A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads


 Audra Gardner
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 1 A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads By Dr. Siriwut Sasibut (Application Engineer) SFRAME Software Inc. # Commerce Parkway SFRAME Software Inc. #282, 800 Village Walk SFRAME Software (UK) Ltd. 21 Bloomsbury Square Richmond, BC V6V 2X7 Guilford, CT USA London UK, WC1A 2NS CANADA Phone: +44 (0) Phone: Phone: Please visit us at to request more information about this publication.
2 2 1. Introduction 2. A Case Study 2.1. Basic model details 2.2. Comparison and discussion of results 3. Summary 4. References Table of Contents
3 3 Two Approaches to Area load Distribution in SFRAME 1. Introduction When a surface is subjected to an Area Load, the engineer usually has two approaches to model how this Area Load is transmitted to the surface s supporting members. One approach is based on the tributary area principle, where loads are distributed to the supporting members in proportion to their associated tributary areas which are defined by certain rules. Another method is to model the loaded surface using finite elements (FEs) and connect them to the supporting members. In this second method, each contributing structural element s relative stiffness will influence how the loads are distributed to the surface s supporting members. SFRAME Analysis handles both of these approaches for distributing Area Loads to a surface s supporting members. This document illustrates, by example, the underlying implications of the two approaches to the distribution of area loads to the supporting members. 2. A Case Study A onestorey 3D steel frame is subjected to uniformlydistributed vertical loads applied on a 150mmthick concrete slab at the top floor Basic model details The geometry of the frame and the sections of structural members are as shown in Figure 1. The applied area load is 15. Two primary models with some variations in the modeling technique are considered in this study. In the first model, as shown in Figure 2, the area load is distributed to the supporting beams on four sides using SFRAME s Area load tool with the twoway span direction. The concrete slab, in this case, is not required by the engineer to be considered as part of the structural model and the area load is being distributed to the supporting beams based on the tributary area principle automatically by SFRAME s Area Load tool. This approach is particularly appropriate when the supporting beams are relatively stiffer than the slabs where the slabs and beams can be almost independently analyzed and designed. The influence of this relative stiffness will be discussed in more detail in the next section.
4 4 Figure 1. OneStorey 3D Steel Frame Figure 2. Tributary Area Model Model 1 In the second model, as shown in Figure 3, the concrete slab is modeled by 6x8 shell elements which are in turn connected to the supporting beams on four sides. The loads are applied directly on the shells representing the concrete slab using the Uniform Pressure
5 5 tool in SFRAME. With this approach, all contributing structural components are included in the model where their stiffness is represented by the elements used. How the area loads are being distributed to the supporting members will be directly influenced by the model set up. Note that this model is using Physical Member technology in SFRAME where only 4 perimeter physical members are required. Internally, SFRAME will break each physical member into its constituent finite element members and ensure consistency between these members and the interconnecting shell elements. However, the results reported are associated with physical members as shown in subsequent moment and shear force diagrams Comparison and discussion of results Figure 3. Finite Element Model Model 2 The two models are analyzed in SFRAME using a linear static analysis. To investigate the effects of the two approaches on the distribution of area loads to the supporting members, bending moments (My) and shears (Fz) in the beams are considered, as shown in Figure 47. For the 8m beams, the maximum My are knm and knm and the maximum Fz are kn and kn for Model 1 and 2, respectively.
