# Angelo State University Physics 1421/Central High School AP Physics 1 Instructor: C. Stephens

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2 COURSE SYLLABUS UNIT 0. DATA ANALYSIS AND MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS (2wks) Proper data collection and representation Algebraic representation of variables and isolation of variables Scientific Notation, system definition, problem solving and unit conversions Using Thermodynamics, Ideal Gas law, and Fluid Mechanics, apply the ideas of variable dependency and mathematical and unit representations. UNIT 1. KINEMATICS [CR2a] (3-4 wks) Kinematics in one-dimension: constant velocity and uniform accelerated motion Vectors: vector components and resultant Kinematics in two-dimensions: projectile motion UNIT 2. DYNAMICS [CR2b] (4-5 wks) Forces, types, and representation (FBD) Newton s First, Second, and Third Laws Applications of Newton s Second Law Friction Interacting objects: ropes and pulleys UNIT 3. CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION [CR2c] (2wks) Uniform circular motion Dynamics of uniform circular motion Universal Law of Gravitation UNIT 4. ENERGY [CR2f] (3-4 wks) Work & Power Mechanical Energy Kinetic, Gravitational and Elastic Conservation of energy UNIT 5. MOMENTUM [CR2e] (2wks) Impulse Momentum Conservation of momentum Elastic and inelastic collisions UNIT 6. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION [CR2d] (2wks) Linear restoring forces and simple harmonic motion Simple harmonic motion graphs Simple pendulum Mass-spring systems CR2a The course design for students to develop Kinematics.. CR2b The course design for students to develop dynamics CR2c The course design gravitation and circular motion. CR2f The course design foundational principle of energy. CR2e The course design of linear momentum. CR2d The course design simple harmonic motion.

3 UNIT 7. ROTATIONAL MOTION [CR2g] (2-3wks) Torque Center of mass Rotational kinematics Rotational dynamics and rotational inertia Rotational energy Angular momentum Conservation of angular momentum UNIT 8. MECHANICAL WAVES [CR2j] (2wks) Traveling waves Wave characteristics Sound Superposition Standing waves on a string Standing sound waves UNIT 9. ELECTROSTATICS [CR2h] (2wks) Electric charge and conservation of charge Electric force: Coulomb s Law CR2g The course design of rotational motion. CR2j The course design of mechanical waves. CR2h The course design electrostatics. UNIT 10. DC CIRCUITS [CR2i] (3wks) Electric resistance Ohm s Law DC circuits Series and parallel connections Kirchhoff s Laws LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS The AP Physics 1 course devotes over 25% of the time to laboratory investigations. [CR5] The laboratory component of the course allows the students to demonstrate the seven science practices through a variety of investigations in all of the. The students use guided inquiry (GI) or open inquiry (OI) in the design of their laboratory investigations. Some labs focus on investigating a physical phenomenon without having expectations of its outcomes. In other experiments, the student has an expectation of its outcome based on concepts constructed from prior experiences. In application experiments, the students use acquired physics principles to address practical problems. Students also investigate topic-related questions that are formulated through student designed/selected procedures. Students are expected to record their observations, data, and data analyses. Data analyses include identification of the sources and effects of experimental uncertainty, calculations, results and conclusions, and suggestions for further refinement of the experiment as appropriate. [CR7] **The laboratories listed are a representation of the kinds of labs that will be performed in class. This list is fluid and is subject to change. CR2i The course design of electric circuits. CR5 Students are provided with the opportunity to spend a minimum of 25 percent of instructional time engaging in hands-on laboratory work with an emphasis on inquiry-based investigations. CR7 The course for students to develop their communication skills by recording evidence of their research of literature or scientific investigations through verbal, written, and graphic presentations.

