Indian Streams Research Journal

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1 Vol 5 Issue 7 Aug 2015 ISSN No : ORIGINAL ARTICLE International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Indian Streams Research Journal Executive Editor Ashok Yakkaldevi Editor-in-Chief H.N.Jagtap

2 Welcome to ISRJ RNI MAHMUL/2011/38595 ISSN No Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English, Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.readers will include investigator in universities, research institutes government and industry with research interest in the general subjects. International Advisory Board Flávio de São Pedro Filho Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil Kamani Perera Regional Center For Strategic Studies, Sri Lanka Janaki Sinnasamy Librarian, University of Malaya Romona Mihaila Spiru Haret University, Romania Delia Serbescu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, Romania Anurag Misra DBS College, Kanpur Titus PopPhD, Partium Christian University, Oradea,Romania Mohammad Hailat Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Carolina Aiken Abdullah Sabbagh Engineering Studies, Sydney Ecaterina Patrascu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Loredana Bosca Spiru Haret University, Romania Fabricio Moraes de Almeida Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil George - Calin SERITAN Faculty of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi Editorial Board Hasan Baktir English Language and Literature Department, Kayseri Ghayoor Abbas Chotana Dept of Chemistry, Lahore University of Management Sciences[PK] Anna Maria Constantinovici AL. I. Cuza University, Romania Ilie Pintea, Spiru Haret University, Romania Xiaohua Yang PhD, USA...More Pratap Vyamktrao Naikwade Iresh Swami ASP College Devrukh,Ratnagiri,MS India Ex - VC. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Patil Head Geology Department Solapur University,Solapur Rama Bhosale Prin. and Jt. Director Higher Education, Panvel Salve R. N. Department of Sociology, Shivaji University,Kolhapur N.S. Dhaygude Ex. Prin. Dayanand College, Solapur Narendra Kadu Jt. Director Higher Education, Pune K. M. Bhandarkar Praful Patel College of Education, Gondia Sonal Singh Vikram University, Ujjain Rajendra Shendge Director, B.C.U.D. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Yalikar Director Managment Institute, Solapur Umesh Rajderkar Head Humanities & Social Science YCMOU,Nashik S. R. Pandya Head Education Dept. Mumbai University, Mumbai Govind P. Shinde Bharati Vidyapeeth School of Distance Education Center, Navi Mumbai Chakane Sanjay Dnyaneshwar Arts, Science & Commerce College, Indapur, Pune Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya Secretary,Play India Play,Meerut(U.P.) G. P. Patankar Alka Darshan Shrivastava S. D. M. Degree College, Honavar, Karnataka Shaskiya Snatkottar Mahavidyalaya, Dhar Maj. S. Bakhtiar Choudhary Director,Hyderabad AP India. S.Parvathi Devi Ph.D.-University of Allahabad Sonal Singh, Vikram University, Ujjain Rahul Shriram Sudke Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore S.KANNAN Annamalai University,TN Satish Kumar Kalhotra Maulana Azad National Urdu University Address:-Ashok Yakkaldevi 258/34, Raviwar Peth, Solapur Maharashtra, India Cell : , Ph No: Website:

3 Indian Streams Research Journal Impact Factor : (UIF) ISSN Volume - 5 Issue - 7 Aug ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF SLUM CHILDREN IN INDIA : A SOCIOLOGICAL OBSERVATION Rajendra Siddaling B.A., M.A., B.P.Ed., Ph.D in Sociology by Gulbarga University Gulbarga Karnataka. ABSTRACT his paper attempts to analyze the In slums, none of the household use any kind of scientific Tdevices for pathogen killing or germs filtration. Polluted drinking water, insanitary living conditions, poor personal hygiene and food cleanliness are contributed to water related diseases. The impact of poverty and environmental factors highly pronounced between slums. pavement Dwellers. The study revealed that income, literacy, sanitation and personal hygiene have had impact on the morbidity of the people. The study empirically proved the effect of socio-economic and the environmental factors affecting health status of urban poor. difference in the conditions of slums in India and compared the conditions prevailing in the non slum urban, rural areas and the slums. On the basis of census report shows that there is a decline in the person s lived in the slums. slum is a human problem than a specific problem of finance and real estate (land). It is the attitude of the slum dweller towards the slum itself, towards the city he/she belongs to, towards his/her own chances of getting out of it, towards the controlling people, towards the system and the factors, that determines whether, it is possible or not, to do something about the slums.. KEYWORDS : slum, Issues, Challenges,Learning achievement,facilities, Awareness, knowledge, nutrition,personality development. INTRODUCTION Rode Sanjay (2003) observed that there were socio cultural and behavioral barriers like female illiteracy, poor economic status of women etc which affect the nutritional status of children. On the basis of nutritional indicators the study showed that severe malnourishment was found to be higher in Mumbai than in Jawaharlal colony. The study showed that seasonal wasting incidence is likely to be higher in girls. Malnourishment is very likely to occur when insufficient incomes co-exist with poor coverage of basic amenities and health services. Girls in urban areas tend to better than those in rural areas. But at the same time urban slum dwellers are undernourished. Proportion of undernourishment was very high in slum areas. The study empirically proved that the incidence of malnourishment among urban slum children was very close to the incidence of jawahar tribal. Geetha 1