6 6 Figure 4. Moment Y (knm) in Beams Model 1 Figure 5. Moment Y (knm) in Beams Model 2
7 7 Figure 6. Shear Z (kn) in Beams Model 1 Figure 7. Shear Z (kn) in Beams Model 2
8 8 Figure 8 and 9 show the magnitudes of the vertical forces at each beam s end using a Free body forces tool in SFRAME. These indicate the portions of the total area loads that are being taken by each beam. Note that the total of these forces are 720 kn and kn for Model 1 and 2, respectively. Clearly, for Model 1, the supporting beams are, as expected, taking all of the area loads of 720 kn before transferring them to the columns. In model 2, on the other hand, some portion of the total area loads (about 8.5%) is transferred directly from the shells to the columns. As mentioned earlier, this is mainly influenced by the relative stiffness of each contributing structural element. In the design codes, one way to address the above issue is by an introduction of a parameter which is used as a measure of the relative stiffness of the slabs and the supporting beams. For instance, in ACI 318 code, a parameter,, is used for this purpose. According to the ACI code, when is less than 1.0, the shear on the beam may be reduced by a linear interpolation method to account for the fact that some of the loads will be transferred directly from the slab to the columns. Interested readers may refer to a chapter on Twoway slab systems in the code for the definition of this parameter and related topics. However, for Model 2, provided that is equal to 1.51, one may assume, based on the pertinent code s requirement, that the supporting beams should have been taking all of the area loads. This is clearly not the case for this example, even when a much finer FE mesh is used to ensure that the analysis solution has converged which incidentally has already converged with the original model. To ensure that the supporting beams are properly loaded when using the second method, it is possible to achieve a similar behavior as the first method. A common practice is to reduce the shell thickness but doing so introduces inaccuracies in the automatic self weight calculations. Alternatively, one can define fictitious material properties with an increase in material density to account for the self weight loss due to a smaller thickness. Another approach is to reduce the material Young s Modulus (E) and assign the proper thickness. The latter approach is probably a preferred one since the model would then have the correct slab dimensions if it is ever required to be exported to a third party BIM product. To illustrate one of these modeling techniques, Model 2 is modified, namely, Model 2a, by reducing the Young s modulus (E) of the concrete slab to 25% of the original E. This stiffness reduction is based on an ACI code s recommendation where a reduced moment of inertia of flat plates and flat slabs of 0.25 is used in an elastic analysis for strength design. Table 1 summarizes the key results for the 8m beams obtained from these models. Given of 6.03, the maximum shear force and moment in the beams from Model 2a are very close
9 9 to those of Model 1. Evidently, the maximum shear force from Model 2a is even higher than that of Model 1. Another alternative finite elementbased approach (the second method) that may be used to model the supporting beam as a steelconcrete composite beam will be explored. A Composite Beam Design capability in SSTEEL allows the engineer to consider and design, in accordance with AISC and CISC codes, a steel beam and concrete slab to act as a single unit in resisting flexure provided that the two parts are connected properly. Figure 10 and 11, respectively, show an example of the graphical representation and code details for the 8m composite beam which is designed to meet the pertinent requirements of Canadian CSAS1609 code. Upon returning to SFRAME, the composite beam s strongaxis moment of inertia will be recalculated by SFRAME taking into account a contribution from the concrete slab. Note that a reanalysis is required due to the changes in stiffness of the structure. The key results for the 8m beams obtained from this model, namely, Model 2b, are also summarized in Table 1. Based on the increased moment of inertia due to a composite beam action, is calculated as 12.9 and the maximum shear force and moment in the beams are increased by about 5% when compared to those of a noncomposite Model 2a. In this example, the consideration of a composite beam action in an FE model provides the results in terms of the maximum shear force and moment that are somewhat higher than those obtained from the tributary area approach. One of the pitfalls with the FE approach that may require an engineer s attention is when there are lateral floor bracings present within a slab. Any intermediate node (or seed node) falling within a floor bracing member, as shown in Figure 12, may prove to be difficult to be removed from the meshing algorithms unless meshing operations are allowed to be performed at design time rather than run time. Unlike some other software where meshing operations are only allowed to be performed at run time, meshing operations in SFRAME are allowed to be performed at design time. This provides the user with an opportunity to first mesh the slab and subsequently add the floor bracings, thus allowing the floor bracings to be modeled as a part of the floor s lateral system while at the same time not receiving the vertical area loads from the slab. Figure 13 and 14 illustrate the differences between FE mesh with floor bracings when meshed at design time and run time, respectively. Note that the modeling of lateral floor bracings using SFRAME s Area load tool (Model 1) can be also achieved easily by excluding the floor bracing members from an Area Load Members folder so that no area loads will be distributed to them.
