Milwaukee School of Engineering Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Milwaukee School of Engineering Gerrits@msoe.edu. Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version"

Transcription

1 Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version Goal This activity (case study and its associated questions) is designed to be a student-centered learning activity relating to the factors that can affect blood pressure. The associated handout is designed as a reference for students to refer to as they study the systems that regulate blood pressure. Background This activity is ideally designed for those students who have already covered the following topics in their Physiology or Anatomy and Physiology course(s): a. Sympathetic nervous system b. Medical physics (relationships between pressure, flow and resistance) c. Smooth muscle d. Cardiac muscle e. Membrane potentials and action potentials This activity was designed assuming that the students have not covered the topics of endocrinology, renal physiology, and/or the control of blood pressure. It is also assumed that students know what the word diuretic means. If they do not, they will need to be given this information. The function of ACE inhibitors and beta blockers may also need to be explained to the students, depending on usage of this activity. For example, an instructor may want to talk about the effects of beta blockers both on the heart and on the kidney, depending on the level of detail the instructor is trying to present. This activity may also be appropriate for a summary of integrated function toward the end of a physiology course. Questions can/should be adjusted to fit the specific need of the instructor and situation. Instructions This activity can be used at any point in the class period, preferably before the topics of blood pressure regulation are covered. It is suggested that students work in teams of 2-4. The activity can either be taken on a question by question basis, or students can be asked to complete the entire activity prior to discussion. It is expected that the activity and related discussion will take approximately minutes, depending on the amount of time the instructor allows the students to develop answers to the questions. It is suggested that after the students have been given time to answer the questions, but before the discussion, the attached handout be given to the students. This should aid them in understanding how the factors that they deduced relate to one another for the control of blood pressure.

2 Case Study and Answers (Answers to questions are in italics) Harry Hypertensive is a 68 year old male who has been treated for high blood pressure for the last 8 years. Besides being encouraged to implement lifestyle modifications (such as decreased salt intake and increased exercise), Harry has also been treated with a variety of drugs. The specific drugs have sometimes varied over the years, but they have all been from the following general categories: a. Diuretics b. Beta-blockers (Beta 1 receptor antagonist) c. Calcium channel blocking drugs d. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Based on this information, and what you already know from this class, answer the following questions: 1. What is the importance of blood pressure? Why is having high blood pressure of medical concern? Blood pressure, or arterial pressure, is the pressure in the large arteries. Pressure is often measured by looking at how high the pressure will raise a column of liquid. For blood pressure, the standard units are millimeters of mercury, abbreviated as mmhg and it is pressure difference (arterial pressure central venous pressure) across the circulation that is responsible for moving blood through the system. Therefore an appropriate amount of arterial pressure is necessary to move blood at an appropriate rate through the circulation. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and causes damage to small blood vessels, such as those in the retina and kidneys. It can also lead to hypertrophy of the left ventricle, among other problems. In short, the circulatory system is not designed to handle pressure higher than normal. 2. What is (are) the effect(s) of diuretics on the body? Based on your answer, predict a factor that can affect blood pressure. Diuretics increase water (or saline) loss from the body, by forcing the kidneys to make more urine. Blood is part of the body fluid compartment, so a decrease in body fluid can cause a drop in blood pressure because it causes a decrease in venous return (the amount of blood returning to the heart). 3. Where are beta 1 receptors found in high concentration? What hormone(s) typically binds beta 1 receptors? What is (are) the effect(s) that these hormones induce when they bind to beta 1 receptors? Based on your answer, predict a factor that can affect blood pressure.

3 Beta 1 receptors are found in high concentrations in the heart, where they are typically bound by norepinephrine or epinephrine released from the sympathetic nervous system. When beta 1 receptors are activated, the heart increases in both rate and inotropic state (contractility). Therefore rate and inotropic state can affect blood pressure. 4. Name 2 cell types where the plasma membrane calcium channels contribute either to the action potential, or the resting membrane potential of the cell? a. Cardiac muscle cells b. Smooth muscle cells When calcium enters the cell type in (a.) what do these cells do? Contract When calcium enters the cell types in (b.) what do these cells do? Contract What would be the effect of preventing some calcium from entering both of these cell types? Cardiac muscle cells would not contract as strongly (decreased inotropic state) and smooth muscle cells would relax (decreased vascular resistance). Based on your answers, predict 2 factors that can affect blood pressure. Inotropic state and vascular resistance 5. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme converts the molecule Angioensin I into the active hormone Angiotensin II. The formation of Angiotensin II typically occurs when blood pressure is low. Based on your previous answers, predict the factors that Angiotensin II might have on the body as a way of increasing blood pressure. Although all of the factors that student might list would include, heart rate, vascular volume, vascular resistance or inotropic state, it should be explained to students that the effects of Angiotensin II s are on vascular resistance and vascular volume. Summary There are several factors that affect blood pressure, and they need to work in conjunction to one another for appropriate regulation to take place. For example, an increase in inotropic state will need to be coupled with an increase in venous return in order to create large and sustained increases in arterial pressure. Using the attached diagram students should be able to see how the various factors are related to one another.

