is considered cylinder No.1 for fixing H.T. leads according to engine firing order. B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 2

3 Vibration Damper The power impulses tend to set up a twisting vibration in the crankshaft. When a piston moves down on its power stroke, it thrusts through the connecting rod, against a crankpin with a force that may exceed 2 tons. This force tends to twist the crankpin ahead of the rest of the crankshaft. Then, as the force against the crankpin recedes, it tends to untwist, or move back into its original relationship with the rest of the crankshaft. This twist-untwist action, repeated with every power impulse, tends to set up an oscillating motion in the crankshaft. This is called Torsional vibration. If it were not controlled, it could cause the crankshaft to break at certain speeds. To control torsional vibration, devices which are called vibration dampers, or harmonic balancers, are used. These dampers are usually mounted on the front end of the crankshaft and the drive-belt pulleys are incorporated into them. A typical damper is made in two parts, a small inertia ring or damper flywheel and the pulley. They are bonded to each other by a rubber insert about 4-inch [6-mm] thick. The damper is mounted to the front end of the crankshaft. As the crankshaft speeds up or slows down, the damper flywheel has a dragging effect. This effect, which slightly, flexes the rubber insert, tends to hold the pulley and crankshaft to a constant speed. This tends to check the twist-untwist action, or torsional vibration, of the crankshaft. Rubber Ring Fig. A torsional-vibration damper B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 3

4 Engine Bearings Bearings are placed in the engine wherever there is rotary motion between engine parts. These engine bearings are called sleeve bearings because they are shaped like sleeves that fit around the rotating shaft. The part of the shaft that rotates in the bearing is called a journal. Connecting-rod and crankshaft (also called main) bearings are of the split, or half, type. The upper half of a main bearing is installed in the counter bore in the cylinder block. The lower half is held in place by the bearing cap. The upper half of a connecting rod big end (or crankpin) bearing is installed in the rod. The lower half is placed in the rod cap. The typical bearing half is made up of a steel or bronze back, with up to five linings of bearing material. The bearing material is soft therefore, the bearing wears, and not the more expensive engine part. Then, the bearing, and not the engine part, can be replaced when it has worn too much. Fig. A typical thrust bearing half Fig A- Thrust-type main bearing and a connecting rod bearing, showing their positions on the crankshaft Fig. Typical sleeve-type bearing half with its parts named B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 4

5 Thrust bearing The crankshaft has to be kept from moving back and forth in the block. To prevent back-andforth movement, one of the main bearings is a thrust, or end-thrust, bearing. This bearing has flanges on its two sides. Flanges on the crankshaft fit close to the flanges on the thrust bearing. If the crankshaft tends to shift forward or backward, the crankshaft flange comes up against the thrustbearing flange. This prevents endwise movement. Bearing Lubrication Oil from the engine oil pump flows onto the bearing surfaces. The rotating shaft journals are supported on layers of oil. The journal must be smaller than the bearing so that there is a clearance (called oil clearance) between the two. In the engine oil moves through this clearance. The lubricating system feeds oil to the main bearings. It enters through the oil holes and the rotating journals carry it around to all parts of the bearings. The oil works its way to the outer edges of the main bearings. From there, it is thrown off-and drops back into the oil pan. The oil thrown off helps lubricate other engine parts, such as the cylinder walls, pistons, and piston rings. The connecting-rod bearings are lubricated through the oil holes drilled in the crankshaft. As the oil moves across the faces of the bearings, it also helps to cool them. The oil is relatively cool as it leaves the oil pan. It picks up heat in its passage through the bearings. This heat is carried down to the oil pan and released to the air around the oil pan. The oil also flushes and cleans the bearings. It flushes out particles of grit and dirt from the bearings. The particles are carried back to the oil pan by the oil. They then settle to the bottom of the oil pan, or are removed from the oil by the oil screen or filter. B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 5

6 Bearing Oil Clearances The greater the oil clearance, the faster oil flows through the bearing. Proper clearance varies with different engines, but inch [0.037mm] is a typical clearance. As the clearance becomes greater (owing to bearing wear, for example), the amount of oil flowing through and being thrown off increases. With a 0.003inch [0.076-mm] clearance only twice inch [0.037 mm], the oil throw off increases as much as five times. A 0.006inch [0.152-mm] clearance allows25 times as much oil to flow through and be thrown off. As bearings wear, more and more oil is thrown onto the cylinder walls. The piston rings cannot handle so much oil. Part of it works up into the combustion Fig. Oil clearance (exaggerated) between the chambers, where it burns and forms carbon. main bearing and the crankshaft journal Carbon deposits in the combustion chambers reduce engine power and cause other engine troubles. Excessive oil clearances can also cause some bearings to fail from oil starvation. An oil pump can deliver only a certain amount of oil. If the oil clearances are excessive most of the oil will pass through the nearest bearings. There won't be enough for the more distant bearings. Then these will probably fail from lack of oil. An engine with excessive bearing oil clearances usually has low oil pressure: The oil pump cannot build up normal pressure because of the large oil.clearances in the bearings. If bearing oil clearances are too small, there will be metal to- metal contact between the bearing and the shaft journal. Very rapid wear and quick failure will result. Also, there will not be enough oil throw off to lubricate cylinder walls, pistons, and rings. B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 6