4 S and Swaminathan Madhura (1996)in a field study in the slum area of Mumbai revealed that absence of basic civic amenities such as safe and adequate water supply, sewerage and sanitation, toilets are the root cause of many diseases leading to udernutrition in slum areas. The sex wise nutritional status, children aged five and below showed that girls have higher prevalence of under nutrition compared to boys. The study showed that education level and location of residence have influence on the employment type. Housing conditions differ considerably from pavement dwellers to squatters and slums, overall 33% houses were flimsy, 39% semi-permanent type and 28% cemented buildings. In slums, none of the household use any kind of scientific devices for pathogen killing or germs filteration.polluted drinking water, insanitary living conditions, poor personal hygiene and food cleanliness are contributed to water related diseases. The impact of poverty and environmental factors highly pronounced between slums. pavement Dwellers. The study revealed that income, literacy, sanitation and personal hygiene have had impact on the morbidity of the people. The study empirically proved the effect of socio-economic and the environmental factors affecting health status of urban poor. Majale, M. (2008). had conducted a study in Trivandrum city to examine the problems of slum dwellers and various governmental measures implemented for their rehabilitation. The study showed that both the pull and push factors were influenced for the growth of slums. The push factors are family specific and the pull factors consist of employment linked migration, political support and hope of access to better social infrastructure. There has been a phenomenal increase in the total area of slums and the number of households. The increase in the number and the size of the slums may be explained in terms of the natural growth of population and net in migration. The nature of social structure of the slums was determined caste groups and ecslum onomic strata. Discrimination based on the political affiliations of the people is a peculiar feature of slum in Trivandrum. The study observed that income from employment was not reflected in the living conditions of a majority of the workers. About one third of the households did not have any household furniture and nearly one sixth of the households did not have facilities such as drinking water, electricity and toilet fittings. The study revealed that several deserving slum dwellers were denied the benefits of developmental schemes because they do not have pattayam to the land that they occupy, people who do not have pattayams are more vulnerable and marginalized than those who have benefited from governmental schemes, that is the relatively better-off sections manage to extra more benefits than those who are worse off. OBJECTIVES OF THE PAPER: * To know the background characteristics of slum children in India. * To analyze the various challenges faced by slum children. METHODOLOGY: This research paper focus on issues and challenges of slum children in india : a sociological observation This research paper is based on secondary source. data are drawn classified from the Publications of books, monthly journals, article, magazines, produced by the State Government, comprising literature review, and population census. Socio-economic conditions of slum children in India: socio economic condition of the migrants in slums of Bombay city. The studies observed that living condition of the slum dwellers were poor. This tended to create a serious problem of sanitation. The study empirically proved that socio economic factors affecting living conditions of rural migrants. difference in the conditions of slums in India and compared the conditions prevailing in the non slum urban, rural areas and the slums. On the basis of 2