4 Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Student Version Harry Hypertensive is a 68 year old male who has been treated for high blood pressure for the last 8 years. Besides being encouraged to implement lifestyle modifications (such as decreased salt intake and increased exercise), Harry has also been treated with a variety of drugs. The specific drugs have sometimes varied over the years, but they have all been from the following general categories: a. Diuretics b. Beta-blockers (Beta 1 receptor antagonist) c. Calcium channel blocking drugs d. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Based on this information, and what you already know from this class, answer the following questions: 1. What is the importance of blood pressure? Why is having high blood pressure of medical concern? 2. What is (are) the effect(s) of diuretics on the body? Based on your answer, predict a factor that can affect blood pressure. 3. Where are beta 1 receptors found in high concentration? What hormone(s) typically binds beta 1 receptors? What is (are) the effect(s) that these hormones induce when they bind to beta 1 receptors? Based on your answer, predict a factor that can affect blood pressure.

5 4. Name 2 cell types where the plasma membrane calcium channels contribute either to the action potential, or the resting membrane potential of the cell? a. b. When calcium enters the cell type in (a.) what do these cells do? When calcium enters the cell types in (b.) what do these cells do? What would be the effect of preventing calcium from entering both of these cell types? Based on your answers, predict 2 factors that can affect blood pressure. 5. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme converts the molecule Angioensin I into the active hormone Angiotensin II. The formation of Angiotensin II typically occurs when blood pressure is low. Based on your previous answers, predict the factors that Angiotensin II might have on the body as a way of increasing blood pressure.

6 Factors Affecting Arterial Blood Pressure The importance of Blood Pressure: Arterial pressure is necessary to push blood through the circulation so that oxygen and nutrients can be delivered to the tissues. Therefore, if blood pressure is too low, the organs will not be adequately perfused and will show signs of hypoxia (fatigue, confusion, cyanosis, etc.). If blood pressure is too high, it can cause damage to blood vessels (leading to strokes, blindness, kidney failure, heart failure, etc.). Therefore, arterial pressure (commonly referred to as blood pressure ) must be carefully regulated. This occurs via several mechanisms, but all mechanisms ultimately affect the factors that can affect blood pressure, which are TPR, HR, blood volume, and inotropic state. The factors that control arterial pressure are cardiac output and vascular resistance. This is often written in equation form, where MAP = mean arterial pressure, which is the average pressure over time in the aorta, and is usually about 100 mmhg, CO = cardiac output, which is normally about 5 liters/minute and TPR = total peripheral p resistance, which is determined by the diameters of the arterioles of the body. If the body is going to affect MAP it must do so by affecting either CO or TPR. MAP = CO x TPR Heart Rate (normal is 72 bpm) Affected by the sympathetic nervous system. Epinephrine and norepi will bind to β 1 receptors to increase HR. Stimulated by the baroreceptor reflex. Preload: Amount of blood in the heart at the end of diastole (end of filling). Indicated by end-diastolic volume. Preload is determined by venous return (amount of blood flowing into the heart) which is usually determined by the amount of blood in the circulation and the tone of venous vessels. CO = HR x SV Total Peripheral Resistance Affected by anything that affects the diameter of the arterioles. This includes a variety of neurotransmitters and hormones as well as molecules released during allergies, infections, etc. Stroke Volume (normal is 65 ml): Amount of blood ejected from the heart in each beat. Can be affected by Neurotransmitters: Epinephrine p and norepinephrine p are released as molecules of the sympathetic nervous system. They cause a constriction of arterioles via α 1 receptors. These hormones are normally released when blood pressure is low (baroreceptor reflex). preload and inotropic state (contractility) of the heart. Both of these can be adjusted through different mechanisms. Inotropic State: The strength of the contraction of the heart. Leads to an increase in SV even at the same preload. Affected by epinephrine and norepinephrine binding to β 1 receptors on the heart. Hormones: Hormones such as angiotensin II and anti-diuretic hormone can cause constriction of blood vessels when they are released/formed at high levels. This normally occurs when blood pressure is very low. Other molecules: 1. Histamine: Released in large amounts in severe allergic reactions. Vasodilates blood vessels after binding to H1 receptor. 2. Endotoxin: Released from Gram negative cell membranes. Potent vasodilator that can lead to a large decrease in blood pressure (septic shock).

