Assessing Network Vulnerability Under Probabilistic Region Failure Model

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Assessing Network Vulnerability Under Probabilistic Region Failure Model"

Transcription

1 2011 IEEE 12th Internationa Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing Assessing Networ Vunerabiity Under Probabiistic Region Faiure Mode Xiaoiang Wang, Xiaohong Jiang and Achie Pattavina State Key Laboratory of Nove Software Technoogy, Department of Computer Science and Technoogy, Nanjing University, China Emai: Future University Haodate, Hoaido, Japan Emai: Department of Eectronics and Information, Poitecnico di Miano, Miano, Itay Emai: Abstract The mission critica networ infrastructures are facing potentia arge region threats, both intentiona (ie EMP attac, bomb exposion and natura (ie earthquae, fooding. The avaiabe research on region faiure reated vunerabiity studies generay adopt a ind of simpe deterministic region faiure modes, which can not capture some important features of rea region faiure scenarios, where a networ component in the region ony fais with certain probabiity, and more importanty, such faiure probabiity tends to vary with both its dimension and its distance to faiure center. In this paper, we provide a more genera probabiistic region faiure mode to capture the ey features of a region faiure and appy it for the networ vunerabiity assessment. To faciitate such assessment, we adopt a grid partition-based scheme to estimate various statistica networ metrics under a random region faiure. A theoretica framewor is aso estabished to determine a suitabe grid partition such that a specified estimation error requirement is satisfied. The grid partition technique is aso usefu for identifying the vunerabe zones of a networ, which can guide networ designers to initiate proper networ protection against such faiures. The wor in this paper heps us more deepy understand the networ vunerabiity behavior under region faiure and faciitates the design and maintenance of future highy survivabe mission critica networs. I. INTRODUCTION Communication networ has been a tremendous success over ast decade, and it is now a very important part of our daiy ife. Peope are increasingy reying on arge-scae communication networs (e.g. Internet to provide reiabe and mission critica communication services for government, miitary, businesses, heathy care, etc. On the other hand, however, these mission critica networ infrastructures are now facing more and more potentia arge scae threats, both intentiona (ie bomb exposion, eectromagnetic puse (EMP attac and natura (ie earthquae and fooding 1], 2]. For instance, the Taiwan earthquae in Dec cutoff seven of eight cabes passing through the area, sowing down This wor is partiay supported by the Nationa Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos and , and JSPS grants (B X. Jiang is aso a visiting researcher of the State Key Laboratory for Nove Software Technoogy, Nanjing University, China. communications in part of Asia for months. Therefore, the networ vunerabiity studies under arge scae region faiure are essentia for the design and maintenance of future highy survivabe mission critica networs. The networ survivabiity and its reated routing, protection and restoration issues have been widey investigated (e.g., 3] 6]. These studies mainy focus on singe physica in faiure scenario as it is the main faiure mode that interrupts networ norma operation 7]. As the networ scae is increasing and networ robustness requirement is becoming more stringent, recenty researchers are paying attention to the mutipe faiure scenarios to ensure higher networ survivabiity. The wors in 8], 9] expored the connectivity recovery mechanism in presence of dua faiures, whie the wors in 10] 12] examined the in capacity provision issue under obivious routing to dea with mutipe independent faiures. It is notabe that these wors mainy focus on the networ s ogica connection whie negecting its rea geographica ayout. Recenty, some interesting research has been conducted to understand the impact of geographicay correated region faiures. A. Sen et a. 13] studied the impact of region faiure on networ physica connectivity, and reveaed that the max-fow is no ong equa to the min-cut in region faiure-oriented survivabe networ design. S. Neumayer et a. in 14], 15] examined the networ vunerabiity under region faiure of ine and circe shapes, proposed an efficient agorithm to identify the most vunerabe point in a networ, i.e., the ocation where the region faiure can induce the maximum capacity degradation. By using the computationa geometric toos, the authors further studied the statistica networ property under a random attac in the form of ine cut 16]. In genera, the region faiure modes adopted in avaiabe studies can be regarded as a ind of deterministic faiure modes, in the sense that any component faing within the faiure region wi aways be destroyed (i.e., be destroyed with probabiity 1. Such deterministic faiure modes significanty simpify the networ vunerabiity anaysis, but they faied to refect some important behaviors of physica attacs /11/$ IEEE 170

2 Fig. 1. Geographica ayout of U.S. bacbone networ. Fig. 2. Probabiistic region faiure mode, M = 3. (such as physica bomb exposion, EMP attac or natura disasters (such as earthquae, hurricane and fooding, where a networ component ony fais with certain probabiity, and more importanty, such faiure probabiity tends to vary with both its distance to faiure center and its dimension (ie the in ength. With these observations, we beieve a probabiistic region faiure mode addressing these properties wi be more suitabe for networ vunerabiity assessment under region faiures. In this paper, we consider such a probabiistic faiure mode and appy it for the networ vunerabiity assessment. Actuay, a probabiistic region faiure mode has just been proposed recenty by P. Agarwa et a. 17] for the reiabiity study of WDM optica bacbone networs, where a networ in wi fai with certain probabiity depending ony on its distance to the region faiure center. The main contributions of this paper are as foows: We provide a genera probabiistic region faiure mode, where a networ in may fai with certain probabiity due to a region faiure, and such probabiity depends on both the in ength and how the in is intersecting with faiure region. The mode covers the deterministic faiure modes in 13], 15] as specia cases. Based on the new faiure mode, we then adopt a grid partition scheme to efficienty estimate the statistica networ vunerabiity metrics. A theoretica framewor is aso estabished to determine a suitabe grid partition such that a specified estimation error requirement is satisfied. The grid partition technique can aso hep us to identify the vunerabe zones of a networ. We demonstrate through experimenta study that negecting probabiistic behavior of a region faiure may significanty over-estimate or under-estimate its impact on networ reiabiity. The rest of this paper is organized as foows. The new probabiistic faiure mode as we as concerned metrics are introduced in Section II. Section III deas with both the metric estimation based on the new faiure mode and the corresponding estimation anaysis. Finay, Section IV provides the numerica resuts to demonstrate the efficiency of the new faiure mode. II. MODELS AND PERFORMANCE METRICS We consider a physica ayer networ topoogy bounded in a two dimensiona Eucidean pane Z. To represent the networ geographica ayout, we proportionay shrin it as an undirected graph G(V,E with node set V and in set E. An exampe of such graph is shown in Fig. 1. A. Probabiistic Faiure Mode Based on the basic essons we earned from natura disasters (ie earthquae and attacs (ie bomb exposion, we can find some genera behaviors of a disaster and attac: 1 the damage region is usuay confined within a geographica area, beyond it the damage can be negected, and 2 the energy intensity at a ocation monotonousy attenuates as its distance from disaster center increases 18]. Based on these behaviors and aso the fact that the probabiity of causing damage to a networ component is proportiona to the energy intensity observed at the ocation of this component, we introduce here a genera probabiistic region faiure mode to mimic as much as possibe the behaviors of reaistic disasters (or attacs whie trying to eep the networ vunerabiity anaysis tractabe. Definition 1: Probabiistic Region Faiure (PRF is defined as foows: 1 The faiure region is divided into a set of M consecutive annuus by M concentric circes with radius m r, m = 1,...,M, as iustrated in Fig A in segment of arbitrary short ength δ fais with probabiity δ q m (0,1 if it fas within the m-th annuus. 3 The parameter q m is monotonousy decreasing, i.e., q m > q m+1, 1 m M 1. Based on the new PRF mode, the faiure probabiity P m for a in segment m that fas within the m-th annuus can be determined as 1 P m = 1 im n ( n 1 q m m = 1 e qmm (1 n 1 For simpicity, we use notation m (resp. to denote both a in segment (resp. a in and its ength. 171

