Indian Streams Research Journal

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1 Vol 5 Issue 7 Aug 2015 ISSN No : ORIGINAL ARTICLE International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Indian Streams Research Journal Executive Editor Ashok Yakkaldevi Editor-in-Chief H.N.Jagtap

2 Welcome to ISRJ RNI MAHMUL/2011/38595 ISSN No Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English, Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.readers will include investigator in universities, research institutes government and industry with research interest in the general subjects. International Advisory Board Flávio de São Pedro Filho Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil Kamani Perera Regional Center For Strategic Studies, Sri Lanka Janaki Sinnasamy Librarian, University of Malaya Romona Mihaila Spiru Haret University, Romania Delia Serbescu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, Romania Anurag Misra DBS College, Kanpur Titus PopPhD, Partium Christian University, Oradea,Romania Mohammad Hailat Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Carolina Aiken Abdullah Sabbagh Engineering Studies, Sydney Ecaterina Patrascu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Loredana Bosca Spiru Haret University, Romania Fabricio Moraes de Almeida Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil George - Calin SERITAN Faculty of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi Editorial Board Hasan Baktir English Language and Literature Department, Kayseri Ghayoor Abbas Chotana Dept of Chemistry, Lahore University of Management Sciences[PK] Anna Maria Constantinovici AL. I. Cuza University, Romania Ilie Pintea, Spiru Haret University, Romania Xiaohua Yang PhD, USA...More Pratap Vyamktrao Naikwade Iresh Swami ASP College Devrukh,Ratnagiri,MS India Ex - VC. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Patil Head Geology Department Solapur University,Solapur Rama Bhosale Prin. and Jt. Director Higher Education, Panvel Salve R. N. Department of Sociology, Shivaji University,Kolhapur N.S. Dhaygude Ex. Prin. Dayanand College, Solapur Narendra Kadu Jt. Director Higher Education, Pune K. M. Bhandarkar Praful Patel College of Education, Gondia Sonal Singh Vikram University, Ujjain Rajendra Shendge Director, B.C.U.D. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Yalikar Director Managment Institute, Solapur Umesh Rajderkar Head Humanities & Social Science YCMOU,Nashik S. R. Pandya Head Education Dept. Mumbai University, Mumbai Govind P. Shinde Bharati Vidyapeeth School of Distance Education Center, Navi Mumbai Chakane Sanjay Dnyaneshwar Arts, Science & Commerce College, Indapur, Pune Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya Secretary,Play India Play,Meerut(U.P.) G. P. Patankar Alka Darshan Shrivastava S. D. M. Degree College, Honavar, Karnataka Shaskiya Snatkottar Mahavidyalaya, Dhar Maj. S. Bakhtiar Choudhary Director,Hyderabad AP India. S.Parvathi Devi Ph.D.-University of Allahabad Sonal Singh, Vikram University, Ujjain Rahul Shriram Sudke Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore S.KANNAN Annamalai University,TN Satish Kumar Kalhotra Maulana Azad National Urdu University Address:-Ashok Yakkaldevi 258/34, Raviwar Peth, Solapur Maharashtra, India Cell : , Ph No: Website:

3 Indian Streams Research Journal Impact Factor : (UIF) ISSN Volume - 5 Issue - 7 Aug CULTURAL ECOLOGY: A LITERARY DISCOURSE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE AND NATURE 1 2 Padalkar Nilesh S and Herode Yuvraj N 1 Head and Assistant Professor, Graduation And Post-Graduation, Geography Dept. ACS, College, Goveli, Kalyan, Mumbai. 2 Head and Assistant Professor, English Dept. ACS, College Goveli, Kalyan, Mumbai. ABSTRACT n present paper attempt to highlight the relationship between cultural components that is Ihuman components and natural Environments. The culture of particular society is influenced by the particular natural landscape. The living beaning and natural environments are interdepends on other due to which the cultural of particular geographical region is influence.this relationship human cultural and natural environment has the significance in literature of particular region. KEYWORDS : Culture, Ecology, Nature, Environment, Literature etc. INTRODUCTION According to NgugiWaThiong o, A well- known African writer, Culture, in its broadest sense, is a way of life fashioned by people in their collective endeavour to live and come to terms with their total environments.(ngugi, 1981:4) Cultural ecology is the study of human adaptation to social and physical environments. The natural surroundings of an organism both living and non- living, compare s the environment. Human being is a living organism. Rats, dogs, caws, comprise living surrounding.light, water, air, land etc. comprise physical surroundings. Ecology is a branch of study of the interrelationship with the organism and its environments. Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural process that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment.the natural environment is a major contributor to social organization and other human institutions.julian steward, a student of Kroeber working among indigenous groups in the American southwest, first advanced the ideas which are generally viewed as the foundations of culture ecology. He proposed focusing on the that part of culture or a culture core which he saw as most immediately connected to the physical world, meaning the subsistence or productive strategies within a culture. Steward ( ) coined the term, cultural ecology as a methodology for understanding how humans adapt to such a wide variety of environments. In his Theory Of Culture Change : The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution (1955), cultural ecology represents the Way in Which culture Available online at 1