Collin County Community College

Collin County Community College Collin County Community College BIOL. 2402 Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 6 The Heart 1 Cardiac Output and Energy Demand The blood only holds a certain amount of oxygen During exercise, the body and tissues

More information

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure. Vessel Elasticity Blood Volume Cardiac Output

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure. Vessel Elasticity Blood Volume Cardiac Output Factors that Affect Pressure Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction pressure is affected by several factors:

More information

Calculating Cardiac Output. Chapter 14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure. Regulation of Cardiac Rate. Chronotropic Effect

Calculating Cardiac Output. Chapter 14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure. Regulation of Cardiac Rate. Chronotropic Effect Chapter 14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Adjusting the pumping mechanism on demand. Calculating Cardiac Output Stroke volume volume of blood ejected by each ventricle during each contraction.

More information

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology Integrated Review

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology Integrated Review Lecture Outline Part 2 & Control Systems Review Integrated Cardiac Page & Controls Medullary Center for Cardiovascular Control & the Baroreceptor Reflex Cardiovascular Physiology Integrated Review Heart

More information

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Chapter 15 The Cardiovascular System Chapter 16 Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration Chapter 17 Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular System HPHE 6710 Exercise

More information

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back to the left atria from the left ventricle, blood is pumped

More information

THE CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Chapter 9

THE CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Chapter 9 THE CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 9 Cardiorespiratory System What are the functions of the cardiorespiratory system? Transport O 2 to tissues and removal of waste Transport of nutrients to tissues Regulation

More information

Blood Pressure Regulation

Blood Pressure Regulation Blood Pressure Regulation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction There are two basic mechanisms for regulating

More information

and Blood Pressure (II)

and Blood Pressure (II) Chapter 14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure (II) Chapter Outline o Capillaries and Venules o Veins o The Lymphatic System o Mean Arterial Pressure and Its Regulation

More information

Inotropes/Vasoactive Agents Hina N. Patel, Pharm.D., BCPS Cathy Lawson, Pharm.D., BCPS

Inotropes/Vasoactive Agents Hina N. Patel, Pharm.D., BCPS Cathy Lawson, Pharm.D., BCPS Inotropes/Vasoactive Agents Hina N. Patel, Pharm.D., BCPS Cathy Lawson, Pharm.D., BCPS 1. Definition -an agent that affects the contractility of the heart -may be positive (increases contractility) or

More information

Blood Pressure & Effects of Exercise Laboratory #3. Assigned reading. Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES

Blood Pressure & Effects of Exercise Laboratory #3. Assigned reading. Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES Laboratory #3 Assigned reading Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES 1) Learn to measure your blood pressure using a sphygomomanometer. 2) Test the effect of exercise and body position

More information

CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4)

CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4) CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4) 63 CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW 1) REASON: Body needs different levels of nutrient delivery and metabolic removal for differing levels of activities

More information

Heart Pump and Cardiac Cycle. Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD

Heart Pump and Cardiac Cycle. Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD Heart Pump and Cardiac Cycle Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD 1 Objectives To understand the volume, mechanical, pressure and electrical changes during the cardiac cycle To understand the inter-relationship

More information

The Cardiovascular System Cardiac Function

The Cardiovascular System Cardiac Function The Cardiovascular System Cardiac Function Session Objectives. What you will cover The circulatory system Anatomy of the heart Flow of blood through the heart Conduction systems of the heart Cardiac cycle

More information

Circulatory System Review

Circulatory System Review Circulatory System Review 1. Draw a table to describe the similarities and differences between arteries and veins? Anatomy Direction of blood flow: Oxygen concentration: Arteries Thick, elastic smooth

More information

Human Physiology - Problem Drill 15: Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

Human Physiology - Problem Drill 15: Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Human Physiology - Problem Drill 15: Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which of these vessels carry oxygenated blood? Question #01 (A) Aorta (B) Pulmonary vein (C) Arterioles

More information

Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits. Path of Blood Flow. Heart Anatomy. Heart valves

Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits. Path of Blood Flow. Heart Anatomy. Heart valves Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits Heart: double pumps pulmonary circuit short, low-pressure circulation systemic circuit long, high-friction circulation Trace the flow of blood to & away from the heart P:4

More information

The Cardiovascular System

The Cardiovascular System Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System Slides 11.1 11.19 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook The Cardiovascular System

More information

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Information for patients Coronary Care Unit Phone no: 01625 661016 www.eastcheshire.nhs.uk @eastcheshirenhs Ref: 10982 Review: 08/2015 What is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure

More information

20. Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation

20. Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation 20. Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation In this chapter we examine blood vessels and properties of flow through these vessels. Each blood vessel falls into one of three major categories: (1)

More information

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM : The cardiovascular system Practice questions - pages 46-47 12 1) Heart rate is controlled by the cardiac conduction system Which one of the following is the order of the cardiac conduction system? a

More information

9/17/2013. Introduction. Diagnosis and Management of Hypotension. Introduction. Blood Pressure Physiology

