1 ORIGINAL PAPERS Dent. Med. Probl. 2005, 42, 1, ISSN X GIUSEPPE A. SCARDINA 1, PIETRO MESSINA 1, FRANCESCO CARINI 2, ANGELO LEONE 3 Capsaicin Stimulation and Neurogenic Experimentally Induced Inflammation of the Human Labial Mucosa Stymulacja kapsaicyną zapalenia neurogennego błony śluzowej wargi u człowieka 1 Department of Odontostomatological Science G. Messina, University of Palermo, Italy 2 Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Anatomy, University of Palermo, Italy 3 Section of Human Histology, University of Palermo, Italy Abstract Background. The neurogenic inflammation depends on the neuromodulator release by peripheral nervous termi nations. A series of different studies proved the existence of a neurogenic phlogosis (NP) in different body sites. Only experiences on rat managed to induce NP at the oral mucosa level. Objectives. Inducing NP at the human mucosa level. Material and Methods. Two groups of patients (group A: M/F: 8/7; mean: ± 12.4; range: 24 60; group B: M/F: 8/7; mean: ± 12.39; range: 23 60) were examined in authors laboratory. The NP was experimentally induced at the lower lip mucosa level after topically applying capsaicin. The vascular consequences were observed through computer videocapillaroscopy techniques (Videocap 100). The lip mucosa of the group A patients was observed in three different time periods: before capsaicin application (t 0 ), after one minute (t 1 ), and after 45 min utes (t 2 ) from capsaicin application. The lip mucosa of the group B patients was observed in four different time periods: before capsaicin application (t 0 ), after local anaesthetic injected (t 1 ), after one minute (t 2 ) and after 45 min utes (t 3 ) from capsaicin application. Results. The vascular in vivo observation, in the group A, allows to highlight after one minute application only, the axono reflected vasodilation, the real expression of NP. After 45 minutes, the vascular diameter returned to its ini tial diameter. In the group B, the vascular in vivo study allows to observe no significant modification of the vas cular diameter in the four different time periods. Conclusions. The study highlights that the NP can be induced at the human oral cavity level and such an evidence could be extremely important in the pathogenesis and treatment of the different oral pathologies (Dent. Med. Probl. 2005, 42, 1, 31 36). Key words: neurogenic inflammation, labial mucosa. Streszczenie Wprowadzenie. Zapalenie neurogenne zależy od uwalniania neuromodulatorów przez obwodowe zakończenia nerwowe. Wiele różnych badań udowodniło występowanie zapalenia neurogennego (z.n.) różnych części ciała. Za palenie neurogenne błony śluzowej jamy ustnej wywoływano tylko u szczurów. Cel pracy. Wywołanie z.n. błony śluzowej u człowieka. Materiał i metody. Dwie grupy pacjentów (grupa A: K/M: 8/7, średnia wieku 41,14 ± 12,4, zakres lat, gru pa B: K/M: 8/7, średnia wieku 41,21 ± 12,4, zakres lat) zostały zakwalifikowane do badań. Zapalenie neu rogenne wywoływano doświadczalnie w błonie śluzowej dolnej wargi po miejscowym zastosowaniu kapsaicyny. Następowe zmiany naczyniowe rejestrowano techniką wideokapilaroskopową (Videocap 100). W grupie A błona śluzowa wargi była oceniana trzykrotnie: przed podaniem kapsaicyny (t 0 ), po minucie (t 1 ) i po 45 minutach (t 2 ) po podaniu kapsaicyny. W grupie B błona śluzowa wargi była oceniana czterokrotnie: przed podaniem kapsaicyny (t 0 ), po znieczuleniu miejscowym (t 1 ), po minucie (t 2 ) oraz po 45 minutach (t 3 ) po podaniu kapsaicyny. Wyniki. Obserwacja naczyniowa in vivo w grupie A umożliwiła stwierdzanie rozszerzenia naczyń pochodzenia aksonalnego już po minucie po pobudzeniu w postaci z.n. Po 45 minutach średnica naczyń wróciła do wartości wyjściowej. W grupie B badania naczyniowe in vivo umożliwiło obserwację nieznaczących zmian średnicy naczyń w czterech różnych przedziałach czasu.