7 Bearing Requirements Bearings must be able to do other things besides carry loads. Some of these are listed below. 1. Load Carrying Capacity-Modern engines are lighter and more powerful. They have higher compression ratios which impose greater bearing loads. Only a few years ago, bearing loads were around 1600 to 1800 psi [11,032 to 12,411kPa]. Today, connecting-rod bearings carry loads of up to 6000 psi [41,369 kpa]. 2. Fatigue Resistance-When a piece of metal is bent back and forth, over and over, it hardens and finally breaks. This is called fatigue failure. You have probably done this with a piece of wire or sheet metal. Bearings are subject to such loads and must withstand them without failing from fatigue. 3. Embedability This term refers to the ability of a bearing to permit foreign particles to embed in it. Dirt and dust particles enter the engine despite the air cleaner and oil filter. Some of them work onto the bearings and are not flushed away by the oil. A bearing protects itself by letting such particles sink into, or embed in, the bearing lining material. If the bearing were too hard to allow this, the particles would lie on the surface. They would scratch the shaft journal and probably gouge out the bearing. This would cause overheating and rapid bearing failure. Therefore, the bearing material must be soft enough for adequate embedability. 4. Conformability This is associated with embedability. It is the ability of the bearing material to conform to variations in shaft alignment and journal shape. For example, suppose that a shaft journal is slightly tapered. The bearing under the larger diameter will be more heavily loaded. If the bearing material has high conformability, it will "flow" slightly, from the heavily loaded areas to the lightly loaded areas. This slight flow evens the load on the bearing. A similar action takes place when foreign particles embed in the bearing. As they embed, they displace bearing material, producing local high spots. However with high conformability, the material flows away from the high spots. This prevents local heavy loading that could cause bearing failure. 5. Corrosion resistance - the by-products of combustion may form corrosive substances harmful to some metals. Bearing materials must be resistant to corrosion. Unleaded gasoline, required on cars using catalytic converters, changes the chemistry of the engine oil. Catalytic converters, are installed in the exhaust systems to reduce the pollutants coming out the tail pipe. The unleaded gasoline, in changing the chemistry of the oil, tends to increase bearing corrosion. Therefore, the composition of engine bearings has been changed. For example, instead of the copper-lead bearings used for years, some engines now have aluminum-lead bearings. These appear to withstand corrosion better. 6. Wear Rate The bearing material must be so hard and tough that it will not wear too fast. At the same time, it must be soft enough to permit good embedability and conformability. B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 7

8 Fig. Effect of a metallic particle that is embedded in the bearing material Fig. The crankshaft has oil holes drilled through it to carry lubricating oil from the main bearings to the connecting-rod bearings Fig. Standard crankshaft for a V-6engine (left) compared with a V -6 crankshaft with splayed crankpins (right) B Dinesh Prabhu, Asst. Professor, P E S College Engg., Mandya, KARNATAKA 8

Engine Bearings and how they work

Engine Bearings and how they work Engine Bearings and how they work Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich (Research & Development Manager) A Bearing is a device supporting a mechanical element and providing its movement relatively to another element

More information

ENGINE PROPER. 1. Cylinder Head Cover. 2. Cylinder Head Gasket EG-6 ENGINE 2TR-FE ENGINE

ENGINE PROPER. 1. Cylinder Head Cover. 2. Cylinder Head Gasket EG-6 ENGINE 2TR-FE ENGINE EG-6 ENGINE PROPER 1. Cylinder Head Cover The cylinder head cover is made of plastic to reduce weight and noise. Acrylic rubber, which excels in heat resistance and reliability, is used for the cylinder

More information

Piston Diagnosis A rough Guide

Piston Diagnosis A rough Guide Piston Diagnosis A rough Guide The process of examining used pistons can tell us a lot of helpful information on the condition of an engine. When engine failure does occur the piston is likely to take

More information

EXPERIMENT NO. 3. Aim: To study the construction and working of 4- stroke petrol / diesel engine.

EXPERIMENT NO. 3. Aim: To study the construction and working of 4- stroke petrol / diesel engine. EXPERIMENT NO. 3 Aim: To study the construction and working of 4- stroke petrol / diesel engine. Theory: A machine or device which derives heat from the combustion of fuel and converts part of this energy

More information

Repair or Replacement of Piston and Connecting Rod

Repair or Replacement of Piston and Connecting Rod SERIES 50 SERVICE MANUAL 1.18 PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY The piston and connecting rod assembly is one unit made of two separate components. For general information, refer to Section 1.17. For

More information

Engine bearing failures and how to avoid them

Engine bearing failures and how to avoid them Engine bearing failures and how to avoid them Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich (Research & Development Manager, King Engine Bearings) Most engine bearing failures are caused by one of two factors: - Mixed lubrication

More information

ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM

ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM 3.1 Necessity for cooling In an internal combustion engine, the fuel is burned within the engine cylinder. During combustion, high temperatures are reached within the cylinder, for

More information

- Service Bulletin - Pistons.