9/17/2013. Introduction. Diagnosis and Management of Hypotension. Introduction. Blood Pressure Physiology Diagnosis and Management of Hypotension McGee Leonard, DVM Critical Care Resident Introduction Hypotension, or low arterial blood pressure, is not a disease. It is a clinical manifestation of many different

More information

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular System Major Jobs of the CV system? Transport O 2 & nutrients to tissues Removal of waste Helps regulate body temperature 1 A Coupled Unit Circulatory & Respiratory systems work TOGETHER

More information

Physiology of Circulation

Physiology of Circulation Physiology of Circulation Copyright 1999, Stephen G. Davenport, No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form without prior written permission.

More information

3. Tunica adventitia is the outermost layer; it is composed of loosely woven connective tissue infiltrated by nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics

3. Tunica adventitia is the outermost layer; it is composed of loosely woven connective tissue infiltrated by nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics Blood vessels and blood pressure I. Introduction - distribution of CO at rest II. General structure of blood vessel walls - walls are composed of three distinct layers: 1. Tunica intima is the innermost

More information

Adrenergic receptors lec 9, part 2. 16/10/2014 Dr. Laila M. Matalqah Rama Kamal Ali Treany

Adrenergic receptors lec 9, part 2. 16/10/2014 Dr. Laila M. Matalqah Rama Kamal Ali Treany Adrenergic receptors lec 9, part 2 16/10/2014 Dr. Laila M. Matalqah Rama Kamal Ali Treany Pharmacology of ANS Adrenergic Agonists Adrenergic receptors:- - It is a receptor which is located in the peripheral

More information

Blood Vessels and Circulation

Blood Vessels and Circulation 13 Blood Vessels and Circulation FOCUS: Blood flows from the heart through the arterial blood vessels to capillaries, and from capillaries back to the heart through veins. The pulmonary circulation transports

More information

Hemodynamics "What factors affect blood pressure?"

Hemodynamics What factors affect blood pressure? Hemodynamics "What factors affect blood pressure?" Model 1 Cardiology Patient Records for Al Fields Cardiac Health Assessment: Conducted 09/18/1979 Observations: Patient in good health, age 22, height

More information

Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Excretory Physiology

Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Excretory Physiology Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida Excretory Physiology The following ELEVEN slides are review. They will not be covered in lecture, but will be

More information

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Functions of the circulatory system PHYSICAL EDUCATION THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Circulates blood through the body Transports water, oxygen and food to cells and removes wastes from the cells Helps other

More information

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly email worldanaesthesia@mac.com

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly email worldanaesthesia@mac.com INTRODUCTION TO CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 125 16 TH MARCH 2009 Toby Elkington, Specialist Registrar Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Department of Anaesthesia, Salford Royal NHS

More information

Hypertension and Heart Failure Medications. Dr William Dooley

Hypertension and Heart Failure Medications. Dr William Dooley Hypertension and Heart Failure Medications Dr William Dooley Plan Heart Failure Acute vs. chronic Mx Hypertension Common drugs used Method of action Choice of medications Heart Failure Aims; Short term:

More information

Overview of the Cardiovascular System

Overview of the Cardiovascular System Overview of the Cardiovascular System 2 vascular (blood vessel) loops: Pulmonary circulation: from heart to lungs and back) Systemic circulation: from heart to other organs and back Flow through systemic

More information

Anatomi & Fysiologi The Cardiovascular System (Chapter 21) Types of blood vessels. Sympathetic innervation (ANS) of vascular smooth muscle

Anatomi & Fysiologi The Cardiovascular System (Chapter 21) Types of blood vessels. Sympathetic innervation (ANS) of vascular smooth muscle Types of blood vessels The Cardiovascular System (Chapter 21) Principles of Anatomy & Physiology 2008 arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins served by their own blood vessels in the walls The vessel

More information

Anatomi & Fysiologi 060301. The cardiovascular system (chapter 20) The circulation system transports; What the heart can do;

Anatomi & Fysiologi 060301. The cardiovascular system (chapter 20) The circulation system transports; What the heart can do; The cardiovascular system consists of; The cardiovascular system (chapter 20) Principles of Anatomy & Physiology 2009 Blood 2 separate pumps (heart) Many blood vessels with varying diameter and elasticity

More information

Cardiovascular Regulation

Cardiovascular Regulation Cardiovascular Regulation Regulation of hemodynamics occurs via local autoregulation, neural control and hormones. Spring 2004 1 Autoregulation of Blood Flow Local regulation of blood flow occurs by vasoconstriction

More information

Regulation of Blood Pressure with Postural Changes

Regulation of Blood Pressure with Postural Changes 1 Bio 236 Lab Regulation of Blood Pressure with Postural Changes Blood pressure is the force of arterial blood pushing against the vessel wall in response to the cardiac cycle (ventricular systole versus

