Indian Streams Research Journal

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1 Vol 5 Issue 7 Aug 2015 ISSN No : ORIGINAL ARTICLE International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Indian Streams Research Journal Executive Editor Ashok Yakkaldevi Editor-in-Chief H.N.Jagtap

2 Welcome to ISRJ RNI MAHMUL/2011/38595 ISSN No Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English, Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.readers will include investigator in universities, research institutes government and industry with research interest in the general subjects. International Advisory Board Flávio de São Pedro Filho Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil Kamani Perera Regional Center For Strategic Studies, Sri Lanka Janaki Sinnasamy Librarian, University of Malaya Romona Mihaila Spiru Haret University, Romania Delia Serbescu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, Romania Anurag Misra DBS College, Kanpur Titus PopPhD, Partium Christian University, Oradea,Romania Mohammad Hailat Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Carolina Aiken Abdullah Sabbagh Engineering Studies, Sydney Ecaterina Patrascu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Loredana Bosca Spiru Haret University, Romania Fabricio Moraes de Almeida Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil George - Calin SERITAN Faculty of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi Editorial Board Hasan Baktir English Language and Literature Department, Kayseri Ghayoor Abbas Chotana Dept of Chemistry, Lahore University of Management Sciences[PK] Anna Maria Constantinovici AL. I. Cuza University, Romania Ilie Pintea, Spiru Haret University, Romania Xiaohua Yang PhD, USA...More Pratap Vyamktrao Naikwade Iresh Swami ASP College Devrukh,Ratnagiri,MS India Ex - VC. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Patil Head Geology Department Solapur University,Solapur Rama Bhosale Prin. and Jt. Director Higher Education, Panvel Salve R. N. Department of Sociology, Shivaji University,Kolhapur N.S. Dhaygude Ex. Prin. Dayanand College, Solapur Narendra Kadu Jt. Director Higher Education, Pune K. M. Bhandarkar Praful Patel College of Education, Gondia Sonal Singh Vikram University, Ujjain Rajendra Shendge Director, B.C.U.D. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Yalikar Director Managment Institute, Solapur Umesh Rajderkar Head Humanities & Social Science YCMOU,Nashik S. R. Pandya Head Education Dept. Mumbai University, Mumbai Govind P. Shinde Bharati Vidyapeeth School of Distance Education Center, Navi Mumbai Chakane Sanjay Dnyaneshwar Arts, Science & Commerce College, Indapur, Pune Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya Secretary,Play India Play,Meerut(U.P.) G. P. Patankar Alka Darshan Shrivastava S. D. M. Degree College, Honavar, Karnataka Shaskiya Snatkottar Mahavidyalaya, Dhar Maj. S. Bakhtiar Choudhary Director,Hyderabad AP India. S.Parvathi Devi Ph.D.-University of Allahabad Sonal Singh, Vikram University, Ujjain Rahul Shriram Sudke Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore S.KANNAN Annamalai University,TN Satish Kumar Kalhotra Maulana Azad National Urdu University Address:-Ashok Yakkaldevi 258/34, Raviwar Peth, Solapur Maharashtra, India Cell : , Ph No: Website:

3 Indian Streams Research Journal Impact Factor : (UIF) ISSN Volume - 5 Issue - 7 Aug HELP TO EDUCATION, EAREDICATION OF CHILD LABOUER. ABOUT EDUCATION. Sabira S.D Resaerch scholor, Dept of economics, Gulbarga university Gulbarga. ABSTRACT ducation is often presented as the solution to child labour. Indeed, it has an important role to Eplay, although, as explained above, bonded children are not free to take advantage of what educational opportunites that may exist. When schools are unavailable, of poor quality, charge prohibitive school fees, international aid, has taken some steps to improving access to education. These steps are important, but people with whom human rights watch spoke highlighted the following areas still in need of improvement. intervention. KEYWORDS : Peducation, earedication fundamental INTRODUCTION Education is universally acknowledged as a fundamental intervention in confronting child labor. Therefore, efforts to reduce and prevent child labour need to take into consideration all aspects of education, from thee state school system and non formal and transitional programs to curriculum development, provision of materials and equipment, pre and in service teacher training, and extracurricular activities. Non formal education approaches are especially relevant since they can be tailored or adapted to suit the needs, expectations, and capacities of working, at risk, and vulnerable children. Nevertheless education should remain the responsibility of government. Non formal education is an effective intervention in child labour projects and has been used widely, particularly in countries where access to quality formal education can be limited, for example, in rural and remote areas or in disadvantaged urban dist5ricts. Working children have either never been to school, have dropped out, or are trying to combine school and work. As noted in the introduction chapters, the reasons for this are primarily poverty, social exclusion and lack f access to free public education of good quality. EDUCATION AND CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA. Introduction ;- The 86th constitutional amendment, 2002, proposed a free and compulsory education for all children under the age group of 6 to 14 years. The constitution of India under the 1

