1 Acupuncture in Back Pain Management Victoria Chan Harrison M.D. Assistant Professor of Rehabilitation Medicine Weill Cornell Medical College
2 Objective Review the roots of acupuncture theory and basic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) concepts. Outline basic science concepts in acupuncture analgesia and its physiological mechanism of action. Perform a review of the current literature on acupuncture efficacy in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
3 Introduction Acupuncture is a widely practiced therapeutic intervention in the United States and has grown in popularity. In 2002, estimated 8.2 million Americans had experienced acupuncture at least once in their lifetime, and an estimated 2.1 million had done so in the previous year alone.
4 Introduction Acupuncture has been the subject of active research both in regard to its basis and therapeutic effectiveness since the late 20th century It has remained controversial among medical clinicians. While there have been many studies of its potential usefulness, many of these studies provide equivocal results because of limited design, sample size, and other factors.
5 Introduction The issue is further complicated by inherent difficulties in the use of appropriate controls in acupuncture research. Such as using sham acupuncture groups as placebos.
6 Conditions for treatment Post operative pain Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting Low back pain Osteoarthritis Neck pain Myofascial pain Migraines headache Tendonitis Strains and sprains Neuropathy Carpal tunnel syndrome
7 There is general agreement that acupuncture is safe when administered by trained practitioners using single use sterile needles. (WHO, AMA, NIH) Most common negative effects are local pain, bleeding, hematoma, dizziness, hypotension, very rarely pneumothorax <1%.
8 What is acupuncture? It is the procedure of inserting and manipulating needles into various points on the body to relieve pain or for a therapeutic purpose.
9 Comparison between acupuncture needle and beveled hypothermic needle
10 needle insertion, manual stimulation Twirling to obtain needle grasp and De Qi = feeling of heaviness, fullness, or numbness
11 history Acupuncture originated in China more than 2000 years ago, earliest written record of acupuncture Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon, dated 2nd century BC. One of the oldest most commonly used medical procedure in the world. Different variations of acupuncture are practiced throughout the world, the most widely practiced American form originates from China.
12 Basic theories in TCM Acupuncture is a branch of Chinese Medicine. Believing that health is maintained by a balance of two opposing forces: Ying and Yang the human body with external environmental
13 In chinese physiological concepts Tissue and organs are connected through a network of meridian channels inside and outside the human body. Qi acts as a carrier of energy that is expressed externally through meridian channel system.
14 Imbalance leads to blockage in the flow if the body s vital energy, Qi, along the meridian pathway. Pathology, is a blockage of energy through the surface channel networks, manifesting as symptoms or medical condition.
15 The clinical diagnosis and treatment are mainly based on the correctly identifying the imbalances between yin-yang, five elements, and organ dysfunction controlled by the meridian channel.
16 Acupuncture utilizes all these interrelationships in guiding point selection. Medical acupuncture also incorporates a neuro anatomical approach in point selection.
17 Acupuncture points along meridian channels There are 12 principal meridian channels and 8 accessory meridians.
18 Scientific bases for acupuncture analgesia 1970s, studied the mechanism for pain relief in acupuncture by using Naloxone as pharmacological tool in research. Naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, used to correlate pain receptor activation causing perceived pain relief animals and humans.
19 Pomerantz and Chu,1976 First published administration of Naloxone, completely blocked the pain relieving effects from acupuncture induced analgesia in mice. Animals given acupuncture + Naloxone demonstrated pain behavior, no different than the control group. Where as those receiving acupuncture were comfortable.
20 Demonstrating Naloxone blockade in humans Mayer et al.,1977 studied induced tooth pain in humans. Double blind study, where all were administered acupuncture with either intravenous Naloxone or saline. Those administered Naloxone showed no signs of pain relief from acupuncture compared to the saline group. Mayer et al. and Pomerantz et al. were the earliest researchers to show acupuncture induced analgesia can be blocked by Naloxone suggesting the participation of endogenous opioids in pain relief.
21 Electroacupuncture and endorphins Han et al. in 1987 Measured neuropeptide release in the central nervous system triggered by EA at different frequencies. Rats were given EA at 2, 15, 100Hz, using radiant heat as noxious stimuli. Cerebral spinal fluid was collected in 30min intervals before or during the EA stimulation.
22 Frequency of EA 2hz 15hz 100hz Endomorphine, Enkephalin, β-endorphin Dynorphin µ δ К Opioid receptors Antinociception physiological therapeutic effects
23 Endogenous opioid peptide release in the central nervous system play an essential role in mediating the analgesic effect of acupuncture.