More information

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

More information

The Vertebrate Circulatory System

The Vertebrate Circulatory System The Vertebrate Circulatory System Transportation Respiratory Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport oxygen from lungs to tissues Hemoglobin of red blood cells is transporter CO 2 is released by cells

More information

Chapter 10 The Cardiovascular System and Exercise

Chapter 10 The Cardiovascular System and Exercise Chapter 10 The Cardiovascular System and Exercise Slide Show developed by: Richard C. Krejci, Ph.D. Professor of Public Health Columbia College 10.18.11 Objectives 1. List important functions of the cardiovascular

More information

Water Homeostasis. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Water Homeostasis. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. Water Homeostasis Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 1. Water Homeostasis The body maintains a balance of water intake

More information

Renal Blood Flow GFR. Glomerulus Fluid Flow and Forces. Renal Blood Flow (cont d)

Renal Blood Flow GFR. Glomerulus Fluid Flow and Forces. Renal Blood Flow (cont d) GFR Glomerular filtration rate: about 120 ml /minute (180 L a day) Decreases with age (about 10 ml/min for each decade over 40) GFR = Sum of the filtration of two million glomeruli Each glomerulus probably

More information

The Circulatory System

The Circulatory System The Circulatory System Terminology Angina Pectoris: Severe suffocation chest pain caused by brief lack of oxygen supply to the head muscle. Aorta: Major systemic artery; arises from the left ventricle

More information

Anaesthesia and Heart Failure

Anaesthesia and Heart Failure Anaesthesia and Heart Failure Andrew Baldock, Specialist Registrar, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust E mail: ajbaldock@doctors.org.uk Self-assessment The following true/false questions may be

More information

Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics Structure and function of blood vessels Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics 5 main types Arteries carry blood AWAY from the heart Arterioles Capillaries site of exchange

More information

ACLS PHARMACOLOGY 2011 Guidelines

ACLS PHARMACOLOGY 2011 Guidelines ACLS PHARMACOLOGY 2011 Guidelines ADENOSINE Narrow complex tachycardias or wide complex tachycardias that may be supraventricular in nature. It is effective in treating 90% of the reentry arrhythmias.

More information

Cardiac Cycle. All events associated with the flow of blood through the heart during one complete heart beat. Approx 0.83sec if heart rate is 72 bpm

Cardiac Cycle. All events associated with the flow of blood through the heart during one complete heart beat. Approx 0.83sec if heart rate is 72 bpm Cardiac Cycle All events associated with the flow of blood through the heart during one complete heart beat Approx 0.83sec if heart rate is 72 bpm Cardiac Cycle 2 Periods Diastole/Systole 4 Phases Ventricular

More information

The Circulatory System Explained

The Circulatory System Explained The Circulatory System Explained The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood itself. Its function is three-fold. Transport, temperature control and protection. Transport - of

More information

Control of blood tissue blood flow. Faisal I. Mohammed, MD,PhD

Control of blood tissue blood flow. Faisal I. Mohammed, MD,PhD Control of blood tissue blood flow Faisal I. Mohammed, MD,PhD 1 Objectives List factors that affect tissue blood flow. Describe the vasodilator and oxygen demand theories. Point out the mechanisms of autoregulation.

More information

High Blood Pressure (Essential Hypertension)

High Blood Pressure (Essential Hypertension) Sacramento Heart & Vascular Medical Associates February 18, 2012 500 University Ave. Sacramento, CA 95825 Page 1 916-830-2000 Fax: 916-830-2001 What is essential hypertension? Blood pressure is the force

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Exam #1 Name: Instructions This exam consists of 40 multiple-choice questions. Each multiple-choice question answered correctly is worth one point, and the

More information

Explain what produces this difference in pressure.

Explain what produces this difference in pressure. 1. The graph below shows the main stages of the cardiac cycle. The atria contract The muscles of the heart relax The thick muscular walls of the ventricles contract (a) During which stage in the cardiac

More information

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System The portion of the nervous system that controls most visceral functions of the body is called the autonomic nervous system. This system helps to control arterial pressure,

More information

240- PROBLEM SET INSERTION OF SWAN-GANZ SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE. Blood pressure = f(cardiac output and peripheral resistance)

240- PROBLEM SET INSERTION OF SWAN-GANZ SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE. Blood pressure = f(cardiac output and peripheral resistance) 240- PROBLEM SET INSERTION OF SWAN-GANZ 50 kg Pig Rt Jugular 0 cm Rt Atrium 10 cm Rt ventricle 15 cm Wedge 20-25 cm SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE Blood pressure = f(cardiac output and peripheral resistance)