3 In genera, a in spanning mutipe annuus of a faiure region can be regarded as mutipe in segments, each fas within one annuus, and the in wi fai if any of its in segment(s fais. Therefore, the faiure probabiity P of a in is given by P = 1 M m=1 (1 P m = 1 e M m=1 qmm (2 For the in iustrated in Fig. 2, its faiure probabiity P can be expressed as P = 1 e (q11+q22+q33 where 2 = 2a + 2b and 3 = 3a + 3b. B. Vunerabiity Metrics For the networ vunerabiity assessment, we adopt the foowing metrics: 1 (Remaining Lin Capacity The expected capacity of a remaining undisrupted ins after a PRF. 2 (Pairwise Capacity Reduction The expected traffic reduction between a pair of given nodes due to a PRF. 3 (Pairwise Connecting Probabiity The probabiity that a pair of given nodes with path protection is sti connected after a PRF. For a given networ, one straightforward approach to cacuating one above metric is to first partition the overa networ area into some disjoint and uniform region faiure ocation (RFL zones. Definition 2: (RFL Zone A RFL zone for a specified metric is a networ sub-area that any PRF with center faing within it wi aways induce the same vaue of to the networ. For a specified metric, suppose that we have aready divided the networ depoyment pane Z into a set of disjoint RFL zones {Z n }, where a PRF faing within Z n induces the vaue n of to the networ. Then the cacuation of the metric of overa networ can be expressed as = Z n Z n Z n (3 Here, Z n / Z is just the probabiity that the PRF s center fas within the RFL zone Z n. To appy (3 for the cacuation of a metric, we need to find out a the corresponding RFL zones. It is notabe, however, that with the new PRF mode the faiure probabiity of a in now varies with both its ength and how it intersects with the faiure region, which maes it hard to appy (3 for the evauation of. In the next section we adopt an efficient scheme for the estimation of. III. ESTIMATION OF VULNERABILITY METRICS In this section, we first introduce a grid partition scheme for the estimation of a metric, then provide a theoretica framewor to determine a suitabe grid partition such that a specified estimation error requirement is satisfied. Fig. 3. A grid-partitioned networ. A. Grid Partition-based Metric Estimation As shown in Fig. 3, we appy a grid to eveny partition the networ pane Z into N square grid ces {Z n,n = 1,...,N} with side ength d each, where N = Z /d 2. Based on this grid partition, one simpe way to estimate a metric is to regard each grid ce here as a RFL-zone, and tae the induced vaue n by a randomy seected point in each ce Z n as an estimation of this ce. In this way, we can get an estimation of the concerned metric based on (3. Agorithm 1: Estimation of a Metric Input: Networ topoogy G(V,E in Z and grid ce size d Output: Metric estimation 1: = 0 and N = Z /d 2 2: for each unvisited grid Z n in Z do 3: cacuate n by using a randomy seected point in Z n 4: = + n (1/N 5: end for 6: return Since each ce in the Agorithm 1 may not be a RFL zone, so an estimation error may be introduced between and. To define the estimation error between and, we adopt the so caed (1 ε-approximation. The estimation is caed an (1 ε-approximation to if the foowing inequaity hods ( min, (1 ε, 0 < ε < 1. (4 The foowing emma identifies a condition under which the estimation from the Agorithm 1 is an (1 ε-approximation to, which wi hep us to determine a suitabe grid partition (or equay a suitabe grid ce size d. Lemma 1: For a given grid partition {Z n,n = 1,...,N}, et (u n (resp. (v n denote the induced vaue of if a PRF happens at point u (resp. v in grid ce Z n. The Agorithm 1 based on this grid partition provides an (1 ε-approximation 172

4 to if the foowing condition hods: ( min (u n, (v n (v n (u n (1 ε, u,v Z n,n = 1,...,N. (5 Proof: For a grid ce Z n, et + n (resp. n denote the maximum (resp. the minimum vaue of that any point in Z n may induce. Based on the Agorithm 1 we can see that ( min, (1/N N n=1 n (1/N N N n=1 (1 ε + n N n=1 + n n=1 + n The ast inequaity is due to the condition (5. B. Remaining Lin Capacity = 1 ε. (6 For a networ G(V,E, we use c to denote the capacity of in and use P to denote faiure probabiity of this in due to a random PRF. Then the expected capacity C of a remaining undisrupted ins after a PRF is given by C = E(1 P c (7 In particuar, by setting c = 1 for a E, we can get the expected number of remaining undisrupted ins. The foowing theorem indicates that by a proper setting of grid ce size d, the Agorithm 1 can be used to get an (1 ε- approximation to the metric C. Theorem 1: The grid partition-based metric estimation Agorithm 1 induces an (1 ε-approximation to the metric C if the grid size d there satisfies the foowing condition: d rm (rm 2 (α/2 2 n(1 ε,α= 2 M m=1 q m Proof: For a grid ce, et C (u (resp. C (v denote the induced vaue of C if a PRF happens at point u (resp. v in the ce. The Lemme 1 indicates that the Agorithm 1 induces an (1 ε-approximation to the metric C if for any grid ce there the foowing condition hods: ( C (u C(v min, (1 ε (9 C (v C (u We use P (u (resp. P (v to denote the faiure probabiity of the in if a PRF happens at point u (resp. v in a ce, and further use P + (resp. P to denote the maximum (resp. the minimum vaue of such faiure probabiity in the ce, then the above condition (9 hods if for any grid ce the foowing condition hods: ( min 1 P (u 1 P (v (8, 1 P (v (1 ε, E. (10 1 P (u Fig. 4. Mutipath routing between a pair of end nodes. This is because if (10 is true, then we have ( C (u C(v min, (1 P + c C (v C (u (1 P c (1 ε(1 P c (1 P = 1 ε (11 c Without oss of generaity, we assume P (u P (v > 0 in this proof. Now, we want to determine a suitabe grid size d to ensure that 1 P(u (1 ε for any in (i.e., to ensure 1 P (v the condition (10. From (2 we now that 1 P (u 1 P (v = e M m=1 (qm(u m e = e M M m=1 (qm(v m m=1 (qm((u m (v m (12 where m (u (resp. m (v denotes the ength of in segment(s residing in the m-th annuus centered at the point u (resp. point v. From (12 we can see that the ratio 1 P(u decreases as 1 P (v the vaue of ( m (u m (v increases. Notice that the points u and v are in the same ce, so the distance between them is at most 2d. Thus, we have m (u m (v 2 (rm 2 (rm 2d 2,m = 1,...M. (13 Therefore, to ensure the condition (10, we just need to determine a suitabe ce size d such that 1 P (u ( e M ( 1 P (v m=1 qm 2 (rm 2 (rm 2d 2 1 ε (14 By setting α = n(1 ε/ M m=1 q m, the condition (8 foows. C. Pairwise Capacity Reduction The mutipath routing technique has been widey adopted to improve the transmission capacity and survivabiity 10], 11], 19]. As iustrated in Fig. 4, in mutipath routing the traffic between a node pair (S,D is routed through mutipe indisjoint paths. Thus, the maximum pairwise capacity between a pair of nodes is just the sum of the capacity of a these paths. For a given node pair (S,D, suppose that K in-disjoint paths τ = {τ 1,,τ K } are aocated between them. Let t and Q τ denote the capacity and connecting probabiity of the -th routing path, respectivey. Under a random PRF, the 173