24 Pain pathway pomerantz et al enkaphalin,dynorphins activate type II and type III muscle sensory nerves spinal cord anterolateral tracts dorsal lateral tract serotonin,norepinephrine endorphin Midbrain Periaqueductal gray adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH - Arcuate nucleus Adrenal cortex cortisol
25 Acupuncture, tissue perfusion Jansen et al., 1989 Studied effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on circulation in muscle flaps in rodents. Examined skin blood flow using doppler flowmetry in muscle flaps before and after EA. Findings: acupuncture increased blood flow moving into the muscle flap by 66% comparison to no treatment.
26 Acupuncture and circulatory effects Sandberg et al Examined the effects of acupuncture needle stimulation on skin and muscle blood flow in women. Laser Doppler was used to observe tissue perfusion during needle insertion into: superficially into fascia only muscle only muscle with needle manipulation Increased blood flow to both skin and muscle was observed in both intramuscular insertion groups compared the control period were no needle was present.
27 Dynamic characterization of local connective tissue winding Langevin et al. 2007
28 acupuncture Cho et al Comparison of cortical activation in three settings, a result of: A - pain alone increased activity B- meridian acupuncture with pain decreased activity C- sham acupuncture and pain respectively decreased activity
29 Acupuncture is increasingly used as a therapy for chronic pain conditions, Cochrane review 2003 could only conclude that acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct to other therapies. Many chronic LBP patients use complementary alternative medicine. Most common reason for visits for acupuncture
30 Chronic low back pain and acupuncture Witt et al 2006, American Journal of Epidemiology Starting in 2000, began a large research initiative on acupuncture that was fund by the German government Produced large randomized controlled trial (+nonrandomized) cohort chronic LBP > 6months N= 11,630 patients Randomized into acupuncture versus no acupuncture
31 Each patient received up to 15 acupuncture sessions during a 3 month period. Patient who were not randomized to acupuncture was able to receive it at the end of the 3 month control period. Acupuncture points used was determined by the individual physician. Needles were only manually stimulated. All treatment groups were allowed to use additional conventional treatments as needed. Outcomes: Back function, Pain, and Quality of life at baseline, 3months and 6months
32 Back function outcomes:
33 Conclusion Patients with chronic low back pain treated with acupuncture in addition to routine care showed significant improvements in symptoms and quality of life compared with those with routine care alone.
34 German acupuncture trials (GERMAC) for chronic low back pain Haake et al. 2007, Archives internal medicine Randomized multicenter blinded parallel group trial with 3 groups: acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and conventional therapy patients History of low back pain for > 6months, mean 8 years.
35 Ten 30 minute sessions twice weekly TCM acupuncture n=387, sham acupuncture n=387, conventional therapy n=388. Conventional therapy= combination medications, physical therapy, and exercise. Examined treatment response at 6months Good outcome was defined as 33% improvement in the pain scale or better functional ability.
36 Needling Identical needle were use for both groups Only manual needle stimulation was allowed Traditional group: needles were inserted to depth of 5-40mm with induction of De Qi sensation on the body. Sham group: needles were insert 1-3mm depth without stimulation on lateral back or lower limbs was standardized- non meridian points.
37 Conventional treatment 10 sessions with a physical therapist Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain medications Massage, heat therapy, electrotherapy, back school, injections, and guidance,
38 outcomes At 6 months almost ½ of acupuncture groups but only ¼ of the conventional therapy group benefited. Both acupuncture groups had 30% or better in pain and back function. Traditional acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture.
39 Meta-analysis of LBP research in 2008 AMMENDOLIA ET AL, 2008, THE SPINE JOURNAL YUAN ET AL, 2008, SPINE Acupuncture compared to no treatment: moderated evidence acupuncture demonstrates improvement in pain compared to no treatment. Acupuncture compared to Sham: there is moderate evidence that acupuncture is no different from sham acupuncture for global improvement. Acupuncture added with other interventions: All included studies demonstrated that the addition of acupuncture to other interventions was more effective than the other interventions alone.
40 Conclusion Acupuncture can provide an analgesic effect by stimulating the release of endogenous opioids and cortisol. Acupuncture acts on the level of the peripheral and central nervous system to decrease cortical activation of pain perception. Acupuncture also act on a local level through increased tissue perfusion and local changes in connective tissue arrangement. Sham acupuncture, superficial needling, is not a true placebo, providing therapeutic benefit. Acupuncture should be viewed as another tool in conservative management, similar to NSAID use and physical therapy in the treatment of low back pain. Acupuncture combine with traditional conservative management has better outcomes than conservative management alone = in 42 research studies.
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