More information

The Body s Transport System

The Body s Transport System Circulation Name Date Class The Body s Transport System This section describes how the heart, blood vessels, and blood work together to carry materials throughout the body. Use Target Reading Skills As

More information

Septic Shock: Pharmacologic Agents for Hemodynamic Support. Nathan E Cope, PharmD PGY2 Critical Care Pharmacy Resident

Septic Shock: Pharmacologic Agents for Hemodynamic Support. Nathan E Cope, PharmD PGY2 Critical Care Pharmacy Resident Septic Shock: Pharmacologic Agents for Hemodynamic Support Nathan E Cope, PharmD PGY2 Critical Care Pharmacy Resident Objectives Define septic shock and briefly review pathophysiology Outline receptor

More information

The Circulatory System

The Circulatory System The Circulatory System Components The human circulatory system is made up of 3 main parts: The heart Blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) Blood The Human Heart The human heart is made of 3 types

More information

Cardiovascular Disorders. Heart Disorders. Diagnostic Tests for CV Function. Bio 375. Pathophysiology

Cardiovascular Disorders. Heart Disorders. Diagnostic Tests for CV Function. Bio 375. Pathophysiology Cardiovascular Disorders Bio 375 Pathophysiology Heart Disorders Heart disease is ranked as a major cause of death in the U.S. Common heart diseases include: Congenital heart defects Hypertensive heart

More information

Circulation and Respiration: Vital Signs Student Advanced Version

Circulation and Respiration: Vital Signs Student Advanced Version Circulation and Respiration: Vital Signs Student Advanced Version Key Concepts: Your respiratory system is the one that allows you to breathe in air and take the oxygen it contains to bring it into your

More information

NAME: GCSE PE TOPIC 1.2.2

NAME: GCSE PE TOPIC 1.2.2 1 NAME: GCSE PE TOPIC 1.2.2 The structure of the circulatory system The make-up of blood and its different uses Short and long term effects of exercise on the circulatory system Current Grade : Target

More information

Heart Rate and Physical Fitness

Heart Rate and Physical Fitness Heart Rate and Physical Fitness The circulatory system is responsible for the internal transport of many vital substances in humans, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients. The components of the

More information

Chapter 9. The Cardiovascular System

Chapter 9. The Cardiovascular System Chapter 9 The Cardiovascular System Objectives Describe the anatomy of the heart and vascular systems. State the key characteristics of cardiac tissue. Calculate systemic vascular resistance given mean

More information

BLOOD PRESSURE AND EXERCISE

BLOOD PRESSURE AND EXERCISE BLOOD PRESSURE AND EXERCISE Westminster College STANDARDS: 3.1.10A, 3.1.12A Identify the function of subsystems within a larger system; analyze and describe the function, interaction and relationship among

More information

Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System

Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Objectives COMPARISON OF SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS 1. Compare the structural and functional differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous

More information

Update on Small Animal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)- is anything new?

Update on Small Animal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)- is anything new? Update on Small Animal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)- is anything new? DVM, DACVA Objective: Update on the new Small animal guidelines for CPR and a discussion of the 2012 Reassessment Campaign on

More information

Altitude. Thermoregulation & Extreme Environments. The Stress of Altitude. Reduced PO 2. O 2 Transport Cascade. Oxygen loading at altitude:

Altitude. Thermoregulation & Extreme Environments. The Stress of Altitude. Reduced PO 2. O 2 Transport Cascade. Oxygen loading at altitude: Altitude Thermoregulation & Extreme Environments Reduced PO 2 The Stress of Altitude O 2 Transport Cascade Progressive change in environments oxygen pressure & various body areas Oxygen loading at altitude:

More information

Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter Objectives ANATOMY OF THE HEART 1. Describe the location and orientation of the heart within the thorax and mediastinal cavity. 2. Describe the

More information

Acute heart failure may be de novo or it may be a decompensation of chronic heart failure.

Acute heart failure may be de novo or it may be a decompensation of chronic heart failure. Management of Acute Left Ventricular Failure Acute left ventricular failure presents as pulmonary oedema due to increased pressure in the pulmonary capillaries. It is important to realise though that left

More information

4. What two features of heart structure and function combine to determine cardiac output?

4. What two features of heart structure and function combine to determine cardiac output? PRINCIPLES OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS (Due by Monday September 24 th ) Reading: Chapter 23 (focus on pp. 617-639) Like all systems we study in this class, the circulatory system can be studied from many different

More information

ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONIST,CLASSIFICATION AND MECHANISM OF ACTION.

ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONIST,CLASSIFICATION AND MECHANISM OF ACTION. ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONIST,CLASSIFICATION AND MECHANISM OF ACTION. LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of lecture students should be able to know, Adrenergic receptor agonist, Classification and mechanism

More information

Chapter 37. Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Go to Section:

Chapter 37. Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Go to Section: Chapter 37 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Inquiry Activity Section 37-1 What Factors Affect Heart Rate? 1. While sitting still, measure your heart rate. To do this, find the pulse in one of your wrists

More information

EXPLORING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EXERCISE AND MEDICATION FOR CHRONIC DISEASE: CONSIDERATIONS FOR FITNESS PROFESSIONALS

EXPLORING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EXERCISE AND MEDICATION FOR CHRONIC DISEASE: CONSIDERATIONS FOR FITNESS PROFESSIONALS EXPLORING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EXERCISE AND MEDICATION FOR CHRONIC DISEASE: CONSIDERATIONS FOR FITNESS PROFESSIONALS Steven T. Johnson, PhD 1 Introduction The prevalence of chronic diseases like cardiovascular

More information

SISTEMA CIRCULATORIO: FUNCIONES PRINCIPALES

SISTEMA CIRCULATORIO: FUNCIONES PRINCIPALES SISTEMA CIRCULATORIO: FUNCIONES PRINCIPALES Transporte y distribución de O2 y CO2, sales, nutrientes, metabolitos, hormonas, células inmunes y Acs. Producción de ultrafiltrado renal. Regulación de temperatura

More information

STAGES OF SHOCK. IRREVERSIBLE SHOCK Heart deteriorates until it can no longer pump and death occurs.

STAGES OF SHOCK. IRREVERSIBLE SHOCK Heart deteriorates until it can no longer pump and death occurs. STAGES OF SHOCK SHOCK : A profound disturbance of circulation and metabolism, which leads to inadequate perfusion of all organs which are needed to maintain life. COMPENSATED NONPROGRESSIVE SHOCK 30 sec

More information

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells Functions of Blood System Transport: to and from tissue cells Nutrients to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as lipoproteins). Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4

More information

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. c. CNS (central nervous system) control: voluntary (but has involuntary components; e.g. reflexes)

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. c. CNS (central nervous system) control: voluntary (but has involuntary components; e.g. reflexes) page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System 1. Somatic nervous system (voluntary) a. tissues innervated: skeletal muscle b. action: always excitatory (cause muscle contraction) c.

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Blood Vessels Worksheet

Anatomy & Physiology Blood Vessels Worksheet Anatomy & Physiology Blood Vessels Worksheet 1. Pulmonary arteries carry oxygenated / deoxygenated blood to the lungs 2. The blood vessel involved in the taking of blood pressure is the artery. 3. Normal

More information

1 Congestive Heart Failure & its Pharmacological Management

1 Congestive Heart Failure & its Pharmacological Management Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.151: Principles of Pharmocology Instructor: Prof. Keith Baker 1 Congestive Heart Failure & its Pharmacological Management Keith Baker, M.D., Ph.D.

More information

Exchange solutes and water with cells of the body

Exchange solutes and water with cells of the body Chapter 8 Heart and Blood Vessels Three Types of Blood Vessels Transport Blood Arteries Carry blood away from the heart Transport blood under high pressure Capillaries Exchange solutes and water with cells

More information

Medical Direction and Practices Board WHITE PAPER

Medical Direction and Practices Board WHITE PAPER Medical Direction and Practices Board WHITE PAPER Use of Pressors in Pre-Hospital Medicine: Proper Indication and State of the Science Regarding Proper Choice of Pressor BACKGROUND Shock is caused by a

More information

Human Body Review #4: Circulatory System

Human Body Review #4: Circulatory System Name: Class: Date: Human Body Review #4: Circulatory System Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence

More information

The Circulatory System and Blood:

The Circulatory System and Blood: (Students: Bolded, italicized, and underlined sections will be on the exam) The Circulatory System and Blood: I. Function of the System: A. To supply oxygen (for cell energy), nutrients (for cell energy,

More information

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System Exercise and the Cardiovascular System Chapter 13: The Physiology of Training 1 CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS Aerobic fitness measured by VO 2max VO 2max is a product of maximal cardiac output (Q) and arteriovenous

More information

Causes & Treatments of Heart Failure

Causes & Treatments of Heart Failure Causes & Treatments of Heart Failure Usually heart failure is due to a primary cause as well as additional contributing causes Identifying and treating these causes are important in all types of heart

More information

VITAL SIGNS (PULSE & BLOOD PRESSURE) CHAPTER 7

VITAL SIGNS (PULSE & BLOOD PRESSURE) CHAPTER 7 VITAL SIGNS (PULSE & BLOOD PRESSURE) CHAPTER 7 P R E P A R E D A N D P R E S E N T E D B Y : M S. S O H A D N O O R S A E E D, R N. M S N LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon the completion of Pulse &Blood Pressure