4 CULTURAL ECOLOGY: A LITERARY DISCOURSE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE AND NATURE change is induced by adaptation to the environment (Steward, 1955). Any particular human adaptation is historically inherited and involves the technologies, practices and knowledge that allow the people to live in environment. This means that while the environment influences the character of human adaptation, it does not determine it. In this way, steward wisely separated the vagaries of the environment from the inner working of a culture that occupied a given environment. The assertion that the physical and biological environment affects culture is controverrial, because it implies one element of environmental determinism over human actions which some social scientists find problematic particularly those writing from a Marxist perspective. Cultural ecology recognizes that ecological locale plays a significant role in shaping the cultures of a region. Steward assessed how much these patterns of behaviour influenced other aspect of culture. For instance, how in a drought prone region, great concern over rainfall patterns become central to everyday life and led to the development of a religious belief system in which rainfall and water figured very strongly. This belief system may not appear in a society where good rainfall for crops can be taken for granted or irrigation was practiced. The vital interrelation between culture and nature has been a special focus of literary culture from its archaic beginnings in myth, ritual, and oral story-telling in legends and fairy tales, in the genres of pastoral literature and nature poetry. Important texts in this tradition included the stories of mutual transformation between human and nonhuman life, most famously collected in Ovid,s Metamorphoses, which became a highly influential text throughout literary history and across different cultures. This attention to culturenature interaction become especially prominent in the era of romanticism, but continues to be characteristics of literary of human experience up to the presents. The mutual opening and symbolic reconnection of culture and nature, mind and body, human and non-human life in a holistic and yet radically pluralistic way seems to be one significant made in which literature functions and in which literary knowledge is produced. From this perspective, literature can itself be described as the symbolic medium of a particularly powerful from of cultural ecology (Zapf 2002). Literary texts have staged and explored, in ever new scenarios, the complex feedback relationship of prevailing culture systems with the needs and manifestations of human and non-human nature. From this paradoxical act of creative regression, they have derived their specific power of innovation and cultural self-renewal. German ecocritic, Hubert Zapf argues that literature draws its cognitive and creative potential from a threefold dynamics in its relationship to the larger cultural system as a Cultural critical metadiscourse, an imaginative counter discourse, and a reintegrative interdiscourse (Zapf 2002). It is a textual from which breaks up ossified social structures and ideologies, symbolically, empowers the marginalized and reconnected what is culturally separated. In that way, literature counteracts economic, political or pragmatic forms of interpretation and instrumentalizing human life, and breaks up one dimensional views of the world and the self, opening them up towards their repressed or excluded other. Literature is thus, on the one hand, a sensorium for what goes wrong in a society, for the biophobic, life paralyzing implications of one sided forms of consciousness and civilizational uniformity, and it is, on the hand, a medium of constant cultural self-renewal in which the neglected biographic energies can find a symbolic space of expression and of re-integration into the larger ecology of cultural discourses. The human species, substituted, the biology of man, by Anthony Barnett, a Zoologist, published in the united Kingdom came out in It deals with the cultural bearing of some outstanding areas of environmental knowledge about health and disease, food, the size and quality of Available online at 2

5 CULTURAL ECOLOGY: A LITERARY DISCOURSE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE AND NATURE human populations, and diversity of human types and their abilities. Barnett s view was that his selected areas of information..are all topics on which knowledge is not only desirable, but for a twentieth- century adult, necessary,. (Barnett,1950). By the 1980s, cultural ecology become a conventional way to present scientific concepts in the ecological perspective of human animals dominating an over populated world, with the practical aim of producing a greener culture. This is exemplified by I.G.Simmons book changing the face of the earth, with its telling subtitle culture, Environmental History which was published in Simmons s book was of many interdisciplinary culture / environment publication of 1970s and 1980s.cultural ecology is, in fact, a conceptual arena that has, over past six decades allowed sociologists, Physicists, zoologists and geographers to enter common intellectual ground from the side-lines of their specialist subjects. In the first decade of the 21th century, the publications are dealing with the ways in which humans can develop a more acceptable cultural relationship with the environment. An example is sacred ecology, a sub-topic of cultural ecology, produced by FikretBerkes in It seeks lessons from traditional ways of life in Northern Canada conceptualization of people and environment come from various cultural levels of local knowledge about species and place, resource management systems using local experience social institutions with their rules and codes of behaviour and a worldview through religion, ethics and broadly defined belief systems, culture is a balancing act between the mind-set devoted to the exploitation of natural resources and that, which conserves them. REFERENCES- 1) Barnett, A(1950), The Human Species, London : Mac Gibbon and Kee. 2) Berkes, F (1999), Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management, Taylor and Francis. 3)Ngugi, WaThiong O, (1981), Home coming, Londan: Heinemann. 4) Simmons,I.G (1989), Changing the face of the Earth. Oxford: Blackwell. 5) Steward, Julian, H, (1955), Theory of culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear evolution: University of Illinois Press. 6) Zapf, H (2002), Literature as Cultural Ecology: Notes Towards a functional Theory of Imaginative Texts, With Examples From American Literature, Tubingrn: Niemayer. Available online at 3

6 Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished Research Paper,Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Book Review for publication,you will be pleased to know that our journals are Associated and Indexed,India International Scientific Journal Consortium OPEN J-GATE Associated and Indexed,USA Google Scholar EBSCO DOAJ Index Copernicus Publication Index Academic Journal Database Contemporary Research Index Academic Paper Databse Digital Journals Database Current Index to Scholarly Journals Elite Scientific Journal Archive Directory Of Academic Resources Scholar Journal Index Recent Science Index Scientific Resources Database Directory Of Research Journal Indexing Indian Streams Research Journal 258/34 Raviwar Peth Solapur ,Maharashtra Contact Website :

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