5 expected pairwise capacity reduction R(τ of the node pair (S,D with routing path set τ = {τ 1,,τ K } is given by ] K K K K R(τ = (t Q τ / t = t (1 P / t (15 The (15 indicates ceary that the main probem in cacuating R(τ is to determine the connecting probabiity Q τ = (1 P for each path there. The foowing emma identifies a condition under which the Agorithm 1 induces an (1 ε-approximation to the connecting probabiity of any routing path of the node pair (S,D. Lemma 2: For a given node pair (S,D with routing path set τ = {τ 1,,τ K }, et ω denote the maximum number of ins of any singe path in τ that may simutaneousy intersect with the faiure region of a PRF, then the Agorithm 1 guarantees an (1 ε-approximation to the connecting probabiity of any routing path in τ if the grid of size d there satisfies the foowing condition: d rm (rm 2 (β/2 2 n(1 ε,β= 2 ω M m=1 q m Proof: For a grid ce of size d, et Q (u (16 (resp. Q (v denote the connecting probabiities of path if a PRF happens at point u (resp. v in the grid ce. The Lemma 1 indicates that the Agorithm 1 induces an (1 ε-approximation to Q τ if for any grid ce there the foowing condition aways hods: min ( Q (u Q (v, Q (v Q (u (1 ε (17 Without oss of generaity, we assume Q (v Q (u. Then we just need to ensure the foowing condition: (1 P (u (1 ε (1 P (v (18 By referring to the proof of Theorem 1 we now that if we choose a suitabe ce size d 1 according to (8 and use ε 1 in stead of ε there, the Agorithm 1 can induce an (1 ε 1 - approximation to the probabiity 1 P of any ( in, i.e., we can guarantee that (1 P (u (1 ε 1 τ (u (resp. τ (v 1 P (v. Let denote the set of ins intersecting with a PRF centered at point u (resp. v, then with the ce size d 1 the eft side of formua (18 wi satisfy (1 P (u = (1 P (u (1 ε 1 (1 P (v τ (u (1 ε 1 τ(u (1 ε 1 ω τ (u τ (u τ(v τ (u τ(v (1 P (v (1 P (v (19 For the right side of formua (18, it foows (1 ε (1 P (v = (1 ε (1 P (v τ (u τ(v (1 ε τ (v τ (u τ(v (1 P (v (20 Then we now that to guarantee (18 we just need to ensure that (1 ε 1 ω (1 P (v (1 ε (1 P (v τ (u τ(v (21 The above inequaity indicates that ε 1 shoud satisfy the foowing condition (1 ε 1 ω (1 ε i.e. ε 1 1 ω 1 ε (22 By choosing ε 1 according to the above condition and appy it in stead of ε in (8, the ce size requirement (16 foows. Remar 1: For a given node pair (S,D with routing path set τ, the maximum number of ins ω of any singe path in τ that may simutaneousy intersect with the faiure region of a PRF can be determined by appying the agorithm introduced in 15], 20]. Based on (15, Lemma 2 and a simiar proof as that of the Theorem 1, we are now abe to estabish the foowing theorem regarding the (1 ε-approximation of metric R(τ. Theorem 2: By setting the ce size d as that in Lemma 2, the (1 ε-approximation of R(τ can be achieved with the Agorithm 1. D. Pairwise Connecting Probabiity The path protection is a widey adopted technique for providing reiabe communication with ow protection cost, where two in-disjoint paths, a primary and a bacup, are usuay assigned to each connection. For a connection with primary and bacup path set τ = {τ 1,τ 2 }, its pairwise connecting probabiity A(τ can be expressed as A(τ = 1 (1 Q τ = 1 1 ] (1 P (23 where Q τ is the connecting probabiity of path. The foowing theorem indicates the condition for achieving the (1 ε-approximation of metric A(τ. Theorem 3: By setting the ce size d as that in Lemma 2, the (1 ε-approximation of A(τ can be achieved with the Agorithm 1. Proof: For a grid ce of size d, et A(τ (u (resp. A(τ (v denote the corresponding pairwise connecting probabiities of path set τ = {τ 1,τ 2 } if a PRF happens at point u (resp. v in the grid ce. Without oss of generaity, we assume A(τ (v A(τ (u, and et Q (u (resp. Q (v denote the 174

6 corresponding connecting probabiities of path. Then we just need to ensure the foowing condition: ] 1 (1 Q (u (1 ε 1 (1 Q (v (24 By referring to the Lemma 2, we now that if we choose a suitabe d 2 according to (16 and use ε 2 instead of ε there, the Agorithm 1 can induce an (1 ε 2 -approximation to Q τ of any path. Let Q denote the maximum possibe vaue of Q (u (and aso of Q (v, we can guarantee that Q (u (1 ε 2 Q. Therefore, the eft side of formua (24 wi satisfy 1 (1 Q (u 1 ( 1 (1 ε2 Q (25 Since Q Q (v, the right side of formua (24 satisfies ] ] (1 ε 1 (1 Q (v (1 ε 1 (1 Q (26 Then we now that to guarantee (24 we just need to ensure that ] ( 1 1 (1 ε2 Q (1 ε 1 (1 Q (27 By expanding the eft and right sides of (27, we can see that the above inequaity is satisfied when 1 1 ε ε 2 ε (28 To get a arge grid size d, we set ε 2 = ε and appy it instead of the ε in (16, then the requirement of ce size d foows. IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS In this section, we provide some numeric resuts to demonstrate the appication of the new PRF mode in networ vunerabiity anaysis. A. Experimenta Settings The U.S. bacbone networ shown in Fig. 1 is adopted in our anaysis, which consists of of 26 nodes and 41 bidirectiona edges. We quantify the average in ength as 111, the maximum in ength as 187, and the minimum in ength as 66. The capacity for each in is set as 1. The networ depoyment pane is set as a rectange with ength 760 and hight 450. Based on the formua (1 and data from reaistic faiure scenarios, we are abe to determine an appropriate vaue of parameter q m in the PRF mode. In our experiment, we regard a in segment of ength 10 as a basic in unit and use notation p m to denote its faiure probabiity if it fas within the m-th annuus of a PRF. Then, we have q m = n(1 p m /10. The parameters adopted in the experiment are isted in Tabe I. TABLE I PARAMETERS IN PRF MODEL p m q m p m , q m In our study, a the pairwise metrics are evauated for node pair (2, 25 in the U.S. bacbone networ, for which the Suurbae agorithm 21] is adopted to find two in disjoint paths for the node pair with the minimum tota ength. The experiment resuts based on the Agorithm 1 are generated with the setting of ε = 0.5. However, we notice that these resuts are simiar with the resuts achieved by setting ε = 0.2 and 0.1 respectivey. B. Vunerabiity Metrics vs.prf Mode We first show the efficiency of the PRF mode on evauating the networ vunerabiity. Fig. 5 iustrates how concerned networ metrics vary with the parameter r. It is notabe that the settings of ( = 1,p 2 = 1 and ( = 1,p 2 = 0 there correspond to the scenarios of deterministic region faiure mode. The resuts here indicate ceary that the deterministic mode may resut in a significant overestimation or underestimation of networ vunerabiity. We can aso see that as r increases (and thus faiure region becomes bigger, the estimation gap between the probabiistic mode and the corresponding deterministic ones tends to increase for a metrics. One attractive advantage of our networ grid partition framewor adopted in the Agorithm 1 is that it heps us in identifying the most vunerabe networ zones, where a region faiure can cause the most harmfu destruction to the networ. Fig. 6 iustrates the most vunerabe networ zones under the PRF mode with the setting of r = 20, = 0.7 and p 2 = 0.3. It is generay expected that to remove the maxima number of ins, the region faiure shoud be centered around the area with high in density. The resuts in Fig. 6(a indicate that such vunerabe area may not be exacty over the intersection points among ins. Moreover, due to the redundant routing or reiabe routing with protection, it is hard to competey disconnect any two nodes except the scenarios that the region faiure happens near either of them, as iustrated in Fig. 6(b and Fig. 6(c for the connection between nodes 2 and 25. V. CONCLUSION This paper studied how a random and geographicay correated region faiure affect networ performance, which is an essentia issue for designing highy survivabe networ infrastructure to support mission critica appications. A new and genera probabiistic region faiure mode is proposed for assessing the networ vunerabiity under arge scae region faiure, and the reated theoretica framewor has aso been deveoped to support the appication of this new mode. One of our our future wor is to deveop a more efficient approach based on samping theory to estimate the statistic networ metrics under more reaistic continuous PRF modes. 175