- Service Bulletin - Pistons. Normal combustion: is smooth and even from the spark plug through the top of the chamber. 1 2 3 Spark occurs Combustion moves smoothly across chamber Combustion and power completed Pre-Ignition: occurs

More information

Small Engine Parts Identification. Contest Guidelines

Small Engine Parts Identification. Contest Guidelines Small Engine Parts Identification Contest Guidelines Each contestant must be able to identify the parts of the small engine and be able to give the purpose of each part. The engine parts will be identified

More information

Volkswagen Jetta, Golf, GTI 1999, 2000 2.8 Liter VR6 2V Engine Mechanical, Engine Code(s): AFP 17 Engine-Lubrication (Page GR-17)

Volkswagen Jetta, Golf, GTI 1999, 2000 2.8 Liter VR6 2V Engine Mechanical, Engine Code(s): AFP 17 Engine-Lubrication (Page GR-17) 17 Engine-Lubrication (Page GR-17) Lubrication system components, removing and installing Oil filter housing, disassembling and assembling Oil pan, removing and installing Oil pressure and oil pressure

More information

1.8 CRANKSHAFT OIL SEALS

1.8 CRANKSHAFT OIL SEALS SERIES 60 SERVICE MANUAL 1.8 CRANKSHAFT OIL SEALS An oil seal is fitted between each end of the crankshaft and the bores of the flywheel housing and gear case cover to retain the lubricating oil in the

More information

Diesel Power Plant. - Arrangement - Equipment - Advantages & disadvantages

Diesel Power Plant. - Arrangement - Equipment - Advantages & disadvantages Diesel Power Plant - Arrangement - Equipment - Advantages & disadvantages Intake air filter Diesel Engine Fuel injection pump Filter Oil pump Storage tank Schematic arrangement of Diesel Power Plant Equipment

More information

before tightening the bolts. This will help eliminate the potential for any interference between the flywheel housing and the oil pan.

before tightening the bolts. This will help eliminate the potential for any interference between the flywheel housing and the oil pan. SERIES 60 SERVICE MANUAL before tightening the bolts. This will help eliminate the potential for any interference between the flywheel housing and the oil pan. 1. Drain Plug 6. Bolt 2. Nut 7. Plug 3. Isolator

More information

54mm X 54mm BORE AND STROKE

54mm X 54mm BORE AND STROKE SECTION III TUNING 54mm X 54mm BORE AND STROKE WRITTEN BY MICHAEL SCUTT Short Stroke 54 x 54 Tuning information The following deals with building and tuning of a 54mm x 54mm Bantam motor and in particular,

More information

Volkswagen New Beetle 2.0 Liter 4-cyl General, Engine (Engine Code AEG) 17 Engine-Lubrication system (Page GR-17)

Volkswagen New Beetle 2.0 Liter 4-cyl General, Engine (Engine Code AEG) 17 Engine-Lubrication system (Page GR-17) 17 Engine-Lubrication system (Page GR-17) Lubrication system components, removing and installing Oil pan, removing and installing Oil pressure and oil pressure switch, checking Dynamic oil pressure warning

More information

Part 3: A Study of Friction and Lubrication Behavior for Gasoline Piston Skirt Profile Concepts

Part 3: A Study of Friction and Lubrication Behavior for Gasoline Piston Skirt Profile Concepts Copyright 2009 SAE International 09PFL-1163 Part 3: A Study of Friction and Lubrication Behavior for Gasoline Piston Skirt Profile Concepts Kwang-soo Kim, Paras Shah Federal-Mogul Corporation Masaaki Takiguchi

More information

The "DAVID" Steam Engine By Alan Marconett Hobbit Engineering HTTP://WWW.HobbitEngineering.com Alan@HobbitEngineering.

The DAVID Steam Engine By Alan Marconett Hobbit Engineering HTTP://WWW.HobbitEngineering.com Alan@HobbitEngineering. The "DAVID" Steam Engine By Alan Marconett Hobbit Engineering HTTP://WWW.HobbitEngineering.com Alan@HobbitEngineering.com (c) 2/20/03 The David steam engine is a simple oscillating steam engine, many plans

More information

C H A P T E R 5. Principles of Engine Operation, Two- and Four-Stroke Engines

C H A P T E R 5. Principles of Engine Operation, Two- and Four-Stroke Engines C H A P T E R 5 Principles of Engine Operation, Two- and Four-Stroke Engines Learning Objectives Explain simple engine operation. Explain why gasoline is atomized in the small engine. Describe four-stroke

More information

POWERS Controls. Technical Instructions Document No P25 AP March 5, No. 6 Pneumatic Damper Actuator.

POWERS Controls. Technical Instructions Document No P25 AP March 5, No. 6 Pneumatic Damper Actuator. POWERS Controls No. 6 Pneumatic Damper Actuator Technical Instructions AP 331-3 Description 331-2793 Actuator 331-2857 Actuator 331-3012 Extended Shaft and Frame with Clevis and Pin Mounting The POWERS

More information

Where to order engine kits The displacer cylinder CONTINUED

Where to order engine kits The displacer cylinder CONTINUED By Harry Walton OCUS sunlight on this model engine, and it runs at full speed, fueled by Fthe biggest nuclear reactor in the solar system the sun. Power is ample to drive a midget water pump or spin a

More information

BICO CHIPMUNK JAW CRUSHER - TYPE WD

BICO CHIPMUNK JAW CRUSHER - TYPE WD BICO CHIPMUNK JAW CRUSHER - TYPE WD The Bico Chipmunk Jaw Crusher is designed to give long and efficient service. In order to secure the long life and excellent performance that your crusher is capable

More information

MAINTENANCE OF WHEELMOVE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

MAINTENANCE OF WHEELMOVE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE OF WHEELMOVE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS F. Richard Beard, Agricultural Equipment, Structures and Electricity Robert W. Hill, Biological & Irrigation Engineering Boyd Kitchen, Uintah County Extension

More information

Engine Bearing Materials

Engine Bearing Materials Engine Bearing Materials Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich (Research & Development Manager) The durable operation of an engine bearing is achieved if its materials combine high strength (load capacity, wear resistance,