5 census report shows that there is a decline in the person s lived in the slums. The study showed that literacy rate in rural areas is higher than the slums in states like Kerala, Goa, and Delhi. But the poorer states like Bihar, Madhya pradesh, Rajasthan, literacy rate in slums was higher than rural areas. in the case of sex ratio, slums is higher than in rural areas. In rural areas availability of electricity is higher than slums. The study reveals that for every monthly percapita consumption expenditure class, the percentage of rural household without access electricity, latrines and water facilities was higher than corresponding households in slums and non-slum urban areas. Thus the study found that slums are similar to rural areas in some aspects and dissimilar in some other aspects. The study proved that with an increase in the level of education, utilization of private health facilities goes up and the utilization of public health facilities comes down. The study observed that both the urban and slum area very low social class households were educationally backward, their knowledge, level of diseases, available health services were found to be lower than that of middle and high class households. The low and very low social classes used mostly the government health services because of their poor financial status. Problem of slum children : slum is a human problem than a specific problem of finance and real estate (land). It is the attitude of the slum dweller towards the slum itself, towards the city he/she belongs to, towards his/her own chances of getting out of it, towards the controlling people, towards the system and the factors, that determines whether, it is possible or not, to do something about the slums. It is because of this very reason that most slum eradication plans are unsuccessful. The authorities do not find the needed co-operation from the slum dwellers themselves as they are caught in the life of vicious poverty. Hence, Hunter observes that the life in the slums tends to be in some crisis after unemployment, poverty, illness, crime and arrest. The plight and predicaments of the street children on the street society are respectively immense and innumerable, which include insufficient nutrition, inadequate safety and security, substance abuse, physical injuries and assault by mass people, health problems etc. The social problems they face can be defined as an alleged situation that is incompatible with the values of a significant number of people who agree that action is needed to alter the situationin different parts of Dhaka city, a common and familiar sight is a street child, working and residing on the streets. They are the children of the urban and rural poor who are the most vulnerable, exploited and who face the highest risks. Educational facilities and slum status : The survey included five schools, Municipal Corporation (NMMC). The study revealed that the infrastructure of schools was in a very poor state. The number of classrooms, teachers, tables and chairs were inadequate. For 420 students there were only 3 classrooms and only two teachers looked after the entire school. Due to their good accessible location and low cost education, most of the schools had a large number of children in their classrooms. There is a need to strengthen teachers on aspects of motivation, pro-children attitudes and creative teaching learning process. Appointment of suitable staff is also recommended in order to lessen the burden on teachers. There is need to provide a good network of balwadis, restructure the human resource component of schools, and enhance community participation. There is also a need to provide training to functionaries. investigated the problem of school dropout which has been continually troubling the primary education system not only in India but in other developing countries too were highlighted. In this article various factors affecting fewer attendances were explained. It was also suggested that local teachers should be made available for teaching in schools so as to reduce the problem of teacher absenteeism and improve punctuality; incentives should be provided to encourage women teachers; and the cultural gap between parents and teachers should be bridged through more elaborate form of participation in the school management and control system. 3

6 Learning achievement of slum children: Learning achievement of slum children in india. highlighted that basic education is a fundamental right and recently 86th Constitutional Amendment was enacted so that all children can receive good quality basic education. The main objective of the study was to identify the social, economic and organizational factors that are associated with education and achievement level of the learner in slums. The performance of the slum children was much below the expected levels in both the subjects and in both the grades. In the Reaching the unreached: innovative strategies for providing out of school children with access to basic education. It was mentioned that the elementary education system in India has become one of the largest in the world but the dropout rate of girls is much higher than that of boys. The present study examined the causes of non-enrollment and dropout rates; attitude of parents, children and community towards education; and role of Government and NGOs towards education system. Challenges: Challenges of universalization of elementary education in India. The study was conducted by National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) to explain the elementary education scenario in India through the use of a variety of data sources such as Census, the NSS, NCERT and NFHS surveys. The overall development situation was assessed with respect to gender, age, ruralurban divide, expenditure groups, village amenities, and health status of children. India was classified in the medium human development category.. The Author in the conclusion part emphasized that we are far from attaining the goal of universal enrolment of children 6 to 14 years of age. It is even possible that under-nourishment, severe morbidity and physical disability are delaying their entry into school. For girls and for first generation learners school has to become more attractive. Unless we take adequate steps, we as a country are likely to remain stuck at 80%-85% enrolment rates, while most of the developing countries would be heading towards 100% enrolment. Awareness and knowledge about nutrition condition: Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of child s health. WHO (2010)71 states that nutrition is an input to and foundation for health and development. Interaction of infection and malnutrition is well documented. Better nutrition means stronger immune systems, less illness and better health. Malnutrition is a major contributor to the total global disease burden. More than one third of child deaths worldwide are attributed to under nutrition. Poverty is a central cause of under nutrition. the prevalence of child under nutrition in India is among the highest in the world, nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa, with dire consequences for morbidity, mortality, productivity and economic growth.who (2000)also stated that under nutrition among children is one of the greatest public health problems in developing countries. About 70 percent of the world s stunted children aged less than 5 years live in Asia. Under nutrition is the factor closely associated with child mortality rates also. Like-wise preschool children are an important nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population; they are the future citizens of the country. Therefore, prevention, early detection, prompt and effective treatment of under nutrition in preschool children had received priority attention. Under nutrition is associated with impaired immune function and consequent increased susceptibility to infections; and infections aggravate under nutrition Personality development of slum children: identified the gaps in the existing services and needs of students and teachers in the context of quality education. The survey included five schools, under Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC). The study revealed that the infrastructure of schools was in a very poor state. The number of classrooms, teachers, tables and chairs were inadequate. Due to their good accessible location and low cost education, most of the schools had a large number of children in 4

