Indian Streams Research Journal

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1 Vol 5 Issue 7 Aug 2015 ISSN No : ORIGINAL ARTICLE International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Indian Streams Research Journal Executive Editor Ashok Yakkaldevi Editor-in-Chief H.N.Jagtap

2 Welcome to ISRJ RNI MAHMUL/2011/38595 ISSN No Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English, Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.readers will include investigator in universities, research institutes government and industry with research interest in the general subjects. International Advisory Board Flávio de São Pedro Filho Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil Kamani Perera Regional Center For Strategic Studies, Sri Lanka Janaki Sinnasamy Librarian, University of Malaya Romona Mihaila Spiru Haret University, Romania Delia Serbescu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, Romania Anurag Misra DBS College, Kanpur Titus PopPhD, Partium Christian University, Oradea,Romania Mohammad Hailat Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Carolina Aiken Abdullah Sabbagh Engineering Studies, Sydney Ecaterina Patrascu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Loredana Bosca Spiru Haret University, Romania Fabricio Moraes de Almeida Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil George - Calin SERITAN Faculty of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi Editorial Board Hasan Baktir English Language and Literature Department, Kayseri Ghayoor Abbas Chotana Dept of Chemistry, Lahore University of Management Sciences[PK] Anna Maria Constantinovici AL. I. Cuza University, Romania Ilie Pintea, Spiru Haret University, Romania Xiaohua Yang PhD, USA...More Pratap Vyamktrao Naikwade Iresh Swami ASP College Devrukh,Ratnagiri,MS India Ex - VC. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Patil Head Geology Department Solapur University,Solapur Rama Bhosale Prin. and Jt. Director Higher Education, Panvel Salve R. N. Department of Sociology, Shivaji University,Kolhapur N.S. Dhaygude Ex. Prin. Dayanand College, Solapur Narendra Kadu Jt. Director Higher Education, Pune K. M. Bhandarkar Praful Patel College of Education, Gondia Sonal Singh Vikram University, Ujjain Rajendra Shendge Director, B.C.U.D. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Yalikar Director Managment Institute, Solapur Umesh Rajderkar Head Humanities & Social Science YCMOU,Nashik S. R. Pandya Head Education Dept. Mumbai University, Mumbai Govind P. Shinde Bharati Vidyapeeth School of Distance Education Center, Navi Mumbai Chakane Sanjay Dnyaneshwar Arts, Science & Commerce College, Indapur, Pune Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya Secretary,Play India Play,Meerut(U.P.) G. P. Patankar Alka Darshan Shrivastava S. D. M. Degree College, Honavar, Karnataka Shaskiya Snatkottar Mahavidyalaya, Dhar Maj. S. Bakhtiar Choudhary Director,Hyderabad AP India. S.Parvathi Devi Ph.D.-University of Allahabad Sonal Singh, Vikram University, Ujjain Rahul Shriram Sudke Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore S.KANNAN Annamalai University,TN Satish Kumar Kalhotra Maulana Azad National Urdu University Address:-Ashok Yakkaldevi 258/34, Raviwar Peth, Solapur Maharashtra, India Cell : , Ph No: Website:

3 Indian Streams Research Journal Impact Factor : (UIF) ISSN Volume - 5 Issue - 7 Aug KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY HIGHER EDUCATION Ranjana Kanungo Asst. Prof Christian Eminent Academy of Professional studies Indore. ABSTRACT oday, more than ever before in human history, the Growth of nations depends on the quality Tof higher education. Those with a larger collection of skills and a greater capacity for learning can look forward to lifetimes of unmatched economic fulfillment. But in the coming decades the poorly educated face little better than the tedious prospects of lives of quiet desperation. There are no great ideological battles or debates that are confronting the world anymore. The doctrine of liberal democracy has emerged as the most suitable and acceptable form of governance. 20th century broadly redefined the role of the state to provide education, healthcare, rule of law, and infrastructure development to enable every citizen to fulfill their potential, irrespective of their social position. In today s knowledge economy, it is an indisputable fact that quality education is mandatory to fulfilling one s potential and is the key for vertical mobility and economic growth, and an educated population is the precondition for economic prosperity of any nation. The main purpose of a higher education system is to add real value to human resources, and produce wealth creators and leaders in all fields business, professions, politics, administration, and creative pursuits. Education in the wider sense is a life-long process. It begins with the birth of a child and ends with his death. It is a continuous process. Continuity is the law of life. Education is not limited to the classroom only; it is also not limited to a particular period of life. Throughout life one goes on learning to adjust oneself to the changing patterns of life. Change it s the fundamental law of Nature. Life is a continuous process of growth and development and so education is also a continuous process. KEYWORDS : Key Issues, Challenges Faced, human history, liberal democracy. INTRODUCTION As we enter in 21st century, Country, institutions and individuals are facing daunting economic, social and developmental challenges. The workplace is becoming more knowledge and technology savvy. More new information gas been produced in the last three decades, than in the last five millennia. Thus we need to be poised for dramatic scientific advances and break-through in the 1