7 Remaining Lin Capacity =0 =0.1 =0.7 =1 r Pairwise Capacity Reduction =0 =0.1 =0.7 =1 r Pairwise Connecting Probabiity =0 =0.1 =0.7 =1 r (a Remaining in capacity vs. r (b Pairwise capacity reduction vs. r Fig. 5. Vunerabiity metrics vs. r. (c Pairwise connecting probabiity vs. r (a Vunerabe zones for remaining in capacity (b Vunerabe zones for pairwise capacity reduction between nodes 2 and 25 Fig. 6. Iustration of vunerabe networ zones for r = 40, = 0.7 and p 2 = 0.3. (c Vunerabe zones for pairwise connecting probabiity between nodes 2 and 25 REFERENCES 1] M. Liotine, Mission-Critica Networ Panning. Norwood, MA, USA: Artech House, Inc., ] A. Maropouou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, Characterization of faiures in an IP bacbone, in Proceedings of INFOCOM 2004, March 2004, pp ] R. Cohen, K. Erez, D. Avraham, and S. Havin, Breadown of the internet under intentiona attac, Phys. Rev. Lett, no. 86, pp , ] J. Zhang and B. Muheriee, A review of faut management in WDM mesh networs: basic concepts and research chaenges, IEEE Networ, vo. 18, no. 2, pp , Mar-Apr ] Q. She, X. huang, and J. P. Jue, Maximum survivabiity using two disjoint paths under mutipe faiures in mesh networs, in IEEE Gobecom 2006, ] A. Tizghadam and A. Leon-Garcia, On congestion in mission critica networs, in In Worshop on Mission Critica Networs (MCN with IEEE INFOCOM, ] D. Turner, K. Levcheno, A. C. Snoeren, and S. Savage, Caifornia faut ines: understanding the causes and impact of networ faiures, SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vo. 40, pp , August ] H. Choi, S. Subramaniam, and H. ah Choi, On doube-in faiure recovery in WDM optica networs, in in Proceedings of IEEE INFO- COM, 2002, pp ] S. Kini, S. Ramasubramanian, A. Kvabein, and A. F. Hansen, Fast recovery from dua in faiures in ip networs, in Proceedings INFO- COM 2009, ] R. Zhang-Shen and N. McKeown, Designing a faut-toerant networ with vaiant oad-baancing, in IEEE INFOCOM Mini-Conference, 2008, pp ] M. Kodiaam, T. V. Lashman, and S. Sengupta, Resiient routing of variabe traffic with performance guarantees, in in Proceeding of 17th IEEE Internationa Conference on Networ Protocos (ICNP 2009, October 2009, pp ] Y. Wang, H. Wang, A. Mahimar, R. Aimi, Y. Zhang, L. Qiu, and Y. R. Yang, R3: resiient routing reconfiguration, in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 conference, 2010, pp ] A. Sen, S. Murthy, and S. Banerjee, Region-based connectivity - a new paradigm for design of faut-toerant networs, in IEEE Internationa Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR, Paris, France, June 2009, pp ] S. Neumayer, G. Zussman, R. Cohen, and E. Modiano, Assessing the impact of geographicay correated networ faiures, in in Proc. IEEE MILCOM 08, Nov ], Assessing the vunerabiity of the fiber infrastructure to disasters, in IEEE INFOCOM 2009, Apri 2009, pp ] S. Neumayer and E. Modiano, Networ reiabiity with geographicay correated faiures, in IEEE INFOCOM 2010, March ] P. K. Agarwa, A. Efrat, S. K. Ganjugunte, D. Hay, S. Sanararaman, and G. Zussman, The resiience of WDM networs to probabiistic geographica faiures, Tech. Rep Onine]. Avaiabe: hdavid/aeghszreport.pdf 18] B. F. Howe, Jr., and T. R. Schutz, Attenuation of modified mercai intensity with distance from the epicenter, BULLETIN OF THE SEIS- MOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, vo. 65, pp , ] S. Vempaa, M. Motiwaa, M. Emore, and N. Feamster, Path spicing, in ACM SIGCOMM, ] X. Wang, X. Jiang, and A. Pattavina, Assessing networ vunerabiity under probabiistic region faiure mode, tech. Report. Onine]. Avaiabe: jiang/paper/regionfaiurereport.pdf 21] J. W. Suurbae and R. E. Tarjan, A quic method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths, Networs, vo. 14(2, pp ,

Secure Network Coding with a Cost Criterion

Secure Network Coding with a Cost Criterion Secure Network Coding with a Cost Criterion Jianong Tan, Murie Médard Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technoogy Cambridge, MA 0239, USA E-mai: {jianong, medard}@mit.edu

More information

Precise assessment of partial discharge in underground MV/HV power cables and terminations

Precise assessment of partial discharge in underground MV/HV power cables and terminations QCM-C-PD-Survey Service Partia discharge monitoring for underground power cabes Precise assessment of partia discharge in underground MV/HV power cabes and terminations Highy accurate periodic PD survey

More information

A Similarity Search Scheme over Encrypted Cloud Images based on Secure Transformation

A Similarity Search Scheme over Encrypted Cloud Images based on Secure Transformation A Simiarity Search Scheme over Encrypted Coud Images based on Secure Transormation Zhihua Xia, Yi Zhu, Xingming Sun, and Jin Wang Jiangsu Engineering Center o Network Monitoring, Nanjing University o Inormation

More information

COMPARISON OF DIFFUSION MODELS IN ASTRONOMICAL OBJECT LOCALIZATION

COMPARISON OF DIFFUSION MODELS IN ASTRONOMICAL OBJECT LOCALIZATION COMPARISON OF DIFFUSION MODELS IN ASTRONOMICAL OBJECT LOCALIZATION Františe Mojžíš Department of Computing and Contro Engineering, ICT Prague, Technicá, 8 Prague frantise.mojzis@vscht.cz Abstract This

More information

Sorting, Merge Sort and the Divide-and-Conquer Technique

Sorting, Merge Sort and the Divide-and-Conquer Technique Inf2B gorithms and Data Structures Note 7 Sorting, Merge Sort and the Divide-and-Conquer Technique This and a subsequent next ecture wi mainy be concerned with sorting agorithms. Sorting is an extremey

More information

Fast Robust Hashing. ) [7] will be re-mapped (and therefore discarded), due to the load-balancing property of hashing.

Fast Robust Hashing. ) [7] will be re-mapped (and therefore discarded), due to the load-balancing property of hashing. Fast Robust Hashing Manue Urueña, David Larrabeiti and Pabo Serrano Universidad Caros III de Madrid E-89 Leganés (Madrid), Spain Emai: {muruenya,darra,pabo}@it.uc3m.es Abstract As statefu fow-aware services

More information

Load Balance vs Energy Efficiency in Traffic Engineering: A Game Theoretical Perspective

Load Balance vs Energy Efficiency in Traffic Engineering: A Game Theoretical Perspective Load Baance vs Energy Efficiency in Traffic Engineering: A Game Theoretica Perspective Yangming Zhao, Sheng Wang, Shizhong Xu and Xiong Wang Schoo of Communication and Information Engineering University

More information

Maintenance activities planning and grouping for complex structure systems

Maintenance activities planning and grouping for complex structure systems Maintenance activities panning and grouping for compex structure systems Hai Canh u, Phuc Do an, Anne Barros, Christophe Berenguer To cite this version: Hai Canh u, Phuc Do an, Anne Barros, Christophe

More information

Face Hallucination and Recognition

Face Hallucination and Recognition Face Haucination and Recognition Xiaogang Wang and Xiaoou Tang Department of Information Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong {xgwang1, xtang}@ie.cuhk.edu.hk http://mmab.ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract.