7 their classrooms. There is a need to strengthen teachers on aspects of motivation, pro-children attitudes and creative teaching learning process. Appointment of suitable staff is also recommended in order to lessen the burden on teachers. There is need to provide a good network of balwadis, restructure the human resource component of schools, and enhance community participation. There is also a need to provide training to functionaries. pointed out that that by the end of November 2003, the progress on civil works had been very slow especially due to late release of funds, inadequate monitoring and lack of district level convergence of SSA with other allied development schemes. But remarkable progress was made by Orissa Primary Education Programme Authority (OPEPA) in organizing teachers training programmes both at state and district level. Nearly 70% EGS (Education Guarantee Scheme) centres had been made operational by OPEPA which was a remarkable achievement. But progress in the opening of Alternate and Innovative Education Centres (AIE) was very unsatisfactory. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: This empirical study reveals that slums, none of the household use any kind of scientific devices for pathogen killing or germs filteration. Polluted drinking water, insanitary living conditions, poor personal hygiene and food cleanliness are contributed to water related diseases. The impact of poverty and environmental factors highly pronounced between slums. pavement Dwellers. The study empirically proved the effect of socio-economic and the environmental factors affecting health status of urban poor. Socio economic condition of the migrants in slums of Bombay city. Many studies observed that living condition of the slum dwellers were poor. This tended to create a serious problem of sanitation. The study empirically proved that socio economic factors affecting living conditions of rural migrants. It is the attitude of the slum dweller towards the slum itself, towards the city he/she belongs to, towards his/her own chances of getting out of it, towards the controlling people, towards the system and the factors, that determines whether, it is possible or not, to do something about the slums. It is because of this very reason that most slum eradication plans are unsuccessful. More than one third of child deaths worldwide are attributed to under nutrition. Poverty is a central cause of under nutrition. the prevalence of child under nutrition in India is among the highest in the world, nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa, with dire consequences for morbidity, mortality, productivity and economic growth. WHO (2000)also stated that under nutrition among children is one of the greatest public health problems in developing countries. REFERENCES: 1. Mitra, A (1992) Urban Poverty: a rural spill-over? Indian Economics Review, vol( 27), Majale, M. (2008). Employment creation through participatory urban planning and slum upgrading: The case of Kitale, Kenya. Habitat Internation, Mitra ( 2010)Urbanization and Slum Formation. Journal of Urban Healt: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 4. Farber (1999), Mobility and stability: The Dynamics of job change in Labor Markets, in: O. Ashenteller and D. card (Eds) Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3B, Rode Sanjay (2003) Earning Their Keep and Keeping What They Earn: A Critique of Organizing Strategies for South Asian Women in the Informal Sector. Gender, Work and Organization, Gupta and Mitra (2002); Rural Migrants and labor Segmentation; Micro level Evidence from Delhi Slums, Economic and Political weekly, vol (37), no-2. 7.Census of India (2001),Maharshtra, Provisional Population Totals, Paper 2 of 2001,Series 5

8 28,Directorate of Census Operation, Maharashtra, Mumbai. 8.(Scott & Marshall, 2005, p. 365) A Study of Male Sexual Health Problems in a Mumbai Slum Population Culture Health and Sexuality, Vol 3(3) 9.Majale, M. (2008). Employment creation through participatory urban planning and slum upgrading: The case of Kitale, Kenya. Habitat Internation, (Verma, 1999, p. 5)Slum Health Diseases of Neglected Populations BMC International Health and Human Rights,7:2 http;//www.biomedcentral.com/ x/7/2 11.NIEPA. New Delhi. 12.WHO (2010) 13.(Ramachandran, 2007) Water and Sanitation,Institutional Challange in orisa, Manohar Publisher, New Delhi 6

9 Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished Research Paper,Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Book Review for publication,you will be pleased to know that our journals are Associated and Indexed,India International Scientific Journal Consortium OPEN J-GATE Associated and Indexed,USA Google Scholar EBSCO DOAJ Index Copernicus Publication Index Academic Journal Database Contemporary Research Index Academic Paper Databse Digital Journals Database Current Index to Scholarly Journals Elite Scientific Journal Archive Directory Of Academic Resources Scholar Journal Index Recent Science Index Scientific Resources Database Directory Of Research Journal Indexing Indian Streams Research Journal 258/34 Raviwar Peth Solapur ,Maharashtra Contact Website :

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