4 macro frontiers of the universe the one hand and microscopic secrets of the human body on the other hand. The 21st century calls for the vision of the education Education for Everyone, Education Anywhere, Education Anytime. The experiences and feelings of today are that we live in an extra ordinary Challenging era. The challenges of modern time are vast and deep providing innumerable opportunities for students studying job oriented commerce courses. Generally speaking, Education is utilized in three senses: Knowledge, Subject and a Process. When a person achieves degree up to certain level we do not call it education.as for example if a person has secured Masters degree then we utilize education it a very narrower sense and call that the person has achieved education up to Masters Level. In the second sense, education is utilized in a sense of discipline. As for example if a person had taken education as a paper or as a discipline during his study in any institution then we utilize education as a subject. In the third sense, education is utilized as a process. In fact when we talk of education, we talk in the third sense i.e. education as a process. Thus, we talk what is education as a process? What is its importance etc.? The wealth of knowledge acquired by an individual after studying particular subject matters or experiencing life lessons that provide an understanding of something. Education requires instruction of some sort from an individual or composed literature. The most common forms of education result from years of schooling that incorporates studies of a variety of subjects. "Jamie knew the importance of an education, so she chose to go to a four-year university after graduating from high school." Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man. Like fire in a piece of flint, knowledge exists in the mind. Suggestion is the friction; which brings it out. Swami Vivekananda By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man s body, mind and spirit. Mahatma Gandhi The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence. Rabindranath Tagore Education is something, which makes a man self-reliant and self-less. Rigveda Education is that whose end product is salvation. Upanishada Education according to Indian tradition is not merely a means of earning a living; nor it is only a nursery of thought or a school for citizenship. It is initiation into the life of spirit and training of human souls in the pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue. Radhakrishnan Education develops in the body and soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection he is capable of. Plato Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body. It develops man s faculty specially his mind so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness and beauty. Aristotle 2

5 Higher education is on the concurrent list in the Indian constitution, meaning that it is a shared responsibility between the Union or Central Government and the State Governments. The Department of Secondary and Higher Education is placed within the Ministry of Human Resource Development. There is also a Department of Education in each state. The Central Government is responsible for the major policy on higher education and for the co-ordination and determination of standards in higher education institutions. State Governments for their part are responsible for the establishment of state universities and colleges and for providing grants for their development and maintenance. As mentioned in Chapter 1, the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) coordinates the work of the Union and the States in the field of education. The Union Government has established regulatory and statutory bodies to discharge their responsibilities. Indian higher education system has expanded at a fast pace by adding nearly 20,000 colleges and more than 8 million students in a decade from to As of 2011, India has 42 central universities, 275 state universities, 130deemed universities, 90 private universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 33 Institutes of National Importance. Other institutions include 33,000 colleges as Government Degree Colleges and Private Degree Colleges, including 1800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions as reported by the UGC in The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology. Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes.distance learning and open education is also a feature of the Indian higher education system, and is looked after by the Distance Education Council, Indira Gandhi National Open University is the largest university in the world by number of students, having approximately 3.5 million students across the globe. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1) To examine and evaluate the Higher education in present scenario. 2) To study the weaknesses of Higher education. 3) To know the challenges and opportunities in Higher education. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: TO fulfillment of above objectives we use secondary data which are collected from Government publications, research journals, research Papers, periodicals, books & web site through internet. PROBLEMS IN HIGHER EUCATION Driven by market opportunities and entrepreneurial zeal, many institutions are taking advantage of the lax regulatory environment to offer 'degrees' not approved by Indian authorities, and many institutions are functioning as pseudo non-profit organizations, developing sophisticated financial methods to siphon off the 'profits' Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying to extirpate private universities that run courses with no affiliation or recognition. Students from rural and semi urban background often fall prey to these institutes and colleges.[38] One the fundamental weaknesses of the system is lack of transparency and recommendations have been made to mandate high standards of data disclosures by institutions on performance Drawbacks of Examination System of Higher Education India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, next to the United States and China. The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission, which 3