More information

US ARMY LIGHT WHEEL VEHICLE MECHANIC MOS 63B SKILL LEVEL 3 COURSE WHEELED VEHICLE ENGINES SUBCOURSE NO. OD 1001

US ARMY LIGHT WHEEL VEHICLE MECHANIC MOS 63B SKILL LEVEL 3 COURSE WHEELED VEHICLE ENGINES SUBCOURSE NO. OD 1001 US ARMY LIGHT WHEEL VEHICLE MECHANIC MOS 63B SKILL LEVEL 3 COURSE WHEELED VEHICLE ENGINES SUBCOURSE NO. OD 1001 United States Army Combined Arms Support Command Ordnance Missile and Munitions Fort Lee,

More information

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 2 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive

More information

LOBEE VERTICAL SUMP PUMP LOBEE MODEL S/SH AND SA/SHA SUMP PUMPS INSTALLATION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

LOBEE VERTICAL SUMP PUMP LOBEE MODEL S/SH AND SA/SHA SUMP PUMPS INSTALLATION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS SPT3/2010 LOBEE VERTICAL SUMP PUMP LOBEE MODEL S/SH AND SA/SHA SUMP PUMPS INSTALLATION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS These instructions are important - please read them thoroughly before installing your Lobee

More information

Unit C: Agricultural Power Systems. Lesson 2: Identifying Engine Systems and Their Components

Unit C: Agricultural Power Systems. Lesson 2: Identifying Engine Systems and Their Components Unit C: Agricultural Power Systems Lesson 2: Identifying Engine Systems and Their Components Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives:

More information

Char-Lynn Hydraulic Motor. Repair Information. 10 000 Series. October, 1997

Char-Lynn Hydraulic Motor. Repair Information. 10 000 Series. October, 1997 Char-Lynn Hydraulic Motor October, 1997 Repair Information Geroler Motor Two Speed 001 27 Retainer inside bore of valve plate bearingless motors only 4 15 16 3 6 35 Parts Drawing 25 2 2 1 19 17 36 40 47

More information

Installation Instructions

Installation Instructions 8/18/2004 Dodge Torque Converter 1 DODGE TORQUE -CONVERTER Installation Instructions BD Part # Trans. Application Power Level Truck Year 1060210X 518/618 Non/L N/A 1988-1993 *1070215X 47RH/RE

More information

VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES, MINERALS & ENERGY DIVISION OF MINES

VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES, MINERALS & ENERGY DIVISION OF MINES VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES, MINERALS & ENERGY DIVISION OF MINES DIESEL ENGINE MECHANIC CERTIFICATION STUDY GUIDE 2010 Copyright 1997 Commonwealth of Virginia Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Mines,

More information

MCI 35.80a AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, D.C.

MCI 35.80a AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, D.C. MCI 35.80a MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, D.C. UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE 912 POOR STREET SE WASHINGTON, DC 20391-5680

More information

VANE PUMP DESCRIPTION FACTORS AFFECTING PUMP LIFE USE, MAINTENACE AND REPAIR GUIDE

VANE PUMP DESCRIPTION FACTORS AFFECTING PUMP LIFE USE, MAINTENACE AND REPAIR GUIDE VANE PUMP DESCRIPTION FACTORS AFFECTING PUMP LIFE HYDRAULICS VANE PUMPS: DESCRIPTION PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND PARTS IDENTIFICATION PUMP PARTS The components of a typical vane-type pump are shown in Figure

More information

EVERY PROOF. DURABILITY. HIGH-MILEAGE ISX TEARDOWN

EVERY PROOF. DURABILITY. HIGH-MILEAGE ISX TEARDOWN EVERY PROOF. TM DURABILITY. HIGH-MILEAGE ISX TEARDOWN EVERY PROOF. DURABILITY. While Cummins 2002 engines have yet to reach their full life expectancy, Cummins has inspected multiple high-mileage cooled-egr

More information

Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher

Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher Category: Physics: Force and Motion Type: Make & Take Rough Parts List: Rocket Launcher: 1 3/8 One- hole rubber stopper 2 Valve stems, from an inner tube 4 Small

More information

DiscPlus DX195 and DX225 Air Disc Brakes

DiscPlus DX195 and DX225 Air Disc Brakes Revised 11-04 Technical Bulletin Revised 1 Technical 11-04 Bulletin DiscPlus DX195 and DX225 Air Disc Brakes Inspection, Installation and Diagnostics Air Disc Brake Inspection Intervals and Procedures

More information

Identifying Engine Systems and Their Components

Identifying Engine Systems and Their Components Lesson A6 2 Identifying Engine Systems and Their Components Unit A. Mechanical Systems and Technology Problem Area 6. Agricultural Power Systems Lesson 2. Identifying Engine Systems and Their Components

More information

Reasons for reissue of this instruction sheet are provided in Section 5, REVISION SUMMARY.