More information

Teamwork. Abstract. 2.1 Overview

Teamwork. Abstract. 2.1 Overview 2 Teamwork Abstract This chapter presents one of the basic eements of software projects teamwork. It addresses how to buid teams in a way that promotes team members accountabiity and responsibiity, and

More information

Early access to FAS payments for members in poor health

Early access to FAS payments for members in poor health Financia Assistance Scheme Eary access to FAS payments for members in poor heath Pension Protection Fund Protecting Peope s Futures The Financia Assistance Scheme is administered by the Pension Protection

More information

CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS

CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS Dehi Business Review X Vo. 4, No. 2, Juy - December 2003 CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS John N.. Var arvatsouakis atsouakis DURING the present time,

More information

Multi-Robot Task Scheduling

Multi-Robot Task Scheduling Proc of IEEE Internationa Conference on Robotics and Automation, Karsruhe, Germany, 013 Muti-Robot Tas Scheduing Yu Zhang and Lynne E Parer Abstract The scheduing probem has been studied extensivey in

More information

Leakage detection in water pipe networks using a Bayesian probabilistic framework

Leakage detection in water pipe networks using a Bayesian probabilistic framework Probabiistic Engineering Mechanics 18 (2003) 315 327 www.esevier.com/ocate/probengmech Leakage detection in water pipe networks using a Bayesian probabiistic framework Z. Pouakis, D. Vaougeorgis, C. Papadimitriou*

More information

A quantum model for the stock market

A quantum model for the stock market A quantum mode for the stock market Authors: Chao Zhang a,, Lu Huang b Affiiations: a Schoo of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 5175, China b Schoo of Economics and Business Administration,

More information

Artificial neural networks and deep learning

Artificial neural networks and deep learning February 20, 2015 1 Introduction Artificia Neura Networks (ANNs) are a set of statistica modeing toos originay inspired by studies of bioogica neura networks in animas, for exampe the brain and the centra

More information

A Latent Variable Pairwise Classification Model of a Clustering Ensemble

A Latent Variable Pairwise Classification Model of a Clustering Ensemble A atent Variabe Pairwise Cassification Mode of a Custering Ensembe Vadimir Berikov Soboev Institute of mathematics, Novosibirsk State University, Russia berikov@math.nsc.ru http://www.math.nsc.ru Abstract.

More information

A Distributed MAC Scheme Supporting Voice Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 1

A Distributed MAC Scheme Supporting Voice Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 1 A Distributed MAC Scheme Supporting Voice Services in Mobie Ad Hoc Networks 1 Hai Jiang, Ping Wang, H. Vincent Poor, and Weihua Zhuang Department of Eectrica & Computer Engineering, University of Aberta,

More information

Pricing and Revenue Sharing Strategies for Internet Service Providers

Pricing and Revenue Sharing Strategies for Internet Service Providers Pricing and Revenue Sharing Strategies for Internet Service Providers Linhai He and Jean Warand Department of Eectrica Engineering and Computer Sciences University of Caifornia at Berkeey {inhai,wr}@eecs.berkeey.edu

More information

Virtual trunk simulation

Virtual trunk simulation Virtua trunk simuation Samui Aato * Laboratory of Teecommunications Technoogy Hesinki University of Technoogy Sivia Giordano Laboratoire de Reseaux de Communication Ecoe Poytechnique Federae de Lausanne

More information

Let s get usable! Usability studies for indexes. Susan C. Olason. Study plan

Let s get usable! Usability studies for indexes. Susan C. Olason. Study plan Let s get usabe! Usabiity studies for indexes Susan C. Oason The artice discusses a series of usabiity studies on indexes from a systems engineering and human factors perspective. The purpose of these

More information

Risk Margin for a Non-Life Insurance Run-Off

Risk Margin for a Non-Life Insurance Run-Off Risk Margin for a Non-Life Insurance Run-Off Mario V. Wüthrich, Pau Embrechts, Andreas Tsanakas February 2, 2011 Abstract For sovency purposes insurance companies need to cacuate so-caed best-estimate

More information

Fixed income managers: evolution or revolution

Fixed income managers: evolution or revolution Fixed income managers: evoution or revoution Traditiona approaches to managing fixed interest funds rey on benchmarks that may not represent optima risk and return outcomes. New techniques based on separate

More information

SAT Math Must-Know Facts & Formulas

SAT Math Must-Know Facts & Formulas SAT Mat Must-Know Facts & Formuas Numbers, Sequences, Factors Integers:..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,... Rationas: fractions, tat is, anyting expressabe as a ratio of integers Reas: integers pus rationas

More information

Enhanced continuous, real-time detection, alarming and analysis of partial discharge events

Enhanced continuous, real-time detection, alarming and analysis of partial discharge events DMS PDMG-RH DMS PDMG-RH Partia discharge monitor for GIS Partia discharge monitor for GIS Enhanced continuous, rea-time detection, aarming and anaysis of partia discharge events Unrivaed PDM feature set

More information

Infrastructure for Business

Infrastructure for Business Infrastructure for Business The IoD Member Broadband Survey Infrastructure for Business 2013 #5 The IoD Member Broadband Survey The IoD Member Broadband Survey Written by: Corin Tayor, Senior Economic

More information

Lecture 7 Datalink Ethernet, Home. Datalink Layer Architectures

Lecture 7 Datalink Ethernet, Home. Datalink Layer Architectures Lecture 7 Dataink Ethernet, Home Peter Steenkiste Schoo of Computer Science Department of Eectrica and Computer Engineering Carnegie Meon University 15-441 Networking, Spring 2004 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/15-441

More information

Learning from evaluations Processes and instruments used by GIZ as a learning organisation and their contribution to interorganisational learning

Learning from evaluations Processes and instruments used by GIZ as a learning organisation and their contribution to interorganisational learning Monitoring and Evauation Unit Learning from evauations Processes and instruments used by GIZ as a earning organisation and their contribution to interorganisationa earning Contents 1.3Learning from evauations

More information

Introduction the pressure for efficiency the Estates opportunity

Introduction the pressure for efficiency the Estates opportunity Heathy Savings? A study of the proportion of NHS Trusts with an in-house Buidings Repair and Maintenance workforce, and a discussion of eary experiences of Suppies efficiency initiatives Management Summary

More information

Network/Communicational Vulnerability

Network/Communicational Vulnerability Automated teer machines (ATMs) are a part of most of our ives. The major appea of these machines is convenience The ATM environment is changing and that change has serious ramifications for the security

More information

Risk Margin for a Non-Life Insurance Run-Off

Risk Margin for a Non-Life Insurance Run-Off Risk Margin for a Non-Life Insurance Run-Off Mario V. Wüthrich, Pau Embrechts, Andreas Tsanakas August 15, 2011 Abstract For sovency purposes insurance companies need to cacuate so-caed best-estimate reserves

More information

On Capacity Scaling in Arbitrary Wireless Networks

On Capacity Scaling in Arbitrary Wireless Networks On Capacity Scaing in Arbitrary Wireess Networks Urs Niesen, Piyush Gupta, and Devavrat Shah 1 Abstract arxiv:07112745v3 [csit] 3 Aug 2009 In recent work, Özgür, Lévêque, and Tse 2007) obtained a compete

More information

8x8 Webinar: Prepare Now to Survive a Disaster Later

8x8 Webinar: Prepare Now to Survive a Disaster Later 8x8 Webinar: Prepare Now to Survive a Disaster Later January 23, 2013 2009 NASDAQ-LISTED: EGHT The materias presented in the webinar provided by 8x8, Inc. are intended to provide genera information on