6 enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. Indian higher education system has expanded at a fast pace by adding nearly 20,000 colleges and more than 8 million students in a decade from to [4] As of 2011, India has 42 central universities, 275 state universities, 130deemed universities, 90 private universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 33 Institutes of National Importance. Other institutions include 33,000 colleges as Government Degree Colleges and Private Degree Colleges, including 1800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions as reported by the UGC in The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology. Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes. Distance learning and open education is also a feature of the Indian higher education system, and is looked after by the Distance Education Council. Indira Gandhi National Open University is the largest university in the world by number of students, having approximately 3.5 million students across the globe. Higher education is becoming a global, Internet-based business. But few universities are equipped to fully embrace the potential that this offers. Few faculties were even aware of these seismic shifts until the recent publicity around Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) which provide access to free online courses by a wide range of universities and opened to students with any academic background. They are attracting millions of students from across the globe. To what extent though is the MOOC really revolutionary and disruptive, or is it being used cynically by the most elite institutions to further increase their brand power and assert their superiority, whilst the middle tier of institutions lose student numbers and academic credibility? Do MOOCs hold the potential to support the developing world in its academic ambitions, or are they just another example of neo-colonialism? And what about online learning more broadly are we giving enough attention to the quiet revolution of blended learning that has been taken place over many years, and what that means for higher education? KEY ISSUES FACING HIGHER EDUCATION Changing Demographics A projected decline in the number of high school graduates is expected to impact college recruiting and retention efforts. Greater emphasis will be placed on the needs of all students, particularly growing numbers of adult learners, veterans, ethnically diverse students, low-income students, immigrants and students with disabilities. As noted in a 2010 College Board report, colleges and universities will need to reduce the academic and financial barriers that often stand between underrepresented students and a college education. Student affairs play a major role in advocating for affordability and scholarship opportunities. Innovative Technology Many students will continue to seek place-bound instruction on campus while others will prefer online and distance education. Arguably, the most revolutionary trend in technology is the proliferation of free access to online classes taught by distinguished faculty at prestigious universities. An April 5, 2013, article in the "Washington Post" reported that for-profit online providers are considering ways of generating revenue through charging nominal fees. Profit sharing with campuses could defray operating expenses and contain spiraling tuition costs. 4