4 provisions of the right to freedom, which is guaranteed as fundamental right. Clearly mentioned the state shall provide free and compulsory education to all child5ren belonging to the age group to 6-14 years in a manner to be determined by the state. Again, according to the child labour (prohibition and regulation) Act, 1986 and rules (Act no 61 of 1986) it has been prohibited to engage any child (a person who has not completed 14 years of age) in certain occupations and the laws also regulate the conditions of work in some other employments. The section three of the said Act and Rules. Part III of the said Act and rules also imposes certain norms related to working hours and welfare of the working children engaged in any other establishments. The duration of work should not exceed three hours; there should be a provision of rest for at least o hour, and there should be no scope for overtime and other engagements in anther establishment. However the fundamental rights of all children and the child labour prohibition and regulation act, 1986 could not be enforced properly in the absence of suitable follow up legislations. But the government is committed to provide a good quality elementary education to all the children in India with an aim to universalize elementary education at the national level (GOI, 2008: 249). The national child labour project (NCLP) was initiated in India in 1988 as a part of the project based plan of action, which was a component of the national child labour policy, a high powered national authority for the elimination of child labour was set up in 1994 comprising representatives from various ministries such as ministry of labour, ministry of education, ministry of health and family welfare and ministry or rural development etc. the aims were to eliminate child labour from the country in a phased manner, to monitor child labour projects, and to achieve convergence with various concerned ministries. The judgment of the supreme court of India in connection with the case of Mehta vs. the state of tamil nadu in December 1966 gave further strength I to implement the NCLP at the national and various states and district levels (GOI, 2006). So, it is relevant to discuss the details of the NCLP in the context of its efforts towards elimination of child labour from the country and rehabilitation of such child labour through a proper system of education and mainstreaming. It is well known that there is positive relationship between universalisation of primary education and reduction in the incidence of child labour: This, therefore, implies that extending compulsory ad universal education to children is the first and foremost intervention necessary, as this will have great potential to reduce the extent of child labour in the country. In this context, the following que4stion emerge, what are the educational facilities available in the study villages? What is the level of education in the study localities across the districts? What is the proportion or out of school children, and does it vary across the sexes, coscial and economic groups? What factors influence the schooling status of children? What has been the impact of government policies and programmes on the same. In most of the schools, the noon meals programme (NMP) has been varying across the villages, an important result of this programme uniformly is the reduction in the proportion of out of school children in the villages. While we analyse these aspects in the subsequent sections, we first look at the schooling status of children in the 5-17 age group, and its various dimensions. Arunodhaya schools for child laborers reinforce the benefits of a holistic approach. The Arunodhaya project aimed to provide child labours in Chennai, in southern India, with an education program delivered in specially designed child laburers school, to help them transfer to the formal school system/ ten schools were established to cover working children who had never been to school or who had dropped out. Teachers worked with a regular curriculum including standard subjects, such as English, Tamil, science, mathematics, and social studies, plus a wide range of extracurricular activites that allowed the beneficiaries to experience childhood events such as 2