10 10 Figure 8. Force Z in Beams Model 1 Figure 9. Force Z in Beams Model 2
11 11 Models Flexural Stiffness Ratio Max. Shear (kn) % Diff. Max. Moment (knm) % Diff. 1 N.A a b Table 1. 8m Beam s key results Figure 10. Composite Beam Model 2b
12 12 Figure 11. Composite Beam s Code Details Model 2b
13 13 Figure 12. Floor Bracings with a seed node Figure 13. FE and floor bracings with a seed node meshed at design time
14 14 Figure 14. FE and floor bracings with a seed node meshed at run time Distribution of area loads applied on a surface with complex geometry to the supporting members can be sometimes a daunting task for engineers. Using either a tributary area or FE approach, this can be easily achieved in SFRAME. Figure 15 illustrates 2way distributions of area loads applied on surfaces or panels with regular shapes and a more complex shape using the tributary area method. Figure 16 illustrates FE mesh of the same surfaces where SFRAME s mesh generator is used to mesh the panels with appropriate userdefined mesh parameters.
15 15 Figure way area load distribution of complex geometry Figure 16. FE mesh of complex geometry
16 16 3. Summary While it is not the purpose of this document to recommend which approach one should use to distribute area loads, it is our opinion that both approaches should be made easily available to engineers so that they can decide which one to use depending on the requirements of their particular design problems. SFRAME offers both modeling tools for engineers to use as needed. From our example, however, some conclusions may be drawn as follows: 1. When the supporting beams are relatively stiffer than the slabs, defined by, the Tributary Area approach may be a more appropriate way of distributing the area loads. 2. When the supporting beams are relatively softer than the slabs, defined by < 1.0, the Finite Element approach may be a more appropriate way of distributing the area loads. 3. Some modeling techniques used to adjust the stiffness of contributing structural elements may be adopted to manipulate the distribution of area loads. 4. References 1. SFRAME R11 s Help System, SFRAME Software Inc., CSA S Design of Steel Structures, ACI Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, 2011
SLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems:
Reading Assignment SLAB DESIGN Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI31802 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13.6.1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems
More informationMETHODS FOR ACHIEVEMENT UNIFORM STRESSES DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE FOUNDATION
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, MarchApril 2016, pp. 4566, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2
More informationDesign Of Reinforced Concrete Structures ii TwoWay Slabs
1. Inroduction When the ratio (L/S) is less than 2.0, slab is called twoway slab, as shown in the fig. below. Bending will take place in the two directions in a dishlike form. Accordingly, main reinforcement
More informationOptimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge
Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 114 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering
More informationDESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,
DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared
More informationSAFE. Key Features and Terminology DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POSTTENSIONED CONCRETE
SAFE DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POSTTENSIONED CONCRETE Key Features and Terminology ISO SAF012209M1 Berkeley, California, USA Version 12.1.0 January 2009 Copyright Copyright
More informationTechnical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993
Technical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 40292) and Specifications
More informationExamples of New version for Designing members of Reinforced Concrete, Steel or Timber according to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5
Examples of New version for Designing members of Reinforced Concrete, Steel or Timber according to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5 Copyright RUNET Software www.runetsoftware.com 1 1. Examples 1.1
More informationInsitu Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques
Insitu Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques W.J. Gold 1 and A. Nanni 2 1 Assistant Research Engineer, Univ. of Missouri Rolla, Dept. of Civil Engineering 2 V&M Jones Professor, Univ. of Missouri