7 Shifting Costs Since the early 1990s, state support for higher education has been declining. To compensate, colleges and universities have steadily increased tuition and fees. This situation is likely to continue due to the impact of the recent recession on state budgets as documented in a 2012 report published by Demos, a nonpartisan research and public policy organization. For many students and families, this cost shift has meant incurring unprecedented debt that will be burdensome to repay. Accountability External stakeholders, particularly elected officials, will continue to expect quantifiable results and transparent reporting of student retention, career readiness and job placement. More focus will be placed on assessment and data-driven decision making in the curricular experience. Closing the achievement and completion gap between majority and underrepresented students will be critical to continued public support and funding. Mental Health Concerns College counselors are seeing more students with significant mental health conditions necessitating adequate counseling and support services. Depression, anxiety and stress interfere with academic success and personal adjustment. The Jed Foundation estimates that approximately one out of every 10 college students has considered committing suicide. In isolated cases, a suicidal student can also exhibit homicidal tendencies. Behavioral intervention teams have emerged on most campuses to intervene early when a student appears to be distressed or distressing to others. THREE KEY CHALLENGES FACING HIGHER EDUCATION AND POLICY MAKERS Our preoccupation with the relative standing of universities and national education systems illustrated by the growing popularity and obsession with university rankings reflects the consensus that higher education is essential for economic growth, global competitiveness and a civil society. Universities and nations are being measured according to indicators of global capacity and potential in which comparative and competitive advantages come into play. The more globalization drives a single market in education, as it does in most goods and services, the more higher education is a beacon for investment and talent the more this kind of barometer is inevitable. While each country and university faces particular and often unique challenges, there are common factors that affect most countries around the world today issues that have become more acute since the global financial crisis in Let me focus on the three big challenges of the moment: Ensuring sustainable higher education systems at the same time that public funding is decreasing and competitiveness is increasing Improving the quality of the total student experience even as the demand for participation is growing Strengthening knowledge and innovation as drivers of growth while ensuring that multi- and cross-disciplinary critical inquiry is maintained. The more globalization drives a single market in education, the more higher education is a beacon for investment and talent. 1.Ensuring sustainable education systems The application of knowledge is now widely acknowledged as being the source of social, economic and political power. Studies repeatedly show the strong correlation between educational 5

8 attainment and social and economic advantages for individuals and society. Over the last decades, access to higher education has expanded from being a privilege of birth or talent or both (elite phase), to a right for those with certain qualifications (mass phase), to being an obligation for the vast majority of society and occupations (universal). However, the financial crisis has exposed fundamental weaknesses in the funding model that underpins higher education. The impact of the financial troubles in California on its public university system is symptomatic of problems around the world. Whether funded from public or private sources, escalating costs and tuition fees have prompted The Economist to suggest that higher education could be the next bubble (Schumpeter, 13 April 2011). At the same time, higher education faces increasing competition from China and India. What is the best way to sustain mass higher education at a time of decreasing public funding and escalating global competitiveness? Can tuition fees continue to rise and what are the implications for widening access to a more diverse student cohort? Are there new business models or financial instruments more appropriate to the new environment? What regulatory and governance frameworks would work best? 2.Improving the quality of student experience The quality of higher education is coming under increasing scrutiny. If higher education is the engine of the economy, governments are looking for verifiable and measurable evidence of benefit and impact. Students, as consumers, are questioning the value-for-money of their study program relative to the tuition fee that they pay, or to the institution s status and reputation. Evidence of quality and the pursuit of excellence have become the key mantra dominating higher education, inside and outside the academy. Rankings have emerged as a simple shorthand for students and the public to gauge quality but do rankings really measure what s meaningful? What level of accountability is required? As participation widens beyond the traditional student cohort, how should pedagogical methods and modes of learning adapt? To enhance the quality of the total student experience, what barriers should be eliminated? 3.Strengthening knowledge and innovation The rising prominence and obsession with global rankings have highlighted the investment attractiveness of nations based upon the capacity of their universities to produce new knowledge and lead innovation. In response, many countries have spearheaded a review of their higher education systems. The world-class research university has become the panacea for ensuring success in the global economy and world science. Kansas and Texas want to improve the performance of their universities because they are a magnet for investment; Sri Lanka has announced a strategy to upgrade six universities. Malaysia has a similar aim, and so do Nigeria, Denmark, France and Germany, to name just a few. However, many of these developments are leading to the prioritization of scientific and technological research over investment in the arts, humanities and social sciences. Our societies face serious problems; unemployment is a major issue. But, at the time when scientific and social challenges require collaborative interventions from a multidisciplinary perspective, there is growing evidence that simplistic economic indicators are being used to measure research quality. These changes are impacting on and changing universities, often in perverse ways. As the emphasis shifts to translating knowledge more quickly into new products and services, how can we ensure that the breadth of intellectual inquiry required to underpin civil society is preserved? 6