5 picnicking, going to the zoo, watching films, participating in cultural activities such Independence day celebrations, and so on, these activities were used to make the classes more attractive, along with other incentives such as free medical examinations and a midday meal. Any child not attending classes received a home visit, and every effort was made to encourage the child to return to school ad to impress upon the parents the importance of regular school attendance. There were classes on personal hygiene and health education, which resulted in a notable improvement in the children s appearach. Parents also commented on the improvement in their behavior at home. During the rainy season, a number of children caught cholera or other water borne diseases, so an awareness raising program was recognized in addition to treating the children to prevent the recurrence and spread of these disease. The school administration also set up a savings scheme to help cover costs such as uniforms and books. Information meetings were held for the parents dealing with social challenges such as birth registration, female feticide, children s rights ad child participation. Although the schools were aimed primarily at child laborers, other children participated in some activities organized through self help groups and children s and youth forums. Because of the activities few families arriving in the community were approached by parents and encouraged to send their children to school. ASHA: Training formal and non formal school teachers. ASHA in India conducted a series of joint training courses of teachers from state schools and education volunteers form the projects non formal education centers. Training content focused on teaching method ologies in supporting former working children, which required an understanding of th4e causes and consequences of child labor and the needs and expectations of working or at risk children, as well as the learning challenges they face, participants were also instructed in classroom and school management. Record keeping, and monitoring. By bringing teachers from state schools and NFE centers together through joint training, the project was able to foster closer relationship and understanding which ultimately benefited the children as they moved from the non formal program to government schools. State school teachers were thus aware of the program and better prepared to receive the new students and understand their situation and backgrounds. As a result, the students felt comfortable and happy in the state school and were less likely to drop out and return to work. Because of the relationships established during the joint training state school teachers offered their support to other project activities, such as the education camps, an education caravan, and a children s fair. Exchanges were also arranged between the state and non formal schools in which students were able to go to the state school two days a week as preparation for their full transition. In addition, education volunteers were invited to assist in state school classes to expose them to formal education for their own professional development. BAT: Youth activists advocating for child friendly villages. The BAT project in India focused primarily on creating child friendly villages in the targer area. The approach has been used by other organizations in India to great effect and promotes the meaningful participation of children at all levels of society and community life, including political decision making through children s assemblies awareness raising p. 45. the success of the approach relies o the involvement and support of the community with this in mind, BAT encouraged the formation of youth, women s and teacher s groups to support the initiative. 3

6 Simply having their role and responsibilities acknowledged was a highly motivating factor for the young people. After playing a more passive role in society, they were empowered to become active members of their communities. The youth volunteers were familiarized with the issues of child labor and education and transmitted this knowledge to their younger peers and the wider community. The youth activists also supported the establishment of information and resource centers (see Data collection p. 179). First, children still lack access to schools. A study o child labour in sari weaving in Varanasi district, sponsored by the national labour institute, found the following: In jamaaluiddipnura (Bari bazaar, varanasi), there are about 450 families of which 90 percentare involved in saree weaving. The estimated number of children in the age group of 5-14 years, i.e., the school going age, is about 2000 (at an average of four children per family). There is only one school run by the city municipal corporation. The school register showed that 82 students from the locality are enrolled ad o the date of our visit to the locality we found only 42 students. The only teacher present there (the other was absent ) expressed his inability to absorb more students. All the children were found to be sitting with their backs facing each other on the sides of four feet narrow lane. Human rights watch went to a Dalit village in Varanasi District which had a NCLP school but no government school. According to villagers, there were about 1,200 or 1,300 children in the community, but the NCLP school was capped at fifty students the rest of the children were working. Social workers in Ramanagaram, Karnataka. A silk reeling area. Noted that In one area there are seventy two silk units and only one school. Many schools that do exist, especially in rural areas, are of poor quality. According to law professor Babu Mathew, an expert in child labour, Technically, the government may have a school within 1.5. kilometers of a child, but it may have one teacher, no classroom, toilet, or drinking water. Human rights watch interviewed children who had dropped out of formal schools to attend better quality NGO run schools designed not for them but for former them but for child workers. For example ten year old P. Shaheen told us: Two months ago I was going to school, and I refused to go and my mother didn t bother to make me. The teachers used to beat me. They asked me to write something, and I couldn t do it, and they beat me, so I didn t want to go back. Even where children are withdrawn from work and complete a transitional education program, they may subsequently return to work because of formal schools poor quality. Staff of an NGO that runs transitional schools told human rights watch, It s hard for children to transition to regular schools because the regular schools are so bad they will drop out. I m afraid for them when they leave here. Dalit and low caste children who attempt to attend school face discriminatory and abusive treatment at the hands of their teachers and fellow students. This is discussed above in the section, Caste based Discrimination and Bonded labour. According to the Indian government in the school year, 71.1 percent of children ages six to eleven were enrolled in primary school, 64.0 percent of girls and 77.7 percent of boys. Net enrollment rates were higher in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (88.6 percent, respectively) and lower in Uttar Pradesh (46.8 percent). However, about half (52 percent) of primary school entrants drop out before grade five. The drop out rate in Uttar Pradesh is one of the highest in India and literacy the lowest. These rates are much higher for Dalit children, as discussed above. Venus vikas sansthan sansthan (VSSI) one of the implementing agencies of the special schools in lucknow, took the initiative to assist families which had withdrawn their children from work and enrolled in special schools. In February VSS formed a self help group (SHG) comprising of woen members of 15 4