More informationImproving FE models of a longspan flat concrete floor using natural frequency measurements
Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 2145 2156 www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc Improving FE models of a longspan flat concrete floor using natural frequency measurements Emad ElDardiry a, Endah Wahyuni
More information9.3 Twoway Slabs (Part I)
9.3 Twoway Slabs (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design Features in Modeling and Analysis Distribution of Moments to Strips 9.3.1 Introduction The slabs are
More informationNumerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck
7th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering 2008 September 1013, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck Noémi Seres
More informationStructural Analysis. EUROCODE 2 Background and Applications
Dissemination of information for training Brussels, 2021 October 2011 1 Prof. Dr.Ing. Manfred Curbach TU Dresden, Institute for Concrete Structures M.Sc. Martin Just TU Dresden, Institute for Concrete
More informationDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THICK PLATES SUBJECTED TO EARTQUAKE
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THICK PLATES SUBJECTED TO EARTQUAKE ÖZDEMİR Y. I, AYVAZ Y. Posta Adresi: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 68 Trabzon, TURKEY Eposta: yaprakozdemir@hotmail.com
More informationMiss S. S. Nibhorkar 1 1 M. E (Structure) Scholar,
Volume, Special Issue, ICSTSD Behaviour of Steel Bracing as a Global Retrofitting Technique Miss S. S. Nibhorkar M. E (Structure) Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering
More informationReinforced Concrete Design
FALL 2013 C C Reinforced Concrete Design CIVL 4135 ii 1 Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Reading Assignment Chapter 1 Sections 1.1 through 1.8 of text. 1.2. Introduction In the design and analysis of reinforced
More informationCOMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 7, Issue 2, MarchApril 2016, pp. 30 52, Article ID: IJARET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?jtype=ijaret&vtype=7&itype=2
More informationSEISMIC CODE EVALUATION. MEXICO Evaluation conducted by Jorge Gutiérrez
SEISMIC CODE EVALUATION MEXICO Evaluation conducted by Jorge Gutiérrez NAME OF DOCUMENT: Normas Técnicas Complementarias para Diseño por Sismo ( Complementary Technical Norms for Earthquake Resistant Design
More informationSEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP
13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 16, 2004 Paper No. 3279 SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP Yuming DING 1, Bruce HAMERSLEY 2 SUMMARY Vancouver
More information8.2 Elastic Strain Energy
Section 8. 8. Elastic Strain Energy The strain energy stored in an elastic material upon deformation is calculated below for a number of different geometries and loading conditions. These expressions for
More informationFOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 141 Load Path and Transfer to
More informationETABS. Integrated Building Design Software. Concrete Shear Wall Design Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA
ETABS Integrated Building Design Software Concrete Shear Wall Design Manual Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA Version 8 January 2002 Copyright The computer program ETABS and all
More informationINTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS Third Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural Steel Design and Analysis
More informationRigid and Braced Frames
Rigid Frames Rigid and raced Frames Rigid frames are identified b the lack of pinned joints within the frame. The joints are rigid and resist rotation. The ma be supported b pins or fied supports. The
More informationOPTIMAL DIAGRID ANGLE TO MINIMIZE DRIFT IN HIGHRISE STEEL BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO WIND LOADS
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 215, pp. 11, Article ID: IJCIET_6_11_1 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=11
More informationThe following sketches show the plans of the two cases of oneway slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.
9.2 Oneway Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase
More informationAnalysis of Underground Water Tank
Analysis of Underground Water Tank Using SAP2000 (Metric Units) Analysis of Underground Water Tank Using SAP2000 Table of Content Objective... 3 Problem... 3 Step by Step... 6 1. Start Model with Template...
More informationEXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT
Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2013 Y V Ladi and P M Mohite, 2013 Research Paper EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Y V Ladi 1 * and P M Mohite 2 *Corresponding
More informationRetrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables
Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables Yogesh Ghodke, G. R. Gandhe Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management
More informationSECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
More informationSEISMIC RETROFITTING OF STRUCTURES
SEISMIC RETROFITTING OF STRUCTURES RANJITH DISSANAYAKE DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF PERADENIYA, SRI LANKA ABSTRACT Many existing reinforced concrete structures in present
More informationAluminium systems profile selection
Aluminium systems profile selection The purpose of this document is to summarise the way that aluminium profile selection should be made, based on the strength requirements for each application. Curtain
More informationStatics of Structural Supports
Statics of Structural Supports TYPES OF FORCES External Forces actions of other bodies on the structure under consideration. Internal Forces forces and couples exerted on a member or portion of the structure
More informationChapter 8. Flexural Analysis of TBeams
Chapter 8. Flexural Analysis of Ts 8.1. Reading Assignments Text Chapter 3.7; ACI 318, Section 8.10. 8.2. Occurrence and Configuration of Ts Common construction type. used in conjunction with either
More informationDESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements
More informationThe Mathematics of Simple Beam Deflection
The Mathematics of Simple Beam Laing O Rourke Civil Engineering INTRODUCTION Laing O Rourke plc is the largest privately owned construction firm in the UK. It has offices in the UK, Germany, India, Australia
More informationMODELLING OF AN INFILL WALL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF A BUILDING FRAME SUBJECTED TO LATERAL FORCE
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 1, JanFeb 2016, pp. 180187, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_015 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=1
More informationLoads and Load Combinations for NBCC. Outline
Loads and Load Combinations for NBCC Prepared by Dr Michael Bartlett, P.Eng University of Western Ontario Presented with minor modifications by Dr Robert Sexsmith, P.Eng. University of British Columbia
More informationNew approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design
New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design Part 1: 3D model based analysis using general beamcolumn FEM Ferenc Papp* and József Szalai ** * Associate Professor, Department of Structural
More informationNorwegian Steel Day 2015. CoSFB, Composite SlimFloor Beam Integrated Floor Beam Solution with Resistance to Fire
Norwegian Steel Day 2015 CoSFB, Composite SlimFloor Beam Integrated Floor Beam Solution with Resistance to Fire Oslo, 11/2015 Matthias Braun mathias.braun@arcelormittal.com SlimFloor Construction < 1930
More informationSECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
More informationTHE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS
THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS Technical Innovation Consultancy Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering Kingston University, London.
More informationAn Overview of the Finite Element Analysis
CHAPTER 1 An Overview of the Finite Element Analysis 1.1 Introduction Finite element analysis (FEA) involves solution of engineering problems using computers. Engineering structures that have complex geometry
More informationDESIGN OF BLAST RESISTANT BUILDINGS IN AN LNG PROCESSING PLANT
DESIGN OF BLAST RESISTANT BUILDINGS IN AN LNG PROCESSING PLANT Troy Oliver 1, Mark Rea 2 ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the work undertaken in the design of multiple buildings for one of
More informationReinforced Concrete Design. Design of Slabs. Types of Slabs Load Paths and Framing Concepts Oneway Slabs Twoway Slabs. Mongkol JIRAVACHARADET
16 Reinforced Concrete Design Design of Slabs Types of Slabs Load Paths and Framing Concepts Oneway Slabs Twoway Slabs Mongkol JIRAVACHARADET S U R A N A R E E UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
More informationThis manual was produced using ComponentOne DocToHelp.
This manual was produced using ComponentOne DocToHelp. Contents MDX Documentation 2 Starting the Program... 2 List of Features... 3 New Features... 4 Fixed Problems... 4 Frequently Asked Questions...
More information16. BeamandSlab Design
ENDP311 Structural Concrete Design 16. BeamandSlab Design BeamandSlab System How does the slab work? L beams and T beams Holding beam and slab together University of Western Australia School of Civil
More informationPreliminary steel concrete composite bridge design charts for Eurocodes
Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge 90 Rachel Jones Senior Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins David A Smith Regional Head of Bridge Engineering Highways & Transportation Atkins Abstract
More informationDesign of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column
Design of reinforced concrete columns Type of columns Failure of reinforced concrete columns Short column Column fails in concrete crushed and bursting. Outward pressure break horizontal ties and bend
More informationSDNS108 Dynamic response of a reinforced concrete slab leaned on 4 with dimensions subjected to a concentrated loading
Titre : SDNS108  Réponse dynamique d'une dalle en béton a[...] Date : 31/05/2012 Page : 1/9 SDNS108 Dynamic response of a reinforced concrete slab leaned on 4 with dimensions subjected to a concentrated
More informationADVANCED SYSTEMS FOR RATIONAL SLAB REINFORCEMENT
ADVANCED SYSTEMS FOR RATIONAL SLAB REINFORCEMENT CASPER ÅLANDER M. Sc. (Civ. Eng.) Development manager Fundia Reinforcing Abstract This paper deals with rational and fast ways to reinforce concrete slabs.