9 Local change reflects global shifts We often look upon changes within our universities as peculiar to them, a phantom of the management or the culture. But the changes being experienced are worldwide. It is no cliché to say that higher education and policymakers are facing major challenges. This article by Dr. Hazelkorn is one of several essays featured in the OCLC membership report. The top issues of 2014 will undoubtedly include the following: Cost continues to top the list of concerns for the President, Congress and, most importantly, the public. Much of the cost increase over the past five years can be attributed to reduced state tax support for public institutions which has forced an offset through increases in tuition and fees. The highest increases have been at public colleges and universities where 75% of students are enrolled. President Obama will be drawing further attention to this issue with a White House Conference on the subject planned for January. Renewal of the Higher Education Act by Congress got started last year. However, the in-depth work of shaping and testing new policies and regulations will pick up steam in At this point, accreditation reform appears to be one of the few issues parties agree is needed although consensus on its purpose is lacking. Workforce development is taking on greater importance as employers are once again hiring but they are still having difficulty finding applicants with needed skills. This is creating dialogue around America s skills gap and the need for higher education to do a better job of preparing future workers. Meanwhile, business and industry remain largely on the sidelines in terms of efforts to increase employee degree completion. Competency-based education (CBE) is receiving attention from the media as more schools dip a toe into these new waters. There is much to be done here. Few understand exactly what is meant by competency, know how to measure it, or comprehend what can actually be done with a degree attained through such a process (employers may like it, but what about grad schools). Even the appropriateness of the term competency-based education is questioned by some as such programs are focused on the assessment of one s ability to apply learning already acquired rather than the attainment of new learning. Should this be competency-based credentialing (CBC)? Accreditation has become the piñata of both the political and policy communities. Few of those who are critical of it understand the present system, a big part of the problem. However, before any meaningful reform can be undertaken, there needs to be agreement as to whether the present system is too difficult or too lax and whether the desired end state is a regulatory enforcement body or one of quality assurance. Assessment has become a major concern for higher education. Increasingly, regulators and accreditors are moving away from input models and instead are asking, What is the country receiving in return for the billions being spent on higher education and how do we know if it is effective? Learning outcome-assessment has become the basis for determining institutional effectiveness. However, the availability of valid, widely accepted tools and methods needed to determine learning and skill acquisition are proving hard to come by. Quality assurance in non-institutional learning is one of several awkward terms attached to granting equivalency to similar learning within an academic institution. There is growing consensus that a need exists for standards and greater transparency in the process for determining the credit worthiness of learning achieved outside the academy. This is an aspect of higher education long dominated by the American Council on Education. As more institutions are starting to make such determinations independent of one another, thecouncil for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) has 7

10 created a commission to consider what is needed. All want some assurance of quality but no two assessors are using the same yardstick. There is a need to recognize the (not-all-that-) new majority in student bodies. While higher education has seen a dramatic shift in student demographics, neither the media nor the policy community appear to fully recognize that today s typical student is no longer an 18 to 24 year old studying full-time on a campus. In fact, there is data which shows that fewer than 20% of the roughly 20 million now enrolled fit this traditional description. The rest are post-traditional students who are older, working part-time, and often commuting, either by car or, increasingly, the Internet. Yet, policies and programs still make assumptions based on the needs of a shrinking minority. A leadership crisis is looming. It is debatable whether the need to prepare new leaders in higher education is coming or has already arrived. Demographic data show an increasingly seasoned group at the top of our colleges and universities. According to an American Council on Education report ( The American College President, 2012 ), Two decades ago the average age of college and university presidents was 52. Today, it is 61. Only the community college sector seems to recognize this as a problem and it is taking action. Community college leadership programs are springing up in schools of education across the country. And while some may question whether these are the right places to be training future leaders in areas such as the use of technology, innovation, advocacy and entrepreneurial thinking, there is little else filling the void. The economy is gaining strength and employment is once again rising. While this is generally good news, it also gives fuel to those who maintain that a college education isn t necessary to employment. Cost-value comparisons that question the investment in a degree at today s prices (always the published tuition for an elite private institution) are increasing in frequency. Student recruiting is likely to become more difficult as a result of improved economic activity and because of the political perspective that marketing is not an acceptable use of funds generated under Title IV. You may observe a notable omission from this list: MOOCs. Increasing awareness of their limitations for certain audiences combined with a feeling of enough already will make these yesterday s news in SUGGESTIONS: To make Higher education more effective & job oriented following are the Suggestions. 1. The syllabus of Higher education must contain knowledge component, skill Component & practice component. 2. Build close relationship with trade commerce and industry or establish university Industry Hub. 3. Use of computer in Higher education should be compulsory as per the needs & requirement of Industry. 4. University-Industry/profession interaction for making the course relevant. 5. Training is essential for the teachers. Faculty members should update their knowledge. 6. Placement is the ultimate goal of any business education. To place the Students in industries, colleges can arrange campus recruitment & placement. CONCLUSION The ultimate purpose of education is to educate students and help them appreciate the better points of the knowledge that is being imparted to them. However, that seems to have been shortchanged right now with the added emphasis on grades and marks. The system needs to be one that enables students to truly learn what they are being taught and internalize it and not just mug it up 8

