Indian Streams Research Journal

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1 Vol 5 Issue 1 Feb 2015 ISSN No : ORIGINAL ARTICLE International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Indian Streams Research Journal Executive Editor Ashok Yakkaldevi Editor-in-Chief H.N.Jagtap

2 Welcome to ISRJ RNI MAHMUL/2011/38595 ISSN No Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English, Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.readers will include investigator in universities, research institutes government and industry with research interest in the general subjects. International Advisory Board Flávio de São Pedro Filho Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil Kamani Perera Regional Center For Strategic Studies, Sri Lanka Janaki Sinnasamy Librarian, University of Malaya Romona Mihaila Spiru Haret University, Romania Delia Serbescu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, Romania Anurag Misra DBS College, Kanpur Titus PopPhD, Partium Christian University, Oradea,Romania Mohammad Hailat Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Carolina Aiken Abdullah Sabbagh Engineering Studies, Sydney Ecaterina Patrascu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Loredana Bosca Spiru Haret University, Romania Fabricio Moraes de Almeida Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil George - Calin SERITAN Faculty of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi Editorial Board Hasan Baktir English Language and Literature Department, Kayseri Ghayoor Abbas Chotana Dept of Chemistry, Lahore University of Management Sciences[PK] Anna Maria Constantinovici AL. I. Cuza University, Romania Ilie Pintea, Spiru Haret University, Romania Xiaohua Yang PhD, USA...More Pratap Vyamktrao Naikwade Iresh Swami ASP College Devrukh,Ratnagiri,MS India Ex - VC. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Patil Head Geology Department Solapur University,Solapur Rama Bhosale Prin. and Jt. Director Higher Education, Panvel Salve R. N. Department of Sociology, Shivaji University,Kolhapur N.S. Dhaygude Ex. Prin. Dayanand College, Solapur Narendra Kadu Jt. Director Higher Education, Pune K. M. Bhandarkar Praful Patel College of Education, Gondia Sonal Singh Vikram University, Ujjain Rajendra Shendge Director, B.C.U.D. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Yalikar Director Managment Institute, Solapur Umesh Rajderkar Head Humanities & Social Science YCMOU,Nashik S. R. Pandya Head Education Dept. Mumbai University, Mumbai Govind P. Shinde Bharati Vidyapeeth School of Distance Education Center, Navi Mumbai Chakane Sanjay Dnyaneshwar Arts, Science & Commerce College, Indapur, Pune Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya Secretary,Play India Play,Meerut(U.P.) G. P. Patankar Alka Darshan Shrivastava S. D. M. Degree College, Honavar, Karnataka Shaskiya Snatkottar Mahavidyalaya, Dhar Maj. S. Bakhtiar Choudhary Director,Hyderabad AP India. S.Parvathi Devi Ph.D.-University of Allahabad Sonal Singh, Vikram University, Ujjain Rahul Shriram Sudke Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore S.KANNAN Annamalai University,TN Satish Kumar Kalhotra Maulana Azad National Urdu University Address:-Ashok Yakkaldevi 258/34, Raviwar Peth, Solapur Maharashtra, India Cell : , Ph No: Website:

3 Indian Streams Research Journal ISSN Impact Factor : (UIF) Volume-5 Issue-1 Feb-2015 Available online at ANCIENT COINS DURING THE DIFFERENT PERIODS Shanthakumari P. and G. Doddarasaiah Assistant Professor of History, Govt. First Grade College for Women, Krishnarajanagar, Mysore District. Post Doctoral Fellow, Department of Studies in Geography, Manasagangothri, University of Mysore, Mysore. Abstract:- A study of Ancient period, Indian coins enlightens us a great deal regarding the history of ancient India. The numismatic society of India is doing a lot of useful work in this connection. We have at present a large number of coins found from various parts of India and dealing with different aspects of ancient Indian history. Coins are of various metals, i.e. gold, silver and copper. The main objective of this paper is to study the Ancient coins during the different period of time. Keywords: Ancient, Archaeology, Punch Mark, Civilization. INTRODUCTION Now a day s cash is outlined as something that's typically accepted as payment for product and services and compensation of debts. the most United Stateses of cash for us square measure as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and a store of value. Money as a way of payment consists of coins, paper currency and withdrawable bank deposits by cheques and withdrawal slips. Today, you have got credit cards, debit cards, electronic money and mobile banking, that conjointly type an important part of the payment system except for a typical person like United States, cash merely means that currency and coins. this can be thus as a result of in India, the payment system, particularly for retail transactions still revolves in the main around currency and coins. An ancient amount Indian coin enlightens United States an excellent deal relating to the history of ancient India. The numismatic society of India is doing lots of helpful add this association. we've got at the moment an outsized variety of coins found from varied components of India and managing completely different aspects of ancient Indian history. Coins square measure of various metals, i.e. gold, silver and copper. The precise date of the primary look of coins in India isn't acknowledged, however archeological proof suggests that coins were already being created and employed in northern India by the mid-fourth century before Christ. The oldest coins thus far discovered in India were manufactured from weighed items of silver, sealed on only 1 aspect with between one and 5 punches. Such coins square measure currently referred to as punch-marked coins. The earliest of those appear to be oval and sealed by four spherical punches with symbolic styles. The force of the punches semicircular the metal in order that these coins square measure dishshaped. Smaller examples have conjointly been rumored with one or 2 punches solely. Coins facilitate United States to make up the history of country in many ways. they furnish United States the names of the kings UN agency ruled at varied times in numerous components of the country. In several cases, the coins square measure the sole info we've got regarding the existence of sure kings. while not these coins, the existence of these kings would have remained unknown. COINS - THE PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD Many times, the information from the coins can be used to corroborate the evidence from other sources Shanthakumari P. and G. Doddarasaiah, ANCIENT COINS DURING THE DIFFERENT PERIODS Indian Streams Research Journal Volume 5 Issue 1 Feb 2015 Online & Print 1

4 such as the Puranas etc. the coins also help us to fix up the chronology. Coins mention the year in which they were issued. The existence of a large number of coins helps us to determine the extent of the dates of Samudragupta. The location of coins helps us to determine the extent of the territory of king. The figures of the various kings appear with coins and from them we can have an idea regarding the headdress of those kings. Sometimes, the hobbies or the amusements of the rulers can be known from a study of their coins. Coins give an indication of the prosperity or otherwise of the country. If people have gold or silver coins, they are likely to be prosperous. The case is otherwise if they have copper coins alone or more of them than those of gold or silver. The earliest coins of India have only figures, devices or symbols and no legends. Sometimes, the coins were case in dies but very often symbols were punched on pieces of metals. The symbols varied from time to time and were punched with a view to guarantee their genuineness and value. The Indus civilization or Harappa culture more than 500 seals have discovered at various places. Those are made of terracotta and are small in size. These seals were found from time to time for a long period in the old bed of the river Ravi. They form the first hints or traces of the Indus civilization as noticed by historians like General Cunningham. Maurya hegemony, issued their own coins with a mint-mark of the central treasury; the wheel-symbol of sovereignty that appeared on royal coins was replaced by tiny human figures or by a shield and arrows. The coins of Samudragupta give us a lot of useful information about him. It was samudraguupta who inaugurated and indianised the gupta coinage. There are as many as eight different types of coins of samudragupta and all of them are made of gold. The various types are known as standard type, archer type, tiger type, Ashvamedha type, battle-axe type tec. The Gupta rulers issued currency of different designs, types and denomination. Coins were also of different metals viz, gold, silver and copper. The various accounts shows some confusion between two Ashokas due to the existence of a Magadha king of the fifth century B.C. whose personal punch-mark on coins was practically the same as that of the great Asoka two hundred years later. Both sets of coins circulated at the time of the second Asoka and afterwards, so that the Sisunaga king would naturally be called Kalashoka, the ancient Ashoka. RECENTLY DISCOVERED COINS IN HARADANAHALLI VILLAGE The investigation into the discovery of gold coins while digging the earth for construction of a toilet revealed the actual number of gold coins found was 729 and not 93 as reported by the four workers who found them, Department of Archaeology and Museums Director C G Betsur Mutt. The police had arrested four workers-suresh, Sundar, Nanjunda and Kumar-- who had reported finding 93 gold coins. However, a detailed investigation revealed the total number of coins found was 729 in Haradanahalli Village in the district of Chamarajanagar on November 30th Archaeology department commissioner CG Betsurmath told the coins belong to three different dynasties - Hyder Ali, Mysuru Maharajas and Tanjavur Marathas. "The coins may be over 200 years old and we're checking the site and coins to know more about them. The house behind the village s Venugopalswamy Temple, where the coins were found, belongs to Siddiq. Workers found 43 coins while digging the ground, said the police. Siddiq s daughter Nadiya then saw the workers pocketing the coins. They bribed her with eight coins to make sure she kept silent, the police added. They were caught when they tried to sell them in a jewellery shop in Chamarajanagar town, and the shopkeeper called the police. 2