More informationModule 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS
Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS Topics 17.1 INTRODUCTION Rectangular Combined Footing: Trapezoidal Combined Footings: Cantilever Footing: Mat foundation: 17.2 COMMON TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATIONS
More informationReinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method
Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method BridgeSight Solutions for the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications BridgeSight Software TM Creators of effective and reliable solutions for
More informationick Foundation Analysis and Design
ick Foundation Analysis and Design Work: ick Foundation Location: Description: Prop: Detail analysis and design of ick patented foundation for Wind Turbine Towers Gestamp Hybrid Towers Date: 31/10/2012
More information8 EXTRA LIGHT GRC SANDWICH ELEMENTS FOR ROOFING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
8 EXTRA LIGHT GRC SANDWICH ELEMENTS FOR ROOFING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS MARICA DELLA BELLA and DIEGO CIAN Precompressi Centro Nord S.p.A., Italy SUMMARY: Secondary roofing elements, complementary to the
More informationThe elements used in commercial codes can be classified in two basic categories:
CHAPTER 3 Truss Element 3.1 Introduction The single most important concept in understanding FEA, is the basic understanding of various finite elements that we employ in an analysis. Elements are used for
More informationFinite Element Analysis of Elastic Settlement of Spreadfootings Founded in Soil
Finite Element Analysis of Elastic Settlement of Spreadfootings Founded in Soil Jae H. Chung, Ph.D. Bid Bridge Software Institute t University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Content 1. Background 2.
More informationNumerical Analysis of the Moving Formwork Bracket Stress during Construction of a Curved Continuous Box Girder Bridge with Variable Width
Modern Applied Science; Vol. 9, No. 6; 2015 ISSN 19131844 EISSN 19131852 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Numerical Analysis of the Moving Formwork Bracket Stress during Construction
More informationFire resistance assessment of steel structures
Workshop Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes Brussels, 2728 November 2012 1 Fire resistance assessment of steel structures Basic design methods Worked examples ZHAO Bin CEN/TC250
More informationSince the Steel Joist Institute
SELECTING and SPECIFYING Wesley B. Myers, P.E. An insider s guide to selecting and specifying Kseries, LH, DLHseries joists and joist girders Since the Steel Joist Institute adopted the first standard
More informationCollapse of Flying Formwork During Concrete Placement
Collapse of Flying Formwork During Concrete Placement No. 8 July 2002 A formwork collapse occurred during the construction of a new manufacturing building which was being built in suburban Boston for a
More informationINTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL
INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL S506/07 1604.11 (New), 1605 (New) Proposed Change as Submitted: Proponent: William M. Connolly, State of New Jersey, Department of Community Affairs, Division of
More informationFormwork for Concrete
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT CM 420 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES Winter Quarter 2007 Professor Kamran M. Nemati Formwork for Concrete Horizontal Formwork Design and Formwork Design
More informationSAFIR A software for modelling. to the fire
SAFIR A software for modelling the behaviour of structure subjected to the fire JeanMarc Franssen jm.franssen@ulg.ac.be University of Liege SAFIR Introduction Basic theory of thermal calculations Three
More informationAnalysis and Repair of an EarthquakeDamaged Highrise Building in Santiago, Chile
Analysis and Repair of an EarthquakeDamaged Highrise Building in Santiago, Chile J. Sherstobitoff Ausenco Sandwell, Vancouver, Canada P. Cajiao AMEC, Vancouver, Canada P. Adebar University of British
More informationSECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED
SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams
More informationEFFECTS ON NUMBER OF CABLES FOR MODAL ANALYSIS OF CABLESTAYED BRIDGES
EFFECTS ON NUMBER OF CABLES FOR MODAL ANALYSIS OF CABLESTAYED BRIDGES YangCheng Wang Associate Professor & Chairman Department of Civil Engineering Chinese Military Academy FengShan 83000,Taiwan Republic
More information11/1/2010 3:57 PM 1 of 11