More information

CLOUD service providers manage an enterprise-class

CLOUD service providers manage an enterprise-class IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON XXXXXX, VOL X, NO X, XXXX 201X 1 Oruta: Privacy-Preserving Pubic Auditing for Shared Data in the Coud Boyang Wang, Baochun Li, Member, IEEE, and Hui Li, Member, IEEE Abstract With

More information

An Integrated Data Management Framework of Wireless Sensor Network

An Integrated Data Management Framework of Wireless Sensor Network An Integrated Data Management Framework of Wireess Sensor Network for Agricutura Appications 1,2 Zhao Liang, 2 He Liyuan, 1 Zheng Fang, 1 Jin Xing 1 Coege of Science, Huazhong Agricutura University, Wuhan

More information

Load Balancing in Distributed Web Server Systems with Partial Document Replication *

Load Balancing in Distributed Web Server Systems with Partial Document Replication * Load Baancing in Distributed Web Server Systems with Partia Document Repication * Ling Zhuo Cho-Li Wang Francis C. M. Lau Department of Computer Science and Information Systems The University of Hong Kong

More information

Dynamic Pricing Trade Market for Shared Resources in IIU Federated Cloud

Dynamic Pricing Trade Market for Shared Resources in IIU Federated Cloud Dynamic Pricing Trade Market or Shared Resources in IIU Federated Coud Tongrang Fan 1, Jian Liu 1, Feng Gao 1 1Schoo o Inormation Science and Technoogy, Shiiazhuang Tiedao University, Shiiazhuang, 543,

More information

PROPAGATION OF SURGE WAVES ON NON-HOMOGENEOUS TRANSMISSION LINES INDUCED BY LIGHTNING STROKE

PROPAGATION OF SURGE WAVES ON NON-HOMOGENEOUS TRANSMISSION LINES INDUCED BY LIGHTNING STROKE Advances in Eectrica and Eectronic Engineering 98 PROPAGATION OF SRGE WAVES ON NON-HOMOGENEOS TRANSMISSION LINES INDCED BY LIGHTNING STROKE Z. Benešová, V. Kotan WB Pisen, Facuty of Eectrica Engineering,

More information

The eg Suite Enabing Rea-Time Monitoring and Proactive Infrastructure Triage White Paper Restricted Rights Legend The information contained in this document is confidentia and subject to change without

More information

Measuring operational risk in financial institutions

Measuring operational risk in financial institutions Measuring operationa risk in financia institutions Operationa risk is now seen as a major risk for financia institutions. This paper considers the various methods avaiabe to measure operationa risk, and

More information

Vulnerability Assessment for Wireless Mesh Networks Under Probabilistic Region Failure Model

Vulnerability Assessment for Wireless Mesh Networks Under Probabilistic Region Failure Model IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, 2011 1 Vulnerability Assessment for Wireless Mesh Networks Under Probabilistic Region Failure Model Jiajia Liu, Non-Member, IEEE, Xiaohong Jiang, Senior Member,

More information

ICAP CREDIT RISK SERVICES. Your Business Partner

ICAP CREDIT RISK SERVICES. Your Business Partner ICAP CREDIT RISK SERVICES Your Business Partner ABOUT ICAP GROUP ICAP Group with 56 miion revenues for 2008 and 1,000 empoyees- is the argest Business Services Group in Greece. In addition to its Greek

More information

3.3 SOFTWARE RISK MANAGEMENT (SRM)

3.3 SOFTWARE RISK MANAGEMENT (SRM) 93 3.3 SOFTWARE RISK MANAGEMENT (SRM) Fig. 3.2 SRM is a process buit in five steps. The steps are: Identify Anayse Pan Track Resove The process is continuous in nature and handed dynamicay throughout ifecyce

More information

Design and Analysis of a Hidden Peer-to-peer Backup Market

Design and Analysis of a Hidden Peer-to-peer Backup Market Design and Anaysis of a Hidden Peer-to-peer Backup Market Sven Seuken, Denis Chares, Max Chickering, Mary Czerwinski Kama Jain, David C. Parkes, Sidd Puri, and Desney Tan December, 2015 Abstract We present

More information

Setting Up Your Internet Connection

Setting Up Your Internet Connection 4 CONNECTING TO CHANCES ARE, you aready have Internet access and are using the Web or sending emai. If you downoaded your instaation fies or instaed esigna from the web, you can be sure that you re set

More information

Business Banking. A guide for franchises

Business Banking. A guide for franchises Business Banking A guide for franchises Hep with your franchise business, right on your doorstep A true understanding of the needs of your business: that s what makes RBS the right choice for financia

More information

Ricoh Healthcare. Process Optimized. Healthcare Simplified.

Ricoh Healthcare. Process Optimized. Healthcare Simplified. Ricoh Heathcare Process Optimized. Heathcare Simpified. Rather than a destination that concudes with the eimination of a paper, the Paperess Maturity Roadmap is a continuous journey to strategicay remove

More information

arxiv:1506.05851v1 [cs.ai] 18 Jun 2015

arxiv:1506.05851v1 [cs.ai] 18 Jun 2015 Smart Pacing for Effective Onine Ad Campaign Optimization Jian Xu, Kuang-chih Lee, Wentong Li, Hang Qi, and Quan Lu Yahoo Inc. 7 First Avenue, Sunnyvae, Caifornia 9489 {xuian,kcee,wentong,hangqi,qu}@yahoo-inc.com

More information

Business schools are the academic setting where. The current crisis has highlighted the need to redefine the role of senior managers in organizations.

Business schools are the academic setting where. The current crisis has highlighted the need to redefine the role of senior managers in organizations. c r o s os r oi a d s REDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SCHOOLS The current crisis has highighted the need to redefine the roe of senior managers in organizations. JORDI CANALS Professor and Dean, IESE

More information

Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns

Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 1 of 9 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns "Consistency is the ast refuge of the unimaginative." Oscar Wide In This Chapter What Are Integration Patterns?

More information

With the arrival of Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) and its industry

With the arrival of Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) and its industry Knowedge-based Autonomous Agents for Pervasive Computing Using AgentLight Fernando L. Koch and John-Jues C. Meyer Utrecht University Project AgentLight is a mutiagent system-buiding framework targeting

More information

SELECTING THE SUITABLE ERP SYSTEM: A FUZZY AHP APPROACH. Ufuk Cebeci

SELECTING THE SUITABLE ERP SYSTEM: A FUZZY AHP APPROACH. Ufuk Cebeci SELECTING THE SUITABLE ERP SYSTEM: A FUZZY AHP APPROACH Ufuk Cebeci Department of Industria Engineering, Istanbu Technica University, Macka, Istanbu, Turkey - ufuk_cebeci@yahoo.com Abstract An Enterprise

More information

Safety Manual VEGAPULS series 60

Safety Manual VEGAPULS series 60 Safety Manua VEGAPULS series 60 4 20 ma/hart Radar Contents Contents 1 Functiona safety 1.1 In genera............................ 3 1.2 Panning............................. 5 1.3 Instrument parameter adjustment...........