11 for a few days or months. It needs to be more long term than what the situation is at present. At the same time it also needs to be practical so that the students abilities are properly tested The road ahead for India is directly linked to creation of quality Higher Education Institutions in a big way to meet the challenge of the knowledge Hub, which India is fast becoming. India needs to have a proactive demand based policy towards private higher education including foreign institutions/universities desirous of setting up campus in India or entering into joint-ventures. India could offer tax concessions/fiscal incentives for setting up campuses. To attain and sustain national, regional or international quality, certain components are particularly relevant, notably careful selection of staff and continuous staff development, in particular through the promotion of appropriate programs for academic development, including teaching/learning methodology and mobility between countries, between higher education institutions and the world of work, as well as student mobility within and between countries. Internal self-evaluation and external review must be conducted openly by independent specialists, if possible with international experts. REFRENCES 1.Innovative Higher Education ISSN: (Print) Anandakrishnan, M. (2006) Privatization of higher education: Opportunities and anomalies. Privatization and commercialization of higher education organized by NIEPA, May 2, 2006., New Delhi 2.Agarwal, Pawan (2006) Higher Education in India: The Need for Change (ICIER Working Paper No. 180). New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, (http://www.icrier.org/publication/working_papers_180.html) 3.Chronicle of Higher Education, various issues (cited as CHE) (http://chronicle.com/) 4.UGC (2005) Research Handbook: Towards nurturing research culture in higher education institutions in India. University Grants Commission. New Delhi. 5.Privatisation of Higher Education in India: Constitutional Perspectives and Challenges. Lawstudent.in (online) n.d. (2007) (cited as lawstudent 2007) (http://www.lawstudent.in/bc_seervai_essay.htm) 6.Jandhyala B.G. Tilak, Absence of Policy and Perspective in Higher Education. Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 39, No. 21 (May 22, 2004), (http://www.epw.org.in/epw/uploads/articles/7650.pdf) 7.Higher Education in India: Issues, Concerns and New Directions 8.Higher education in India and Yashpal Committee recommendations 18, 2009, available on www.abhinavjournal.com 10.www.britishcouncil.org 11.www.wipo.int 12.theglobaljournals.com 13.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in 14.www.vtmit.vt.edu 15.https://www.linkedin.com 16.www.eduventures.com 17.www.indiaeducationreview.com 18.www.gvctesangaria.org 19.http://www.businessdictionary.com/ 9

12 Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished Research Paper,Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Book Review for publication,you will be pleased to know that our journals are Associated and Indexed,India International Scientific Journal Consortium OPEN J-GATE Associated and Indexed,USA Google Scholar EBSCO DOAJ Index Copernicus Publication Index Academic Journal Database Contemporary Research Index Academic Paper Databse Digital Journals Database Current Index to Scholarly Journals Elite Scientific Journal Archive Directory Of Academic Resources Scholar Journal Index Recent Science Index Scientific Resources Database Directory Of Research Journal Indexing Indian Streams Research Journal 258/34 Raviwar Peth Solapur ,Maharashtra Contact Website :

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