2 32 G. A. SCARDINA et al. Wnioski. Badanie dowiodło, że zapalenie neurogenne może być wywoływane w jamie ustnej człowieka. Jest to bardzo ważne w patogenezie i leczeniu różnych zmian patologicznych w jamie ustnej (Dent. Med. Probl. 2005, 42, 1, 31 36). Słowa kluczowe: zapalenie neurogenne, błona śluzowa wargi. Various observations carried out in the course of the years have shown that neuropeptides might play role as inflammation mediators [1 3]. The substances on which attention has been principal ly focused are: substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), capsaicin and histamine [4, 5]. Knowledge acquired in this field, however, does not yet permit one to sufficiently clarify the role of these neuropeptides, although it has been confirmed that these substances are found in labo ratory animals in the course of experimentally induced neurogenic inflammation . Neurogenic inflammation is a consequence of amyelinic sensitive neuron activation, followed by a neuropeptide release such as SP and CGRP by the peripheral nervous terminations . Inflammatory responses elicited at the tissue level, as a consequence of nervous termination activation mainly consist of: hyperaemia, local oedema and erythema, which mainly develop even beyond the specific stimulation site and therefore can easily be followed by pain . Since when scholars managed to almost defin itively correlate such unique inflammatory signs with the peripheral sensitive nervous system func tion and integrity, the elicited answer is called neu rogenic inflammation. As almost any tissue is innervated by afferent sensitive neurons, a similar mechanism could be involved in the aetiology of many different inflam matory reactions of the oral mucosa . The NP can experimentally be induced by local capsaicin stimulation [7 11]. This is proved by the fact that denervation of the area prevents the development of inflammatory reactions in rats . Capsaicin is a powerful local stimulator which administered in controlled doses can lead to the release of phlogistic neuromodulators and as a con sequence to NP [7, 8, 10]. Its long term administra tion leads to the small medullar fibre degeneration and reduces held SP by 50% . When increasing the release and inhibiting a further undue influence of any PS, it is possible to lead to a central and peripheral nervous system depletion . A single dose of capsaicin induces pain, inflammation and hypersensitivity. When its application is continued in time, it leads to hyposensitisation, antalgic and anti inflammatory activity. Any analgesia and miti gant effect possibly depends on the release and depletion of neuropeptides [13 15]. Capsaicin acts as a receptor agonist for the Vanilloids (VR1), a cationic canal, mainly expressed by small sensitive neurons [16, 17]. Axon reflected vasodilation essentially symmetri cally spreads around the nociceptive stimulations mainly extended to the afferent nociceptive stimu lation receptor fields . Recent studies on ani mals proved that a similar inflammatory reaction can be induced by capsaicin through the activation of the different tissue nociceptive fibres [19, 20]. Up to now, a series of experimental studies on the oral mucosa were carried out only on animals. Such a study, on the other hand, aims at assessing the effects of capsaicin application on the human oral mucosa. More precisely, through computer videocapillaroscopy techniques, it aims at assess ing the oral micro circulation in vivo before and after the application, checking the possible phlo gistic phenomena onset. Material and Methods Two groups of patients (group A: M/F: 8/7; mean: ± 12.4; range: 24 60; group B: M/F: 8/7; mean: ± 12.39; range: 23 60) were examined in authors laboratory (Tab. 1). Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients enrolled in the study Tabela 1. Charakterystyka pacjentów zakwalifikowanych do badań Group A Group B Significance a (Grupa A) (Grupa B) (Istotność) (n = 15) (n = 15) M/F ratio 8/7 8/7 (Płeć K/M) Age ± ± ns (Wiek) (mean ± SD) Range (Zakres) SD standard deviation. a Differences between group A and B patients were tested by Mann Whitney U test. ns not significant (p > 0.01). SD odchylenie standardowe. a Do oceny różnic między grupami A i B zastosowano test U Manna Whitneya. ns nieistotne statystycznie (p > 0.01).