More information

The Human Circulatory System

The Human Circulatory System Page 1 of 15 The The circulatory system is the system that transports materials around the body to and from the cells. Question? Answer: Why do humans need a circulatory system whereas bacteria and simple

More information

Pediatric Shock Recognition / Resuscitation. Edward J. Cullen Jr., D.O. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Pediatric Shock Recognition / Resuscitation. Edward J. Cullen Jr., D.O. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Pediatric Shock Recognition / Resuscitation Edward J. Cullen Jr., D.O. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2003 Shock Oxygen Delivery can not support Metabolic Demands of the Body Is the child in shock? Mental

More information

ACLS PHARMACOLOGY 2011 Guidelines

ACLS PHARMACOLOGY 2011 Guidelines ACLS PHARMACOLOGY 2011 Guidelines ADENOSINE Narrow complex tachyardias or wide complex tachycardias that may be supraventricular in nature. It is effective in treating 90% of the reentry arrhythmias. Slows

More information

Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics Chapter Objectives STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD VESSELS 1. Identify the different types of blood vessels in the body. 2. Describe

More information

Done by : Bashayer Almalki & Ahmed Al-Marzoqi Revised by : Nour Al-Khawajah & Mohammed Asiri

Done by : Bashayer Almalki & Ahmed Al-Marzoqi Revised by : Nour Al-Khawajah & Mohammed Asiri ENDOCRINE BLOCK PHYSIOLOGY TEAM 431 Done by : Bashayer Almalki & Ahmed Al-Marzoqi Revised by : Nour Al-Khawajah & Mohammed Asiri Physiology of Adrenal Medulla The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic

More information

High blood pressure and stroke

High blood pressure and stroke Stroke Helpline: 0303 3033 100 Website: stroke.org.uk High blood pressure and stroke High blood pressure usually has no symptoms but it is the biggest risk factor for stroke. Both lifestyle changes and

More information

Aim Explain blood pressure and the cardiac cycle and their relationship to health and fitness.

Aim Explain blood pressure and the cardiac cycle and their relationship to health and fitness. LESSON 2. BLOOD PRESSURE & THE CARDIAC CYCLE Aim Explain blood pressure and the cardiac cycle and their relationship to health and fitness. BLOOD PRESSURE Blood pressure describes the pressure exerted

More information

Pharmacology - Problem Drill 06: Autonomic Pharmacology - Adrenergic System

Pharmacology - Problem Drill 06: Autonomic Pharmacology - Adrenergic System Pharmacology - Problem Drill 06: Autonomic Pharmacology - Adrenergic System Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 1. What

More information

1. The pharmacologic properties and therapeutic uses of alpha and beta blockers.

1. The pharmacologic properties and therapeutic uses of alpha and beta blockers. 1 OBI 836 The Autonomic Nervous System -Sympatholytics M.T. Piascik August 30, 2012 Sympatholytics: Drugs that bind to beta or alpha receptors or act through other mechanisms to block the actions of endogenous

More information

The basic physiological function of adrenergic receptors is to enhance the response to stress rapidly.

The basic physiological function of adrenergic receptors is to enhance the response to stress rapidly. 1 2 The basic physiological function of adrenergic receptors is to enhance the response to stress rapidly. 3 4 Dichloro-isoprenaline was the first and Pronethalol was the second ever of beta blockers synthesized

More information

Cardiovascular Physiology

Cardiovascular Physiology Cardiovascular Physiology Heart Physiology for the heart to work properly contraction and relaxation of chambers must be coordinated cardiac muscle tissue differs from smooth and skeletal muscle tissues

More information

Here is a drug list that you need to know before taking the NREMT-P exam!! Taken from the book EMS NOTES.com

Here is a drug list that you need to know before taking the NREMT-P exam!! Taken from the book EMS NOTES.com Here is a drug list that you need to know before taking the NREMT-P exam!! Taken from the book EMS NOTES.com Special thanks to the number #1 internet training site id44.com and also to (NOTE) Please remember

More information

Note: The left and right sides of the heart must pump exactly the same volume of blood when averaged over a period of time

Note: The left and right sides of the heart must pump exactly the same volume of blood when averaged over a period of time page 1 HEART AS A PUMP A. Functional Anatomy of the Heart 1. Two pumps, arranged in series a. right heart: receives blood from the systemic circulation (via the great veins and vena cava) and pumps blood

More information

Homeostasis (Circulation) Chapter 9. Homeostasis - the body s maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment

Homeostasis (Circulation) Chapter 9. Homeostasis - the body s maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment Homeostasis (Circulation) Chapter 9 Homeostasis - the body s maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment How does the body maintain homeostasis, for example, when running? Increased

More information

Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions

Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions Student: 1. The pulmonary veins are unusual as veins because they are transporting. A. oxygenated blood B. de-oxygenated blood C. high fat blood D. nutrient-rich

More information