Reasons for reissue of this instruction sheet are provided in Section 5, REVISION SUMMARY. Reasons for reissue of this instruction sheet are provided in Section 5, REVISION SUMMARY. Air Pressure 586.1 min 689.5 kpa max [85 min 100 psi max] Air Displacement 721,000 mm 3 [44 in. 3 ] Figure 1 Weight

More information

COMET PLUNGER PUMP SERVICE MANUAL INDEX

COMET PLUNGER PUMP SERVICE MANUAL INDEX COMET PLUNGER PUMP SERVICE MANUAL INDEX 1. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS, OPERATING PROCEDURES AND LIMITS... 1 1.1 Installation and Start-up Information 2. TORQUE SETTING CHART... 1-2 2.1 AXD Series Pump 2.2 LW/ZW

More information

AIR POWERED ENGINE INTRODUCTION. Pramod Kumar.J Mechanical Engineer, Bangalore, INDIAs

AIR POWERED ENGINE INTRODUCTION. Pramod Kumar.J Mechanical Engineer, Bangalore, INDIAs International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 66 72, Article ID: IJMET_07_02_010 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

HCS Teknik Bobinaj Soğutma Kompresörleri Bakım, Onarım, Revizyon - COMPRESSOR MAINTENANCE

HCS Teknik Bobinaj Soğutma Kompresörleri Bakım, Onarım, Revizyon - COMPRESSOR MAINTENANCE The long service life is of course what is desired for the compressors. Today, the compressors are designed for trouble-free operation, long service life and in many cases; they are operated on 24 hours

More information

Do not locate the pump unit in a pit unless provisions have been made for proper drainage and ventilation.

Do not locate the pump unit in a pit unless provisions have been made for proper drainage and ventilation. Chemical Gear Pumps Installation Operation Repair Maintenance Installation Principal of Operation All Oberdorfer Chemical Gear pumps are the positive displacement type. A definite amount of liquid is displaced

More information

Frequecy Comparison and Optimization of Forged Steel and Ductile Cast Iron Crankshafts

Frequecy Comparison and Optimization of Forged Steel and Ductile Cast Iron Crankshafts International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 2 Issue 11ǁ November2013 ǁ PP.38-45 Frequecy Comparison and Optimization of Forged Steel

More information

BRAKE SYSTEM Volvo 740 DESCRIPTION BRAKE BLEEDING BLEEDING PRECAUTIONS MANUAL BLEEDING PRESSURE TANK BLEEDING BRAKES Volvo - Disc

BRAKE SYSTEM Volvo 740 DESCRIPTION BRAKE BLEEDING BLEEDING PRECAUTIONS MANUAL BLEEDING PRESSURE TANK BLEEDING BRAKES Volvo - Disc BRAKE SYSTEM 1990 Volvo 740 1989-90 BRAKES Volvo - Disc 240 Series, 740 Series, 760 Series DESCRIPTION All models use front and rear disc brakes. Three makes of calipers are used: ATE, Bendix (DBA) and

More information

BSM PUMP CORPORATION INSTALLATION AND OPERATION MANUAL

BSM PUMP CORPORATION INSTALLATION AND OPERATION MANUAL INSTALLATION AND OPERATION MANUAL I. INTRODUCTION Properly selected, installed, and maintained, BSM Pumps will provide many years of trouble-free service. Improper selection and installation account for

More information

MASTER CYLINDER. Section 2. Master Cylinder. Tandem Master Cylinder. Master Cylinder

MASTER CYLINDER. Section 2. Master Cylinder. Tandem Master Cylinder. Master Cylinder MASTER CYLINDER Master Cylinder The master cylinder converts the motion of the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure. It consists of the reservoir tank, which contains the brake fluid; and the piston and

More information

Maintain & Service 1

Maintain & Service 1 Maintain & Service 1 How to read hour meter The Hour Meter records the total running hours the generator set has been used. With the help of Hour Meter, user can more easy to follow the scheduled maintenance

More information

CYLINDER LEAKAGE CHECK (Compression)

CYLINDER LEAKAGE CHECK (Compression) TELEDYNE CONTINENTAL AIRCRAFT ENGINE service bulletin M84-15 SUPERSEDES M76-18 Rev.1 Technical Portions are FAA Approved 21 December 1984 TO: SUBJECT: MODELS AFFECTED: Aircraft Manufacturers, Distributors,

More information

SERIES ASM NEOPRENE/EPMD FLANGED SINGLE SPHERE CONNECTOR CONNECTORS. Pressures to 225 PSIG (15.51 barg) Temperatures to 230ºF (110ºC)

SERIES ASM NEOPRENE/EPMD FLANGED SINGLE SPHERE CONNECTOR CONNECTORS. Pressures to 225 PSIG (15.51 barg) Temperatures to 230ºF (110ºC) APPLICATIONS Process Industry Weak Acids Alkalies Compressed Air Pulp & Paper MODELS ASM - Flanged Connection OPTIONS Control Rods Oil & Gas Water & Waste Pump suction & discharge Sea water Chemical lines

More information

Geometry and dimensional tolerances of engine bearings

Geometry and dimensional tolerances of engine bearings Geometry and dimensional tolerances of engine bearings Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich (Research & Development Manager.) 1. Hydrodynamic lubrication Engine bearings operate mostly in the hydrodynamic regime of

More information

For exploded diagram and part number information, refer to the Spare Parts Catalog available on our website at www.rockshox.com.

For exploded diagram and part number information, refer to the Spare Parts Catalog available on our website at www.rockshox.com. For exploded diagram and part number information, refer to the Spare Parts Catalog available on our website at www.rockshox.com. 2 0 0 5 D U K E A I R X C / S L / R A C E S E R V I C E G U I D E Information

More information

The W Engine Concept. Self-Study Program Course Number 821203

The W Engine Concept. Self-Study Program Course Number 821203 The W Engine Concept Volkswagen of America, Inc. 3800 Hamlin Road Auburn Hills, MI 48326 Printed in U.S.A. February 2002 Self-Study Program Course Number 821203 Volkswagen of America, Inc. Service Training

More information

DTU Animal Cart Programme

DTU Animal Cart Programme DTU Animal Cart Programme TECHNICAL 21 RELEASE PIPE AND ROLLER DONKEY CART AXLES Development Technology Unit, Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL UK, tel: +44 (0)1203 523523

More information

product manual HS-4210 HS-4210_MAN_09.08 Digital Static Cone Penetrometer

product manual HS-4210 HS-4210_MAN_09.08 Digital Static Cone Penetrometer HS-4210_MAN_09.08 product manual HS-4210 Digital Static Cone Penetrometer Introduction This Manual covers the measurement of bearing capacity using the Humboldt Digital Static Cone Penetrometer (DSCP).