5 A team from the Department of Archaeology, Museums and Heritage, Mysuru, led by Deputy Director Gangadhara, examined the backyard of Siddiq s house. As many as 50 more coins were found in the soil that was removed from the ground. The officials of Archaeology Department took possession of the coins for further testing. The house is located close to the Venugopalaswamy Temple and entire area has been now been barricaded and construction work banned (Fig:1 &2) Fig: 1& 2 shows that as many as ancient gold coins one of the coins belongs to Haider Ali s era, and it is said to have a picture of Shiva and Parvathi sculpted on one side and a picture of Haider Ali sculpted on the other side. The remaining coins are said to have originated in the Thanjavur Maratha s era. Fig:1 Fig:2 The following figures show (Fig:3) that some ancient coins, which were in circulation in our provincial states. They were issued by different states under various kings: Fig:3 Fig:4 3

6 Fig:4 found in Bodh Gaya under the "Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha", with an impression of an imitation of a coin of the Kushan emperor Huvishka, 2nd century CE. British Museum. Fig:5, Fig:5 found that Gold coin of Kanishka I, with a depiction of the Buddha, with the legend "Boddo" in Greek script. Fig:6 Fig:6, Kushan coins showing half-length bust of Vima Kadphises in various poses, holding mace-scepter or laurel branch in right hand; flames at shoulder, tamgha to right or left. On the other side of coin is a deity with a bull. Some consider the deity as Shiva because he is in ithyphallic state, holds a trident, and the Nandi bull is his mount, as in Hindu mythology. PUNCH MARKED COINS Fig:7, The Indus valley civilisation of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa dates back between 2500 BC and 1750 BC.. Seals of Mohenjo-Daro Fig:7 Fig:8, The first documented coinage is deemed to start with 'Punch Marked' coins issued between the 7th- 6th century BC and 1st century AD. These coins are called 'punch-marked' coins because of their manufacturing technique. Mostly made of silver, these bear symbols, each of which was punched on the coin with a separate punch. Fig:8, Punch Marked Coin, Silver Bentbar 4

7 Fig:9, Fig:9, Silver Punchmarked Coins Satavahan a conis Fig:10, The Satavahanas period coins were predominantly of copper and lead, however, silver issues are also known. OTHER COINS Fig:11, Fig:10, Coins of the Satavahana 5

8 Fig:11, Coin of the Yaudheyas REFERENCE: 1.Dikshit, K.N : An outline of Archaeology in India, Kosambi, D.D: The Culture and Civilization of Ancient India in Historical Outline, Pandey, Raj Bali: Historical and Literary Inscriptions, Raychaudhri, Hemachandra: Studies in Indian Antiquities, Sastri, Nilakantha K.A: Sources of Indian History, Roy, Surindranath: The Story of Indian Archaeology, Vidya dhar Mahajan: History of India, 1996 Shanthakumari P. Assistant Professor of History, Govt. First Grade College for Women, Krishnarajanagar, Mysore District. G. Doddarasaiah Post Doctoral Fellow, Department of Studies in Geography, Manasagangothri, University of Mysore, Mysore. 6

9 Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished Research Paper,Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Book Review for publication,you will be pleased to know that our journals are Associated and Indexed,India International Scientific Journal Consortium OPEN J-GATE Associated and Indexed,USA Google Scholar EBSCO DOAJ Index Copernicus Publication Index Academic Journal Database Contemporary Research Index Academic Paper Databse Digital Journals Database Current Index to Scholarly Journals Elite Scientific Journal Archive Directory Of Academic Resources Scholar Journal Index Recent Science Index Scientific Resources Database Directory Of Research Journal Indexing Indian Streams Research Journal 258/34 Raviwar Peth Solapur ,Maharashtra Contact Website :

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