4 UNIT UNIT 1. KINEMATICS UNIT 2. DYNAMICS LAB INVESTIGATION OBJECTIVE(S) (Investigation identifier: Guided Inquiry: GI Open Inquiry: OI)** 1. Meeting Point To predict where two battery-powered cars will collide if they are released from opposite ends of the lab table at different times. 2. Match the Graph (GI) To determine the proper placement of an air track, a glider, and a motion detector to produce a motion that matches a set of given graphs: position, velocity, and acceleration versus time. 3. Free-Fall Investigation To determine and compare the acceleration of two objects dropped simultaneously. 4. Vector Addition (GI) To determine the value of a resultant of several vectors, and then compare that value to the values obtained through graphical and analytical methods. 5. Shoot the Target (GI) To determine the initial velocity of a projectile, the angle at which the maximum range can be attained, and predict where the projectile will land. 6. Speed and Acceleration Using Air Tracks (GI) Students will use air tracks with photogates to determine acceleration and speed. 7. Analysis of Air Resistance (GI) To determine the forces of air resistance on a coffee filter. 8. Forces Inventory (GI) Qualitative and quantitative investigation on a variety of interactions between objects. 9. Static Equilibrium Challenge To determine the mass of a hanging object in a setup with three strings at various angles. 10. Newton s Second Law (OI) To determine the variation of the acceleration of a dynamics cart in two scenarios: (1) the total mass of the system is kept constant while the net force varies, and (2) the net force is kept constant while the total mass of the system varies. 11. Coefficient of Friction (GI) To determine the maximum coefficient of static friction between a shoe and a wooden plank. 12. Atwood s Machine (GI) To determine the acceleration of a hanging mass and the tension in the string. UNIT 3. UNIT 4. ENERGY [CR6a] acceleration of the flying toy. 14. Roller Coaster Investigation (GI) To design a simple roller coaster using provided materials to test whether the total energy of the system is conserved if there are no external forces exerted on it by other objects. 15. Work Done in Stretching a Spring (GI) To determine the work done on the spring from force-versus-distance graph of the collected data. 16. Energy and Non-Conservative Forces (GI) To determine the energy dissipated by friction of a system consisting of a modified Atwood s machine.

5 UNIT 5. MOMENTUM 17. Bumper Design (GI) To design a paper bumper that will soften the impact of the collision between a cart and a fixed block of wood. Their designs are evaluated by the shape of an acceleration-versus-time graph of the collision. 18. Impulse and Change in Momentum (GI) To measure the change in momentum of a dynamics cart and compare it to the impulse received. 19. Elastic and Inelastic Collisions (OI) To investigate conservation of momentum and conservation of energy using a ballistic pendulum to determine the type of collision. 20. Forensic Investigation (OI) Apply principles of conservation of energy, conservation of momentum, the work-energy theorem, and a linear model of friction to find the coefficient of kinetic friction. UNIT 6. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION UNIT 7. ROTATIONAL MOTION UNIT 8. MECHANICAL WAVES 21. Finding the Spring Constant (GI) To design two independent experiments to determine the spring constants of various springs of equal length. 22. Graphs of an Oscillating System (GI) To analyze graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time for an oscillating system to determine how velocity and acceleration vary at the equilibrium position and at the endpoints. 23. Simple Pendulum Investigation (GI) To investigate the factors that affect the period of a simple pendulum and test whether the period is proportional to the pendulum s length, the square of its length, or the square root of its length. 24. Torque and the Human Arm (OI) To design and build an apparatus that replicates the forearm and biceps muscle system to determine the biceps tension when holding an object in a lifted position. 25. Rotational Inertia (GI) To determine the rotational inertia of a cylinder from the slope of a graph of an applied torque versus angular acceleration. 26. Conservation of Angular Momentum (GI) To investigate how the angular momentum of a rotating system responds to changes in the rotational inertia. 27. Mechanical Waves (GI) To model the two types of mechanical waves with a spring toy to test whether or not these characteristics affect the speed of a pulse: frequency, wavelength, and amplitude. 28. Speed of Sound (GI) Design two different procedures to determine the speed of sound in air. 29. Wave Boundary Behavior (GI) To compare what happens to the phase of a transverse wave on a spring toy when a pulse is reflected from a boundary and when it is reflected and transmitted from various boundaries (spring to string). 30. Standing Waves (GI) Given a specified tension, students predict the length of the string necessary to generate the first two harmonics of a standing wave on the string. Then they perform the experiment and compare the outcome with their prediction.