More information

Integrating Risk into your Plant Lifecycle A next generation software architecture for risk based

Integrating Risk into your Plant Lifecycle A next generation software architecture for risk based Integrating Risk into your Pant Lifecyce A next generation software architecture for risk based operations Dr Nic Cavanagh 1, Dr Jeremy Linn 2 and Coin Hickey 3 1 Head of Safeti Product Management, DNV

More information

SPOTLIGHT. A year of transformation

SPOTLIGHT. A year of transformation WINTER ISSUE 2014 2015 SPOTLIGHT Wecome to the winter issue of Oasis Spotight. These newsetters are designed to keep you upto-date with news about the Oasis community. This quartery issue features an artice

More information

Vendor Performance Measurement Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

Vendor Performance Measurement Using Fuzzy Logic Controller The Journa of Mathematics and Computer Science Avaiabe onine at http://www.tjmcs.com The Journa of Mathematics and Computer Science Vo.2 No.2 (2011) 311-318 Performance Measurement Using Fuzzy Logic Controer

More information

Key Features of Life Insurance

Key Features of Life Insurance Key Features of Life Insurance Life Insurance Key Features The Financia Conduct Authority is a financia services reguator. It requires us, Aviva, to give you this important information to hep you to decide

More information

Application-Aware Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks

Application-Aware Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Appication-Aware Data Coection in Wireess Sensor Networks Xiaoin Fang *, Hong Gao *, Jianzhong Li *, and Yingshu Li +* * Schoo of Computer Science and Technoogy, Harbin Institute of Technoogy, Harbin,

More information

Life Contingencies Study Note for CAS Exam S. Tom Struppeck

Life Contingencies Study Note for CAS Exam S. Tom Struppeck Life Contingencies Study Note for CAS Eam S Tom Struppeck (Revised 9/19/2015) Introduction Life contingencies is a term used to describe surviva modes for human ives and resuting cash fows that start or

More information

Betting on the Real Line

Betting on the Real Line Betting on the Rea Line Xi Gao 1, Yiing Chen 1,, and David M. Pennock 2 1 Harvard University, {xagao,yiing}@eecs.harvard.edu 2 Yahoo! Research, pennockd@yahoo-inc.com Abstract. We study the probem of designing

More information

A Description of the California Partnership for Long-Term Care Prepared by the California Department of Health Care Services

A Description of the California Partnership for Long-Term Care Prepared by the California Department of Health Care Services 2012 Before You Buy A Description of the Caifornia Partnership for Long-Term Care Prepared by the Caifornia Department of Heath Care Services Page 1 of 13 Ony ong-term care insurance poicies bearing any

More information

Computing the depth of an arrangement of axis-aligned rectangles in parallel

Computing the depth of an arrangement of axis-aligned rectangles in parallel Computing the depth of an arrangement of axis-aigned rectanges in parae Hemut At Ludmia Scharf Abstract We consider the probem of computing the depth of the arrangement of n axis-aigned rectanges in the

More information

PREFACE. Comptroller General of the United States. Page i

PREFACE. Comptroller General of the United States. Page i - I PREFACE T he (+nera Accounting Office (GAO) has ong beieved that the federa government urgenty needs to improve the financia information on which it bases many important decisions. To run our compex

More information

The Radix-4 and the Class of Radix-2 s FFTs

The Radix-4 and the Class of Radix-2 s FFTs Chapter 11 The Radix- and the Cass of Radix- s FFTs The divide-and-conuer paradigm introduced in Chapter 3 is not restricted to dividing a probem into two subprobems. In fact, as expained in Section. and

More information

Storing Shared Data on the Cloud via Security-Mediator

Storing Shared Data on the Cloud via Security-Mediator Storing Shared Data on the Coud via Security-Mediator Boyang Wang, Sherman S. M. Chow, Ming Li, and Hui Li State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks, Xidian University, Xi an, China Department

More information

Pay-on-delivery investing

Pay-on-delivery investing Pay-on-deivery investing EVOLVE INVESTment range 1 EVOLVE INVESTMENT RANGE EVOLVE INVESTMENT RANGE 2 Picture a word where you ony pay a company once they have deivered Imagine striking oi first, before

More information

Certificateless Public Auditing for Data Integrity in the Cloud

Certificateless Public Auditing for Data Integrity in the Cloud Certificateess Pubic Auditing for Data Integrity in the Coud Boyang Wang,, Baochun Li, Hui Li and Fenghua Li, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks, Xidian University,Xi an,shaanxi,china

More information

Advanced ColdFusion 4.0 Application Development - 3 - Server Clustering Using Bright Tiger

Advanced ColdFusion 4.0 Application Development - 3 - Server Clustering Using Bright Tiger Advanced CodFusion 4.0 Appication Deveopment - CH 3 - Server Custering Using Bri.. Page 1 of 7 [Figures are not incuded in this sampe chapter] Advanced CodFusion 4.0 Appication Deveopment - 3 - Server

More information

Simultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks

Simultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks Simutaneous Routing and Power Aocation in CDMA Wireess Data Networks Mikae Johansson *,LinXiao and Stephen Boyd * Department of Signas, Sensors and Systems Roya Institute of Technoogy, SE 00 Stockhom,

More information

Automatic Projector Display Surface Estimation. Using Every-Day Imagery

Automatic Projector Display Surface Estimation. Using Every-Day Imagery Automatic Projector Dispay Surface Estimation Using Every-Day Imagery Ruigang Yang and Greg Wech Department of Computer Science Univeristy of North Caroina at Chape Hi Abstract Projector-based dispay systems

More information

Packet Classification with Network Traffic Statistics

Packet Classification with Network Traffic Statistics Packet Cassification with Network Traffic Statistics Yaxuan Qi and Jun Li Research Institute of Information Technoogy (RIIT), Tsinghua Uniersity Beijing, China, 100084 Abstract-- Packet cassification on

More information

On Distributed Computation Rate Optimization for Deploying Cloud Computing Programming Frameworks

On Distributed Computation Rate Optimization for Deploying Cloud Computing Programming Frameworks On Distributed omputation ate Optimization for Depoying oud omputing Programming Framewors Jia Liu athy H. Xia Ness B. Shroff Xiaodong Zhang Dept. of Eectrica and omputer Engineering Dept. of Integrated

More information

A New Statistical Approach to Network Anomaly Detection

A New Statistical Approach to Network Anomaly Detection A New Statistica Approach to Network Anomay Detection Christian Caegari, Sandrine Vaton 2, and Michee Pagano Dept of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, ITALY E-mai: {christiancaegari,mpagano}@ietunipiit

More information

TERM INSURANCE CALCULATION ILLUSTRATED. This is the U.S. Social Security Life Table, based on year 2007.

TERM INSURANCE CALCULATION ILLUSTRATED. This is the U.S. Social Security Life Table, based on year 2007. This is the U.S. Socia Security Life Tabe, based on year 2007. This is avaiabe at http://www.ssa.gov/oact/stats/tabe4c6.htm. The ife eperiences of maes and femaes are different, and we usuay do separate

More information

HYBRID FUZZY LOGIC PID CONTROLLER. Abstract

HYBRID FUZZY LOGIC PID CONTROLLER. Abstract HYBRID FUZZY LOGIC PID CONTROLLER Thomas Brehm and Kudip S. Rattan Department of Eectrica Engineering Wright State University Dayton, OH 45435 Abstract This paper investigates two fuzzy ogic PID controers

More information

Art of Java Web Development By Neal Ford 624 pages US$44.95 Manning Publications, 2004 ISBN: 1-932394-06-0

Art of Java Web Development By Neal Ford 624 pages US$44.95 Manning Publications, 2004 ISBN: 1-932394-06-0 IEEE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS ONLINE 1541-4922 2005 Pubished by the IEEE Computer Society Vo. 6, No. 5; May 2005 Editor: Marcin Paprzycki, http://www.cs.okstate.edu/%7emarcin/ Book Reviews: Java Toos and Frameworks

More information

Hybrid Interface Solutions for next Generation Wireless Access Infrastructure

Hybrid Interface Solutions for next Generation Wireless Access Infrastructure tec. Connectivity & Networks Voker Sorhage Hybrid Interface Soutions for next Generation Wireess Access Infrastructure Broadband wireess communication wi revoutionize every aspect of peope s ives by enabing

More information

Pricing Internet Services With Multiple Providers

Pricing Internet Services With Multiple Providers Pricing Internet Services With Mutipe Providers Linhai He and Jean Warand Dept. of Eectrica Engineering and Computer Science University of Caifornia at Berkeey Berkeey, CA 94709 inhai, wr@eecs.berkeey.edu

More information

A Supplier Evaluation System for Automotive Industry According To Iso/Ts 16949 Requirements

A Supplier Evaluation System for Automotive Industry According To Iso/Ts 16949 Requirements A Suppier Evauation System for Automotive Industry According To Iso/Ts 16949 Requirements DILEK PINAR ÖZTOP 1, ASLI AKSOY 2,*, NURSEL ÖZTÜRK 2 1 HONDA TR Purchasing Department, 41480, Çayırova - Gebze,

More information

Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success

Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success 7 Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success Pus making a Business Case for ITIL! Do you want to impement ITIL but don t know where to start? 7 Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success can hep you to decide whether ITIL can

More information

Figure 1. A Simple Centrifugal Speed Governor.