Masonry Wall 6.0  MASONRY WALL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ================================================================================ Job ID : Job Description : Designed By : ================================================================================
More informationCover. When to Specify Intermediate Precast Concrete Shear Walls. 10.10 Rev 4. White Paper WP004
Cover Introduction In regard to precast concrete systems, the addition of two new categories of Seismic Force Resisting Systems (SFRS) in IBC 2006 has created some confusion about whether to specify intermediate
More informationCOST OPTIMIZATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS
ASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 5, NOS 34 (2004) PAGES 161174 COST OPTIMIZATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS Khaled Alreshaid, Ibrahim M. Mahdi and Ehab Soliman Department
More informationDesigning a Structural Steel Beam. Kristen M. Lechner
Designing a Structural Steel Beam Kristen M. Lechner November 3, 2009 1 Introduction Have you ever looked at a building under construction and wondered how the structure was designed? What assumptions
More informationENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design
This image cannot currently be displayed. ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations Total and Differential Settlement Schmertmann s Method This image cannot currently be displayed. Strength
More informationFinite Element Formulation for Plates  Handout 3 
Finite Element Formulation for Plates  Handout 3  Dr Fehmi Cirak (fc286@) Completed Version Definitions A plate is a three dimensional solid body with one of the plate dimensions much smaller than the
More informationReinforced Concrete Design SHEAR IN BEAMS
CHAPTER Reinforced Concrete Design Fifth Edition SHEAR IN BEAMS A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part I Concrete Design and Analysis 4a FALL 2002 By Dr.
More informationDesign of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges
7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience
More informationShear Forces and Bending Moments
Chapter 4 Shear Forces and Bending Moments 4.1 Introduction Consider a beam subjected to transverse loads as shown in figure, the deflections occur in the plane same as the loading plane, is called the
More informationDeflection Calculation of RC Beams: Finite Element Software Versus Design Code Methods
Deflection Calculation of RC Beams: Finite Element Software Versus Design Code Methods G. Kaklauskas, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 1223 Vilnius, Lithuania (gintaris.kaklauskas@st.vtu.lt) V.
More informationTutorial for Assignment #2 Gantry Crane Analysis By ANSYS (Mechanical APDL) V.13.0
Tutorial for Assignment #2 Gantry Crane Analysis By ANSYS (Mechanical APDL) V.13.0 1 Problem Description Design a gantry crane meeting the geometry presented in Figure 1 on page #325 of the course textbook
More informationp= H FBD OF AD IN PLAN BASE FBD OF AB IN PLAN 0.5b 0.5b Bending moment diagram
6.6.2 Rectangular tank with fixed base resting on ground : Rectangular tanks are used when the storage capacity is small and circular tanks prove uneconomical for small capacity. Rectangular tanks should
More informationUsing Finite Element software post processing graphics capabilities to enhance interpretation of Finite Element analyses results
Using Finite Element software post processing graphics capabilities to enhance interpretation of Finite Element analyses results Cyrus K. Hagigat College of Engineering The University of Toledo Session
More information[TECHNICAL REPORT I:]
[Helios Plaza] Houston, Texas Structural Option Adviser: Dr. Linda Hanagan [TECHNICAL REPORT I:] Structural Concepts & Existing Conditions Table of Contents Executive Summary... 2 Introduction... 3 Structural
More informationNonlinear Models of Reinforced and Posttensioned Concrete Beams
111 Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Posttensioned Concrete Beams ABSTRACT P. Fanning Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email:
More informationDraft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 31814
Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 31814 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318
More informationDesign of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Problem 1 Design a hand operated overhead crane, which is provided in a shed, whose details are: Capacity of crane = 50 kn Longitudinal spacing of column = 6m Center to center distance of gantry girder