More information

INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINES

INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINES INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINES An IC engine is one in which the heat transfer to the working fluid occurs within the engine itself, usually by the combustion of fuel with the oxygen of air. In external

More information

Engine Friction and Lubrication

Engine Friction and Lubrication Engine Friction and Lubrication Engine friction terminology Pumping loss Rubbing friction loss Engine Friction: terminology Pumping work: W p Work per cycle to move the working fluid through the engine

More information

Series 10 Steering Control Unit Parts and Repair Information. Design -002

Series 10 Steering Control Unit Parts and Repair Information. Design -002 Series 10 Steering Control Unit Parts and Repair Information Design -002 Series 10 Steering Control Unit Table of Contents Introduction ID Tag...........................................................................................................................2

More information

Rear brake - drum brake, servicing

Rear brake - drum brake, servicing Page 1 / 9 46-2 Rear brake - drum brake, servicing Rear brake, removing and installing Grease cap Removing and installing 42-3, Pressing off grease cap Pin Replace Castle nut Hex nut Page 2 / 9 Adjusting

More information

Bearing Failure: Causes and Cures

Bearing Failure: Causes and Cures Bearing Failure: Causes and Cures bearing.ppt Page 1 Excessive loads usually cause premature fatigue. Tight fits, brinelling and improper preloading can also bring about early fatigue failure. The solution

More information

Marine Piston Damage By Tom Benton, Marine Surveyor

Marine Piston Damage By Tom Benton, Marine Surveyor Marine Piston Damage By Tom Benton, Marine Surveyor In the last several years I have noticed an increase in the number of outboard motors which have sustained piston damage, and several cases in V-8 inboard

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE AUTO 220 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE AUTO 220 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE AUTO 220 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Prepared By: BRANDON BALDWIN CANINO SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY

More information

Free piston Stirling engine for rural development

Free piston Stirling engine for rural development Free piston Stirling engine for rural development R. Krasensky, Intern, Stirling development, r.krasensky@rrenergy.nl W. Rijssenbeek, Managing director, w.rijssenbeek@rrenergy.nl Abstract: This paper presents

More information

BRAKE DRUM AND ROTOR SERVICE INFORMATION

BRAKE DRUM AND ROTOR SERVICE INFORMATION SERVICE INFORMATION To achieve maximum drum life and optimum performance, proper brake maintenance and brake balance are essential. Consult your truck or trailer manufacturer s maintenance manual for proper

More information

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER. Installation Manual. Customer Name: Serial number: Purchase order number: Project:

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER. Installation Manual. Customer Name: Serial number: Purchase order number: Project: PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER Installation Manual Customer Name: Serial number: Purchase order number: Project: Table of Contents ----------------------------------------------------------------- Page: 2 3 Name

More information

TECHNICAL DATA SHEET DURO HARD CHROME PLATING PROCESS

TECHNICAL DATA SHEET DURO HARD CHROME PLATING PROCESS TECHNICAL DATA SHEET Duro hard chrome plating process is a high-speed bath which employs a special mixed soluble catalyst and has been developed to meet the modern hard chrome plating requirements. Its

More information

TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL

TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL CUSTOMER : - SUPPLIER: CONTACT PERSON: DATE: E-mail: VALIDITY: Dear In the attached file you will find the Proposal and specification(s) for the ASK

More information

Diesel Engine Fundamentals Course# ME406

Diesel Engine Fundamentals Course# ME406 Diesel Engine Fundamentals Course# ME406 EZpdh.com All Rights Reserved Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook MECHANICAL SCIENCE Module 1 Diesel Engine Fundamentals Diesel Engine Fundamentals DOE-HDBK-1018/1-93

More information

DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK MECHANICAL SCIENCE Volume 1 of 2

DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK MECHANICAL SCIENCE Volume 1 of 2 DOE-HDBK-1018/1-93 JANUARY 1993 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK MECHANICAL SCIENCE Volume 1 of 2 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 FSC-6910 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release;

More information

1/29/2008 DR70. Baja Motorsports Inc. P.O. Box 61150 Phoenix, AZ 85082 Toll Free: 888-863-2252 PART NUMBERS PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE 1 of 43

1/29/2008 DR70. Baja Motorsports Inc. P.O. Box 61150 Phoenix, AZ 85082 Toll Free: 888-863-2252 PART NUMBERS PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE 1 of 43 DR70 Toll Free: 888-863-2252 PART NUMBERS PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE 1 of 43 CYLINDER & CYLINDER HEAD 1 DR70-001 883099044472 CYLINDER 1 1 2 DR70-002 883099044489 GASKET, CYLINDER 1 1 3 DR70-003 883099044496

More information

How to install Hammer Shanks & Hammers

How to install Hammer Shanks & Hammers How to install Hammer Shanks & Hammers Note: All pictures can be enlarged for better clarification. Revision 6, 1/ 2009 Required Tools Shop Tools Bead blasting unit (Option) Hand Tools Phillips screwdriver

More information

EMISSIONS #1 - COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY

EMISSIONS #1 - COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY Introduction to Combustion Chemistry The gasoline-powered internal combustion engine takes air from the atmosphere and gasoline, a hydrocarbon fuel, and through the process of combustion releases the chemical

More information

M52TU Introduction Overview Technical Data Crankcase Crankshaft Pistons and Connecting Rods...