Figure 1. A Simple Centrifugal Speed Governor. ENGINE SPEED CONTROL Peter Westead and Mark Readman, contro systems principes.co.uk ABSTRACT: This is one of a series of white papers on systems modeing, anaysis and contro, prepared by Contro Systems

More information

Overview of Health and Safety in China

Overview of Health and Safety in China Overview of Heath and Safety in China Hongyuan Wei 1, Leping Dang 1, and Mark Hoye 2 1 Schoo of Chemica Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P R China, E-mai: david.wei@tju.edu.cn 2 AstraZeneca

More information

History of Stars and Rain Education Institute for Autism (Stars and Rain)

History of Stars and Rain Education Institute for Autism (Stars and Rain) History of Education Institute for Autism () Estabished:: March 15. 1993 in Beijing Founder:: Ms. Tian Huiping (mother of a boy with autism) STARS AND RAIN was founded in 1993 by a parent and is China

More information

The growth of online Internet services during the past decade has

The growth of online Internet services during the past decade has IEEE DS Onine, Voume 2, Number 4 Designing an Adaptive CORBA Load Baancing Service Using TAO Ossama Othman, Caros O'Ryan, and Dougas C. Schmidt University of Caifornia, Irvine The growth of onine Internet

More information

Traffic classification-based spam filter

Traffic classification-based spam filter Traffic cassification-based spam fiter Ni Zhang 1,2, Yu Jiang 3, Binxing Fang 1, Xueqi Cheng 1, Li Guo 1 1 Software Division, Institute of Computing Technoogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080, Beijing,

More information

Assigning Tasks in a 24-Hour Software Development Model

Assigning Tasks in a 24-Hour Software Development Model Assigning Tasks in a -Hour Software Deveopent Mode Pankaj Jaote, Gourav Jain Departent of Coputer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technoogy, Kanpur, INDIA 006 Eai:{jaote, gauravj}@iitk.ac.in

More information

Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time

Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time Journa of Heathcare Engineering Vo. 6 No. 3 Page 34 376 34 Comparison of Traditiona and Open-Access Appointment Scheduing for Exponentiay Distributed Service Chongjun Yan, PhD; Jiafu Tang *, PhD; Bowen

More information

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Chapter 2: Basic Virtua Private Network Depoyment Page 1 of 12 Chapter 2: Basic Virtua Private Network Depoyment Before discussing the features of Windows 2000 tunneing technoogy, it is important to estabish

More information

CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY. Course Offered By: Indian Environmental Society

CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY. Course Offered By: Indian Environmental Society CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Course Offered By: Indian Environmenta Society INTRODUCTION The Indian Environmenta Society (IES) a dynamic and fexibe organization with a goba vision

More information

Sentiment Analysis with Global Topics and Local Dependency

Sentiment Analysis with Global Topics and Local Dependency Proceedings of the Tenty-Fourth AAAI Conference on Artificia Inteigence (AAAI-10) Sentiment Anaysis ith Goba Topics and Loca Dependency Fangtao Li, Minie Huang, Xiaoyan Zhu State Key Laboratory of Inteigent

More information

Subject: Corns of En gineers and Bureau of Reclamation: Information on Potential Budgetarv Reductions for Fiscal Year 1998

Subject: Corns of En gineers and Bureau of Reclamation: Information on Potential Budgetarv Reductions for Fiscal Year 1998 GAO United States Genera Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 Resources, Community, and Economic Deveopment Division B-276660 Apri 25, 1997 The Honorabe Pete V. Domenici Chairman The Honorabe Harry

More information

Spatio-Temporal Asynchronous Co-Occurrence Pattern for Big Climate Data towards Long-Lead Flood Prediction

Spatio-Temporal Asynchronous Co-Occurrence Pattern for Big Climate Data towards Long-Lead Flood Prediction Spatio-Tempora Asynchronous Co-Occurrence Pattern for Big Cimate Data towards Long-Lead Food Prediction Chung-Hsien Yu, Dong Luo, Wei Ding, Joseph Cohen, David Sma and Shafiqu Isam Department of Computer

More information

LT Codes-based Secure and Reliable Cloud Storage Service

LT Codes-based Secure and Reliable Cloud Storage Service 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM LT Codes-based Secure and Reiabe Coud Storage Service Ning Cao Shucheng Yu Zhenyu Yang Wenjing Lou Y. Thomas Hou Worcester Poytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA University

More information

l l ll l l Exploding the Myths about DETC Accreditation A Primer for Students

l l ll l l Exploding the Myths about DETC Accreditation A Primer for Students Expoding the Myths about DETC Accreditation A Primer for Students Distance Education and Training Counci Expoding the Myths about DETC Accreditation: A Primer for Students Prospective distance education

More information

GREEN: An Active Queue Management Algorithm for a Self Managed Internet

GREEN: An Active Queue Management Algorithm for a Self Managed Internet : An Active Queue Management Agorithm for a Sef Managed Internet Bartek Wydrowski and Moshe Zukerman ARC Specia Research Centre for Utra-Broadband Information Networks, EEE Department, The University of

More information

Best Practices for Push & Pull Using Oracle Inventory Stock Locators. Introduction to Master Data and Master Data Management (MDM): Part 1

Best Practices for Push & Pull Using Oracle Inventory Stock Locators. Introduction to Master Data and Master Data Management (MDM): Part 1 SPECIAL CONFERENCE ISSUE THE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE Orace Appications USERS GROUP spring 2012 Introduction to Master Data and Master Data Management (MDM): Part 1 Utiizing Orace Upgrade Advisor for

More information

GWPD 4 Measuring water levels by use of an electric tape

GWPD 4 Measuring water levels by use of an electric tape GWPD 4 Measuring water eves by use of an eectric tape VERSION: 2010.1 PURPOSE: To measure the depth to the water surface beow and-surface datum using the eectric tape method. Materias and Instruments 1.

More information

Australian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers

Australian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers Purpose Austraian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers 1 The principa objective of the Austraian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in respect of business providers is to impose the owest oad

More information

Sketch-based Network-wide Traffic Anomaly Detection

Sketch-based Network-wide Traffic Anomaly Detection Sketch-based Network-wide Traffic Anomay Detection Yang Liu, Linfeng Zhang, and Yong Guan Department of Eectrica and Computer Engineering Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 500 Emai: {yang, zhangf, guan}@iastate.edu

More information

STUDY MATERIAL. M.B.A. PROGRAMME (Code No. 411) (Effective from 2009-2010) II SEMESTER 209MBT27 APPLIED RESEARCH METHODS IN MANAGEMENT

STUDY MATERIAL. M.B.A. PROGRAMME (Code No. 411) (Effective from 2009-2010) II SEMESTER 209MBT27 APPLIED RESEARCH METHODS IN MANAGEMENT St. PETER'S UNIVERSITY St. Peter s Institute of Higher Education and Research (Decared Under Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956) AVADI, CHENNAI - 600 054 TAMIL NADU STUDY MATERIAL M.B.A. PROGRAMME (Code No.

More information