More informationIntroduction to Solid Modeling Using SolidWorks 2012 SolidWorks Simulation Tutorial Page 1
Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SolidWorks 2012 SolidWorks Simulation Tutorial Page 1 In this tutorial, we will use the SolidWorks Simulation finite element analysis (FEA) program to analyze the response
More informationPunching shear behavior of steelconcrete composite decks with different shear connectors
Punching shear behavior of steelconcrete composite decks with different shear connectors *XiaoQing Xu 1) and YuQing Liu 2) 1), 2) Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,
More informationETABS. Integrated Building Design Software. Composite Floor Frame Design Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA
ETABS Integrated Building Design Software Composite Floor Frame Design Manual Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA Version 8 January 2002 Copyright The computer program ETABS and all
More information3D analysis of RC frames using effectivestiffness models
3D analysis of RC frames using effectivestiffness models C. Dundar &.F. Kara Department of Civil Engineering, Cukurova University, dana, Turkey BSTRCT: n the present study, a computer program has been
More informationSPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method Third Edition SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural
More information4B2. 2. The stiffness of the floor and roof diaphragms. 3. The relative flexural and shear stiffness of the shear walls and of connections.
Shear Walls Buildings that use shear walls as the lateral forceresisting system can be designed to provide a safe, serviceable, and economical solution for wind and earthquake resistance. Shear walls
More informationBasics of Reinforced Concrete Design
Basics of Reinforced Concrete Design Presented by: Ronald Thornton, P.E. Define several terms related to reinforced concrete design Learn the basic theory behind structural analysis and reinforced concrete
More informationSteel Deck. A division of Canam Group
Steel Deck A division of Canam Group TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE OUR SERVICES... 4 NOTES ABOUT LOAD TABLES... 5 P3615 & P3606 DIMENSIONS & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES... 6 FACTORED AND SERVICE LOADS... 7 P2436 &
More informationTower Cross Arm Numerical Analysis
Chapter 7 Tower Cross Arm Numerical Analysis In this section the structural analysis of the test tower cross arm is done in Prokon and compared to a full finite element analysis using Ansys. This is done
More informationRecitation #5. Understanding Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams
Recitation #5 Understanding Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear force and bending moment are examples of interanl forces that are induced in a structure when loads are applied to that structure.
More informationApproximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures
Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures Every successful structure must be capable of reaching stable equilibrium under its applied loads, regardless of structural behavior. Exact analysis
More informationProf. Dr. Hamed Hadhoud. Design of Water Tanks: Part (1)
Design of Water Tanks: Part (1) 1 Types of Tanks Elevated Tanks Resting on Soil & Underground Tanks Tank Walls Walls Shallow Medium Deep L/ L/ < & L/ >0.5 /L L L L 3 Shallow Walls L 1 m L/ (for same continuity
More informationAnalysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Slabs with Openings
Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Slabs with Openings Anjaly Somasekhar 1, Preetha Prabhakaran 2 1 Student, 2 Associate Professor, SNGCE, MG University, Ernakulam, India Abstract Whenever large spaces
More informationLap Fillet Weld Calculations and FEA Techniques
Lap Fillet Weld Calculations and FEA Techniques By: MS.ME Ahmad A. Abbas Sr. Analysis Engineer Ahmad.Abbas@AdvancedCAE.com www.advancedcae.com Sunday, July 11, 2010 Advanced CAE All contents Copyright
More informationispan, A Light Steel Floor System
ispan, A Light Steel Floor System D.M. Fox 1, R.M. Schuster 2, and M.R. Strickland 3 Abstract Described in this paper is a coldformed steel floor system called ispan. The system is comprised of multifunctional
More informationMECHANICS OF SOLIDS  BEAMS TUTORIAL 1 STRESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS  BEAMS TUTOIAL 1 STESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING This is the first tutorial on bending of beams designed for anyone wishing to study it at a fairly advanced level. You should judge
More information