M52TU Introduction Overview Technical Data Crankcase Crankshaft Pistons and Connecting Rods... Table of Contents ENGINES Subject Page M52TU................................................. 3 Introduction............................................ 4 Overview..............................................

More information

Chapter 7 Hydraulic System Troubleshooting

Chapter 7 Hydraulic System Troubleshooting Chapter 7 Hydraulic System Troubleshooting General The following troubleshooting information is provided as a general guide to identify, locate and correct problems that may be experienced with the hydraulic

More information

LINEAR MOTION CONTROL

LINEAR MOTION CONTROL LINEAR MOTION CONTROL Technical Data Sheet Static Locks RLSS Series Nexen s new generation of linear holding/locking devices take rod locking technology to the next level. With superior performance, these

More information

Slide the new steering column shaft through the steering column from the driver compartment.

Slide the new steering column shaft through the steering column from the driver compartment. Slide the new steering column shaft through the steering column from the driver compartment. Push the column shaft through the steering column until the machined end is out past the column lower bushing.

More information

For exploded diagram and part number information, refer to the Spare Parts Catalog available on our website at www.rockshox.com.

For exploded diagram and part number information, refer to the Spare Parts Catalog available on our website at www.rockshox.com. For exploded diagram and part number information, refer to the Spare Parts Catalog available on our website at www.rockshox.com. Information contained in this publication is subject to change at anytime

More information

Rod End General Catalog

Rod End General Catalog General Catalog A Product Descriptions Features and Types... A23-2 Features of the... A23-2 Features... A23-2 Types of the... A23-3 Types and Features... A23-3 Point of Selection... A23-5 Selecting a...

More information

Section 6 Brake Drum Failure Analysis. Brake Drum Wear Conditions. What is Normal Wear? What is Deep or Excessive Wear? WARNING. Deep, Uniform Wear

Section 6 Brake Drum Failure Analysis. Brake Drum Wear Conditions. What is Normal Wear? What is Deep or Excessive Wear? WARNING. Deep, Uniform Wear Section Brake Drum 6 Failure Analysis WARNING To prevent serious eye injury, always wear safe eye protection when you perform vehicle maintenance or service. Figure 6.1 ASBESTOS AND NON-ASBESTOS FIBERS

More information

System Saver 318 Air Compressor for Mack E-Tech and ASET Engines

System Saver 318 Air Compressor for Mack E-Tech and ASET Engines Maintenance Manual 31 System Saver 318 Air Compressor for Mack E-Tech and ASET Engines Revised 08-05 NON-THROUGH DRIVE THROUGH DRIVE Service Notes About This Manual This manual provides service and repair

More information

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING Introduction to Automobile Engineering Structure 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definition 1.3 Classification of Vehicles 1.4 Layout of an Automobile Chassis

More information

TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL

TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL CUSTOMER: SUPPLIER: CONTACT: DATE: E-mail: VALIDITY: 1 month Dear Sir, In the attached file you will find the proposal and specification(s) for the ASK

More information

Maintenance and Service Instruction

Maintenance and Service Instruction Screw pumps E4 Maintenance and Service Instruction E4 1 IMO AB This instruction is valid for all E4 pump models shown on page 2 Contents Page List of components 2 Exploded view/ordering code 3 Service

More information

Pressure Vessels (Air Compressors) and LPG Tanks

Pressure Vessels (Air Compressors) and LPG Tanks Pressure Vessels (Air Compressors) and LPG Tanks 1. Identification of Workplace Hazard Any container, tank or vessel that contains pressurized material is a potential hazard to employees due to the force

More information

1993 VOLKSWAGEN ENGINES 2.5L 5-Cylinder. EuroVan

1993 VOLKSWAGEN ENGINES 2.5L 5-Cylinder. EuroVan Article Text ARTICLE BEGINNING 1993 VOLKSWAGEN ENGINES 2.5L 5-Cylinder EuroVan * PLEASE READ THIS FIRST * NOTE: For engine repair procedures not covered in this article, see ENGINE OVERHAUL PROCEDURES

More information

Small Gas Engines. Small Gas Engine Inspection, Measurement, and Cleaning. User s Guide

Small Gas Engines. Small Gas Engine Inspection, Measurement, and Cleaning. User s Guide Small Gas Engines Small Gas Engine Inspection, Measurement, and Cleaning User s Guide Introduction This video explains the procedures used to properly inspect, clean, and service components before reassembling

More information

TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL

TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL TRUCK MOUNTED KNUCKLE BOOM HYDRAULIC CRANE PROPOSAL CUSTOMER : - SUPPLIER : CONTACT PERSON : DATE : E-mail: VALIDITY: Dear In the attached file you will find the Proposal and specification(s) for the ASK

More information

UNIT 3 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

UNIT 3 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS UNIT 3 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Automobile Electrical Structure 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3.2 Ignition System 3.3 Requirement of an Ignition System 3.4 Types of Ignition 3.4.1 Battery or Coil Ignition

More information

DR70 Hensim Dirt Runner 70cc Dirt Bike (VIN PREFIX LUAH)

DR70 Hensim Dirt Runner 70cc Dirt Bike (VIN PREFIX LUAH) Page 1 of 20 Product Information Baja Web > Product Information > Parts Lists > DIRTBIKE > DR70 Hensim Dirt Runner 70cc Dirt Bike (VIN PREFIX LUAH) DR70 Hensim Dirt Runner 70cc Dirt Bike (VIN PREFIX LUAH)

More information

Model No: VS4815 1. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS VS4800 2. INTRODUCTION & APPLICATIONS VS4815 3. CONTENTS. 2.1 Introduction. 2.