3 Capsaicin Stimulation and Neurogenic Experimentally Induced Inflammation of the Human Labial Mucosa 33 The subjects were included in the study, if the accurate exam of their medical history and the objective examination of their oral mucous, reported them to be healthy and non smoker. All the subjects gave their written informed consent for processing and use of personal medical data in scientific papers, in accordance with the Italian Law. They were examined by computerised videomicroscopic techniques and related software (Videocap 100). This technique allows a continu ous observation of the labial microcirculation. The optical probe videomicroscope is com posed of a main unit, to which an optical probe with video optical terminal is connected, and by a high resolution colour monitor to view the exam ined area. The main unit is made of: a cold halo gen light source emitted by a 100 W lamp provid ed with an electronic device which controls light intensity; a processing unit for the high definition video signal (420,000 pixels) provided with a colour calibration device. The probe is equipped with a video optical terminal containing a high definition video sensor, on which different vari able magnification optics from 10 to 1000 can be applied. A technological characteristic of the video optical terminal is the possibility to focus directly from the handpiece. Image digitalization allows the analysis of the fundamental parameters of microcirculation (calibre and vessel length), and the calculation of the number of capillaries per mm 2 of the mucosa examined. The area under investigation for each patient was the inferior labial mucous in the area of the frenulum. This area was chosen because the macroscopic characteristics of the probe means that this area can be examined without causing dis comfort to the patient. The capillaroscopic investi gation was carried out with patients in a sitting position; always with the same source of light, at the same room temperature (23 C), in the morning, with the same operator, and repeated twice. The lip mucosa was observed in three different time periods for the group A patients: before cap saicin application (t 0 ), after one minute (t 1 ) and after 45 minutes (t 2 ) from capsaicin application (0.1%) directly onto the labial mucosa; the lip mucosa of the group B patients was observed in four different time periods: before capsaicin appli cation (t 0 ), after local anaesthetic injected (t 1 ), after one minute (t 2 ) and after 45 minutes (t 3 ) from cap saicin (0.1%) application. The following parameters were used: visibility of the capillary loops (score from 1 to 4): 1 simple focusing: within 30 seconds of the start of the examination; 2 average focusing: over 30 seconds and within 2 minutes; 3 difficult focusing above 2 minutes; 4 impossible focusing; orientation with respect to the surface (score A or B or AB): A course of the capillary loops parallel to the surface; B course of the capillary loops perpendicular to the surface; AB both parallel and perpendicular; capillary tortuosity (score from 0 to 3): 0 absence of crossing in the capillary loops; 1 presence of crossing; 2 presence of more cross ings; 3 complete distortion of the capillary loops; calibre of the capillary loops: before and after capsaicin application. Two independent observers examined all the images. The intraobserver and interobserver vari ability was assessed with the two observers evalu ating twice the same randomly selected images (p < 0.05). Data analysis was performed using StatView (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results obtained for each area examined for every patient were the average of the two observations taken. Results Intrasubject variability satisfied the a priori hypothesis of a limited dispersion. For the para metric data, variability ranged between +2% and 2% with respect to the mean value. For the non parametric data, 1 score point difference at most was observed. The lip mucosa micro circulation visibility highlighted a score accounting for 1 in 100% of the patients. The loops were oriented parallel to the surface in 100% of the patients (score A) thus possibly completely assessing the capillary loops. The capillaroscopy, in the group A, highlighted that the vessel diameter after about 1 minute from capsaicin application (t 1 ), underwent a highly sig nificant increases (p < assessed through the ANOVA Test). Extremely long capillary clip like shaped and mainly volvulated loops protruded into the tissue meshes (Fig. 1). A further control at 45 minutes (t 2 ) proved that the vessel diameter and capillary tortuosity returned back to the initial values (Fig. 2a, b). In the group B, the vascular in vivo study allowed to observe no sig nificant modification of the vascular diameter and tortuosity in four different time periods (p > 0.01 assessed with the ANOVA Test) (Tab. 2). Discussion The results of function and morphological studies in rats seem to confirm the possibility of a neurogenic component of inflammatory alter ations caused by mechanical, and chemical stimuli