7 families mostly belonging to the minority community. These women were mainly engaged as domestic help or roadside evendors nd had meage earnings. To supplement the earnings. VSS with the support of Alpsankyak Vit Vikas Nigam (AVVN) provided one year training in stitching and embroidery (jari zardozi) skills to SHG members/ initially women were little hesitant to join the training programme as they felt it would be of no but perseverance on the part of VSS helped to women to take interest in the programme. According to the VSS representative, the training has raised the confidence level and a feeling among these women that they have the skill to contribute significantly in their families income. Now, these women produce embroidered bedsheets, cushions, saris, suits and blouses. On an average they earn Rs per month. For them it is an additional income, as they grow now I earning from their daily wage work as well as through this stitching and embroidery work. To get more work, the member of this SHG have now started taking initiative on their own. VSS and AVVN are also making an effort to help them. To promote and market the items made by these women two agencies entered the lucknow Mohotsava held in November December 2007 to sell the finished products. The good work being put in by the BSS and members of this SHG started making an impact among similarly placed families. As the representatives of the implementing agency shared the good results of the effort with such families to make women self reliant women belonging to other communities began requesting VSS to involve them also. With this, another chapter started for VSS and it partnerned with NYK to organize similar training programmes. What was begun as a livelihood improvement programme had other positive spillover effects. It was noticed that the SHG members and their families slowly realized the need and importance of education for their children. They strongly felt that each child should go to school. In most of the schools, the noon meals programme (NMP) has been under operation since although the performance of this programme has been varying across the villages, an important result of this programme uniformly is the reduction in the proportion of out of school children in the villages. While we analyses these aspects in the subsequent sections, we first look at the schooling status of children in the 5-17 age group, and its various dimensions CONCLOSION ;- It is well known that there is positive relationship between universalization of primary education and reduction in the incidence of child labour. This, therefore, implies that extending compulsory and universal education to children is the first and foremost intervention necessary, as this will have great potential to reduce the extent of child labor in the country. In this context, the following questions emerge. What are the educational facilities available in the study villages? What is the level of education in the study localities across the districts? What is the proportion of out of school children, and does it vary across the sexes. Social and economic groups? What factors influence the schooling status of children? What has been impact of government policies and programmes on the same REFERENCES:- 1.National Human Development report 2001 planning commission govt of Inida. March published by oxford university press. New delhi. 2.Nangia parveen and Nizamuddin Khan (2002) Educational Deprivation and employment status of children in rural areas of andra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and orissa. 5

8 3.Human development report 1990 published for the united nations development programme (UNDP) New York oxford University press 4.Mid term evaluation report combating child labour and economic explotation amongst adolescents Vivekananda institute for leadership development units Swami Vivekanand youth movement mysore. 5.Bilal Ahamad Bhat Gender education and child labour: A sociological perspective. Edcaitonal research and reviews vol. S.(b). pp June Employers and workers hand book on hazardous child labour. Bureau of employers activities (ACT/EMP). International labour office Mita Bhattacharya Globalisation and child labour evidence from India monash university business and economics 8. The relation between child labour and mothers work the case of India. Francesca Francavilla Gianna Claudia Gianalli October 2007 discussion paper no D. Rajasekhar. R. Manjula, Sudhia. J.Y. Sanjiv kumar Child labour in bidar Chamarajanagar Districts. A status report and ways forward international labour organization. 10.Dr. Kuldip Singh. Chhikara. Jyoti Rani, Mr. Naveen kumar, A study o child labour working in Haryana (with special reference to district Rohtak) 11.The Karnataka shops and commercial establishments Act karnataka law The Karnataka shops and commercial establishment A 1961 (Karnataka law 2002) 13. Best practices in preventing and elimenting chid labouer through education. Drawn from winrock global CIRCLE projects 2008 winrock international 6

9 Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished Research Paper,Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Book Review for publication,you will be pleased to know that our journals are Associated and Indexed,India International Scientific Journal Consortium OPEN J-GATE Associated and Indexed,USA Google Scholar EBSCO DOAJ Index Copernicus Publication Index Academic Journal Database Contemporary Research Index Academic Paper Databse Digital Journals Database Current Index to Scholarly Journals Elite Scientific Journal Archive Directory Of Academic Resources Scholar Journal Index Recent Science Index Scientific Resources Database Directory Of Research Journal Indexing Indian Streams Research Journal 258/34 Raviwar Peth Solapur ,Maharashtra Contact Website :

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