Model No: VS4815 1. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS VS4800 2. INTRODUCTION & APPLICATIONS VS4815 3. CONTENTS. 2.1 Introduction. 2. Instructions for: Petrol Engine Twin Camshaft Setting / Locking Tool Kit - (incorporating Vanos Alignment) - BMW N42 & N46 Engines Model No: VS4800 Associated kit: Camshaft/Carrier Bracket Remover & Installer

More information

IMPORTANT DOCUMENTATION DO NOT DISCARD!

IMPORTANT DOCUMENTATION DO NOT DISCARD! PART NO.: 6441-263C SERIES GRT 3 JAW PARALLEL GRIPPERS INFORMATION SHEET IMPORTANT DOCUMENTATION DO NOT DISCARD! Use this information sheet to assist with gripper installation and setup. File with maintenance

More information

SBD Hayabusa Dry-sump system Installation sheet (OS-DSK-BUSA-01)

SBD Hayabusa Dry-sump system Installation sheet (OS-DSK-BUSA-01) SBDMotorsport February 2014 www.sbdev.co.uk SBD Hayabusa Dry-sump system Installation sheet (OS-DSK-BUSA-01) Please note: All couplings/fittings are loose & require tightening before use; also ensure that

More information

Mercedes 722.3 722.4

Mercedes 722.3 722.4 96 Mercedes 7. 7. 5 6 7 8 - Clutch K - Brake Band B - Disc Brake B - Wide Planet Pinion 5 - One-Way Clutch F 6 - Clutch K 7 - Brake Band B 8 - Narrow Planet Pinion Int. Band Fwd. Band Rev. Clutch Direct

More information

Vehicular Engine Design Extra Material

Vehicular Engine Design Extra Material Vehicular Engine Design Extra Material Contents Chapter 1: The Internal Combustion Engine An Introduction... 2 Problem 1.1: Calculate Total Engine Displacement... 2 Problem 1.2: Calculate Engine Power

More information

Rebuild Instructions for 70001 and 70010 Transmission

Rebuild Instructions for 70001 and 70010 Transmission Rebuild Instructions for 70001 and 70010 Transmission Brinn, Incorporated 1615 Tech Drive Bay City, MI 48706 Telephone 989.686.8920 Fax 989.686.6520 www.brinninc.com Notice Read all instructions before

More information

Roller Chain Coupling

Roller Chain Coupling Roller Chain Coupling Features 1. Simple structure A roller chain coupling consists of one duplex roller chain and two sprockets for a simplex chain. Handling is very simple as both the shafts (driving

More information

M113 VEHICLE FAMILY RUBBER TRACK INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS SOUCY TRACK SYSTEM 04-M113-1ENS (SPLIT IDLER) Litho d in Canada 1 04-M113-1ENS

M113 VEHICLE FAMILY RUBBER TRACK INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS SOUCY TRACK SYSTEM 04-M113-1ENS (SPLIT IDLER) Litho d in Canada 1 04-M113-1ENS M113 VEHICLE FAMILY RUBBER TRACK INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS (SPLIT IDLER) 1 # TABLE OF CONTENTS List of parts and tools................................................3 Installation of complete kit...................................................5

More information

Trouble Shooting. Pump

Trouble Shooting. Pump Trouble Shooting Pump Trouble Possible Cause Remedy Oil leaking in the area of water pump crankshaft Worn crankshaft seal, bad bearing, grooved shaft, or failure of retainer o-ring. Excessive play on crankshaft

More information

Front axle components, overview

Front axle components, overview just a test. Front axle components, overview 40-1 General Information Load bearing components and parts of the suspension must not be welded or straightened. Vehicles without drive axle must not be moved,

More information

Friction Estimation TO INCREASE FRICTION FACTOR TO DECREASE FRICTION

Friction Estimation TO INCREASE FRICTION FACTOR TO DECREASE FRICTION Friction Estimation Friction, either break-out, running, or both, can become troublesome in some applications. At any given time there are anomalies and difficulties in the prediction of friction. These

More information

The Crankshaft Oil Seal Section has been added to the DD15 Workshop Manual. The sections that are found in the Engine Chapter are now renumbered.

The Crankshaft Oil Seal Section has been added to the DD15 Workshop Manual. The sections that are found in the Engine Chapter are now renumbered. NUMBER: 08 DD15-5 S.M. REF.: 1.11 ENGINE: DD15 DATE: July 2008 SUBJECT: CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL SECTION PUBLICATION: DDC-SVC-MAN-0002 The Crankshaft Oil Seal Section has been added to the DD15 Workshop Manual.

More information

Technical Data. 7. Bearing Fits. 7.1 Interference. 7.2 Calculation of interference F B LLLLLLLLL( A-54

Technical Data. 7. Bearing Fits. 7.1 Interference. 7.2 Calculation of interference F B LLLLLLLLL( A-54 Technical Data 7. Bearing Fits 7.1 Interference For rolling s the rings are fixed on the or in the housing so that slip or movement does not occur between the mated surface during operation or under. This

More information