4 34 G. A. SCARDINA et al. a b Fig. 1. Group A patient: the vessel diameter after about 1 minute from capsaicin application (t 1 ), magni fication 200 Ryc. 1. Pacjent grupy A: średnica naczyń po koło minucie od podania kapsaicyny (t 1 ), pow. 200 Fig. 2a, b. Group A patient: the vessel diameter and capillary tortuosity returned back to the initial values (t 2 ), magnification 200 Ryc. 2a, b. Pacjent grupu A: średnica naczyń i ich prze bieg powróciły do wartości wyjściowych (t 2 ), pow. 200 in the oral mucosa . A lot of observations appear to indicate that the presence of capsaicin sensitive sensory small diameter fibres is indis pensable to the development of neurogenic inflam mation . Goltz in 1874 proved for the first time vasodi lation following sensitive fibre stimulation . Two years after Striker (1876) got similar data after stimulating the spinal cord dorsal root. In 1901 Bayliss confirmed that when sensitive afferent pri mary fibres are electrically stimulated, a vasodila tion is induced, which can only be solved by dorsal gangliotomy after 14 days from the nervous stimu lation . In 1967 Jancsò too proved plasma over flow after the sensitive nerve stimulation . The inflammatory symptoms induced by local capsaicin stimulation are produced by the effects of the neuropeptides that are released at the peripheral sensory nerve terminals. This is proved by the fact that denervation of the area fully pre vents the development of inflammatory reactions in rats . Capsaicin, as a substance able to experimentally induce a NP, when administered in controlled doses lead to specific effects which could be correlated with the previously considered neuromodulator release, mainly with CGRP [19, 22, 23]. Capsaicin leads to a concentration depen dent CGPR release increase, that is at the presence of capsaicin, a higher quantity of CGPR was pre sent at the tissue level, leading as a consequence to an increase of the blood overflow and to the main typical signs of phlogosis . Another important information, mainly depending on the possible activity mechanism, is that the possible CGPR release induced by capsaicin seemed to depend on the absence of extra cellular calcium . Mainly studies proved that CGPR is often co localised on the SP in the C sensitive fibres, and that at the oral cavity level, the rich CGPR locali sation in the trigeminal ganglions, would widely justify the role of such a substance at the oral cav ity phlogosis level [1, 23]. Nerves involved in the NP pathogenesis main ly are type C, amelynic, polymodal, afferent, cap saicin sensitive and small fibres . Blood flow changes at the different organ level and the increase of the vessel permeability typical of NP mainly depends on the release of vasoactive agents at the peripheral nervous termination level, but even on other cellular components [24, 25]. However, up to now the role but mainly the pathophysiological mechanisms of the different involved mediated in the NP development were not clear yet. In fact, one of the many doubts mainly dealt with the direct activity mechanism involved, that is the activity of any released neuropeptides on the vessel plain muscle cells which would lead to their contraction and as a consequence to their diam eter change, or an indirect mechanism, mediated by histamine release which then would lead to the inflammatory symptoms . The recent re defini tion of the SP central role mainly depended on gen
5 Capsaicin Stimulation and Neurogenic Experimentally Induced Inflammation of the Human Labial Mucosa 35 Table 2. The characteristics of the labial microcirculation in group A and B patients Tabela 2. Charakterystyka mikrokrążenia wargowego u pacjentów z grupy A i B Group A patients Group B patients (Pacjenci z grupy A) (Pacjenci z grupy B) score subjects score subjects Orientation with respect to the surface A 100% A 100% (Orientacja względem powierzchni) Capillary tortuosity t (Krętość naczyń dla t 0 ) Capillary tortuosity t (Krętość naczyń dla t 1 ) Capillary tortuosity t (Krętość naczyń dla t 2 ) Capillary tortuosity t (Krętość naczyń dla t 3 ) Microhemorraghes 0 100% 0 100% (Mikrokrwotoki) Calibre of the capillary loops µm t ± 0.78 t ± 1,11 (Wielkość pętli naczyń µm) t ± 1.64* t ± 1.41 (mean ± SD) t ± 0.95 t ± 0.95 t 3 13 ± 1.09 SD standard deviation. Differences between group A and B patients were tested by ANOVA Test. * significant. SD odchylenie standardowe. Różnice między grupami A i B testowano za pomocą ANOVA. * istotne statystycznie eral studies on rats and SP antagonist [23, 25, 27]. It is thus possible to come to the conclusion that pep tide nervous fibre are involved in the local regulation of the blood flow, in the vessel permeability and in the plain muscle tone; in real substances such as SP or C are directly involved in such mechanisms. In presented study, capsaicin was used, a unique substance which can lead to NP at the application site and in the surrounding areas, on the oral mucosa of 30 patients. The group A patients, results showed a power ful local stimulating effect induced by the sub stance, which in the majority of patients lead, after the application, to a pyrotic and painful sensation to heat. Such symptoms mainly depend on the inflammatory neuromodulator release by peripher al nervous terminations followed by a consequent vasodilation, by the increase of the capillary per meability finally leading to erythema, increase of temperature, oedema and pain. The capsaicin effect, however, is transitory and reversible. In fact, the vessel diameter measured after 45 min utes from the product application highlighted that capillaries were back to their original sizes. The group B patients results showed a not sig nificant modification of the diameter of the capil lary loops after local anaesthetic injected. This indicates that the capillary modifications observed in the group A patients are principally due to NP. The NP is observable in the human labial mucosa. References  HERBERT M. K, HOLZER P.: Neuorogenic inflammation. Anasthesiol. Intensivmed. Notfallmed. Schmerzther. 2002, 37,  FAZEKAS A., VINDISCH K., PÒSCH E., GYORFI A.: Experimentally-induced neurogenic inflammation in the rat oral mucosa. J. Periodont. Res. 1990, 25,  GYORFI A., FAZEKAS A., ROSIVALL L.: Neurogenic inflammation and oral mucosa. J. Clin. Periodontol. 1992, 19,
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Acta Ph.ysiol Scand 1988, 134, 95-99 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) increases survival of ischaemic musculocutaneous flaps J. KJARTANSSON,* T. LUNDEBERG,? U. E. SAMUELSON*t and C.-J.