6 UNIT 9. ELECTROSTATICS 31. Static Electricity Interactions (GI) Students use sticky tape and a variety of objects to make qualitative observations of the interactions when objects are charged, discharged, and recharged. 32. Coulomb s Law (GI) To estimate the charge on two identical, equally charged spherical pith balls of known mass. UNIT 10. DC CIRCUITS 33. Brightness Investigation (GI) To make predictions about the brightness of light bulbs in a variety of series and parallel circuits when some of the bulbs are removed. 34. Voltage and Current (GI) To determine the relationship between the current through a resistor and the voltage across the resistor. 35. Resistance and Resistivity (GI) To investigate the effects of cross-sectional area and length on the flow of current through a representation of resistance and resistors. 36. Series and Parallel Circuits (GI) To investigate the behavior of resistors in series, parallel, and series-parallel circuits. The lab should include measurements of voltage and current. INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES Throughout the course, the students engage in a variety of activities designed to build the students reasoning skills and deepen their conceptual understanding of physics principles. Students conduct activities and projects that enable them to connect the concepts learned in class to real world applications. Examples of activities are described below. 1. REAL WORLD APPLICATION ACTIVITY: Torque and Art [CR4] DESCRIPTION: This activity provides an opportunity for students to see the complexity in an everyday object. Students design and build a mobile that will demonstrate both translational and rotational equilibrium. They can use readily available materials in the classroom, their home, or they can use any other supplies as they wish. In their lab report, students are required to document the different stages of their design. Required elements include project procedure, design sketches, scaled blueprint, force diagrams, mathematical representations of translational and rotational equilibrium, and numerical calculations. Learning Objective 3.F.1.1 The student is able to use representations of the relationship between force and torque. Learning Objective 3.F.1.2 The student is able to compare the torques on an object caused by various forces. Learning Objective 3.F.1.3 The student is able to estimate the torque on an object caused by various forces in comparison to other situations. Learning Objective 3.F.1.4 The student is able to design an experiment and analyze data testing a question about torques in a balanced rigid system. Learning Objective 3.F.1.5 The student is able to calculate torques on a two-dimensional system in static equilibrium, by examining a representation or model. CR3 Students have opportunities to apply AP Physics 1 learning objectives connecting across enduring understandings as described in the curriculum framework. These opportunities must occur in addition to those within laboratory investigations. CR4 The course provides students with opportunities to apply their knowledge of physics principles to real world questions or scenarios (including societal issues or technological innovations) to help them become scientifically literate citizens.

7 2. SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTATION In the course, students become familiar with the three components of scientific argumentation. The first element is the claim, which is the response to a prediction. A claim provides an explanation for why or how something happens in a laboratory investigation. The second component is the evidence, which supports the claim and consists of the analysis of the data collected during the investigation. The third component consists of questioning, in which students examine and defend one another s claims. Students receive explicit instruction in posing meaningful questions that include questions of clarification, questions that probe assumptions, and questions that probe implications and consequences. As a result of the scientific argumentation process, students are able to revise their claims and make revisions as appropriate [CR8]. ACTIVITY 1: Formative Assessment: Changing Representations in Energy Description: Students work in pairs to create exercises that involve translation from one representation to another. Some possible translations are: from a bar chart to a mathematical representation from a physical situation diagram to a bar chart from a given equation to a bar chart Each pair of students exchanges their exercises with another pair. After the students work through the exercises they received, the pairs meet and offer constructive criticism (peer critique) on each other s solutions. Learning Objective 5.B.4.1 The student is able to describe and make predictions about the internal energy of everyday systems. Learning Objective 5.B.4.2 The student is able to calculate changes in kinetic energy and potential energy of a system, using information from representations of that system. CR8 The course provides opportunities for students to develop written and oral scientific argumentation skills. ACTIVITY 2: Real World Physics Solutions Description: In order for students to become scientifically literate citizens, students are required to use their knowledge of physics while looking at a real world problem. [CR4] Students may pick one of the following solutions: - Students will pick a Hollywood movie and will point out three (or more) instances of bad physics. They will present this information to the class, describing the inaccuracies both qualitatively and quantitatively. - Students will research a thrill ride at an amusement park. They will present information to the class on the safety features of the ride, and why they are in place. - Students will present information to the class on noise pollution, and it s danger to both human and animal life. They will also propose solutions to noise pollution problems. - Students will go to the insurance institute of highway safety website (iihs.org) and will look at the safest cars in a crash. They will present information as to why these cars are safer and how the safety features keep people safe. CR4 The course provides students with opportunities to apply their knowledge of physics principles to real world questions or scenarios (including societal issues or technological innovations) to help them become scientifically literate citizens.

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