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doi:1.1111/j.1365-2591.11.19.x Doppler ultrasound to detect pulpal blood flow changes during local anaesthesia M. J. Yoon, S. J. Lee, E. Kim & S. H. Park Department of Operative Dentistry, College of Dentistry,
Central Hypersensitivity in Whiplash Michele Curatolo, MD, PhD University Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Therapy TISSUE DAMAGE NEUROPLASTICITY PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCES Cognitive, Affective, Social
Photonic Stimulation Our Photonic Stimulator is an alternative pain therapy for patients experiencing chronic pain, headaches, bursitis, tendonitis, and muscle spasms. It was introduced to our practice
1 How does neuropathophysiology affect the signs and symptoms of spinal disease? Kidd BL, Richardson PM. FROM ABSTRACT: Best Practices and Research Clinical Rheumatology January 2002;16(1):31-42 A complex
Nervous system Components The nervous system is the central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - nerves connecting to the CNS and serving the body.
Please read chapter 15,, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. I. Introduction to the autonomic nervous system: Briefly describe the autonomic nervous system.
NERVOUS SYSTEM Academic Resource Center Overview of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system-pns cranial nerves spinal nerves ganglia peripheral nerves enteric plexuses sensory receptors Overview of
Max Wirjo,MD,FRCPC,DABA Director, Integrated Pain Medicine The Permanente Medical Group Kaiser Fresno Medical Center,California,USA Pain Treatment Ladder Indications for Neurostimulation and Intrathecal
CHAPTER 7 Control and Coordination Living organisms respond and react to various stimuli like heat, light, cold, touch, pressure etc. Plants and animals both respond to stimuli but in different manner.
Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Jonathan Katz, MD Richard Lewis, MD What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) is a rare condition in which multiple motor nerves are attacked by
Local Anesthesia in Oral Surgery Presented by: Animal Dental Care Tony M. Woodward DVM, Dipl. AVDC 5520 N. Nevada Ave. Suite 150 Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (719) 536-9949 firstname.lastname@example.org www.wellpets.com
Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory
The Hidden Side of Stroke Pain Management & Spasticity Ahamad Hassan Consultant Neurologist/Stroke Physician AIMS of Lecture 2 common invisible problems after stroke... What is pain? What are the different
DRUGS AND THE BRAIN Most of the psychological and behavioural effects of psychoactive drugs is due the interaction they have with the nerve cells in the CNS (which includes the brain and peripheral nervous
Br. J. Pharmac. Chemother. (1968), 32, 32-41. THE ROLE OF SENSORY NERVE ENDINGS IN NEUROGENIC INFLAMMATION INDUCED IN HUMAN SKIN AND IN THE EYE AND PAW OF THE RAT BY THE LATE N. JANCSO, AURELIA JANCS6-GABOR
Slide 1: Introduction Introduce the purpose of your presentation. Indicate that you will explain how the brain basically works and how and where drugs such as heroin and cocaine work in the brain. Tell
5 th Paris Appeal Congress, 18th of May, 2015 Royal Academy of Medicine, Belgium IDIOPATHIC ENVIRONMENTAL INTOLERANCE: WHAT ROLE FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CHEMICALS? Electrohypersensitivity and multiple
The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic
M e d i c a t i o n s P A I N M A N A G E M E N T Lysa Pam Posner, DVM, Diplomate ACVA North Carolina State University Analgesia for Declaw Patients Onychectomy in cats is controversial both within and
SUMMARY Chapter I This chapter deals with the materials and methods employed in present investigation. Chapter II The vagal afferent fibres from the liver are believed to play an important role in blood
Chapter 15 Neurotransmitters of the ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors How can the same ANS neurons create different effects on different target tissue? Variety of neurotransmitters Secondly, different
Name Date Period Human Body Systems Review Immune System: 1. What are pathogens? Why do we need to prevent them from colonizing our bodies? If pathogens do manage to colonize, what effects can they have?
Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Sources for figures and content: Eastern Campus Marieb,
Promising Treatments for SCI: What s on The Horizon Shawn Song, MD SCI Fellow University of Washington/VA Puget Sound Healthcare System SCI: A Devastating Injury Epidemiology: Incidence of ~12,000 patients/year.
Lassen Community College Course Outline BIOL-25 Human Anatomy and Physiology I 4.0 Units I. Catalog Description First semester of a two semester sequence covering structure and function, integration and
1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous
Dental disease causes pain, discomfort, and allows bacteria to enter the blood stream leading to organ disease. Yet oral hygiene is one of the most overlooked areas of medical care for dogs and cats. Consistent
Best Teaching Practices Conference Teacher ID: BTPC07_07 SUBJECT: BIOLOGY Class: X TOPIC: Exploring our Nervous System OBJECTIVES: Use Information Technology to enable the students to: Explain the general
Mammalian Physiology Autonomic Nervous System UNLV 1 UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA LAS VEGAS PHYSIOLOGY, Chapter 11 Berne, Levy, Koeppen, Stanton Objectives Describe the organization of the autonomic nervous system
i # Table of Contents Date Title Page # 1. 01/27/14 Ch 7: Skeletal System 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 01/29/14 Ch 8: Muscular System 12 03/03/14 Ch 9: Nervous System 66 1 03/17/14 Ch. 9 Nervous System 76 describe the
Mr. Alex Wong, Senior physiotherapist, QEH Mr. Barry Ma, Physiotherapist, QEH Background Trigeminal neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome that affects the trigeminal or 5 th cranial nerve, one of the
Entry-level Educational Curriculum Content Guidelines for Electrophysiological Examination and Evaluation Introduction: Section on Clinical Electrophysiology and Wound Management American Physical Therapy
CHPN Review Course Pain Management Part 1 Disclosures Bonnie Morgan has no real or perceived conflicts of interest that relate to this presentation. Copyright 2015 by the. HPNA has the exclusive rights
Neurotrophic factors and Their receptors Huang Shu-Hong Institute of neurobiology 1 For decades, scientists believed that brain cells of the central nervous system could not regrow following damage due
Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust Department of Neurosciences Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation Information for patients We have recently seen you in clinic as you have had pain for a long period
FLINT HILLS TECHNICAL COLLEGE COMPETENCY SHEETS HYG 110 Dental Radiography 1. Discuss the history of dental radiography to provide an understanding for the safety of the dental patient. 2. Identify the
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. External environment This division of the PNS responds to some change in the external environment. single
Electroneuromyographic studies in the diagnosis of Pudendal Entrapment Syndrome BY NAGLAA ALI GADALLAH PROFESSOR OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE, RHEUMATOLOGY& REHABILITATION AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY Pudendal neuralgia
Patient information Plaque and periodontal disease This leaflet explains how you and your dentist or hygienist can work together to help prevent plaque and periodontal disease. What s in a tooth? Enamel
Chapter 13 The Nature of Somatic Reflexes Nature of Reflexes (1 of 3) A reflex is an involuntary responses initiated by a sensory input resulting in a change in a gland or muscle tissue occur without our
Montelukast Sodium -A new class of seasonal allergic rhinitis therapy Symptoms of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis Nasal itch Sneezing Rhinorrhoea Nasal stuffiness Pathogenesis of Allergic Rhinitis Mast cells,
Norepinephrine Effects On the System NE Conversion to Epinephrine in the Circulation Under stress, the increased norepinephrine produced is transmitted throughout the system. This increased level represents
Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System v Name the parts of a generalised neuron & indicate the input, output and integration areas of the neuron. Ø Neurons are the functional cell of the nervous system
Chapter 14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure (II) Chapter Outline o Capillaries and Venules o Veins o The Lymphatic System o Mean Arterial Pressure and Its Regulation