Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes

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1 Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes Alan K. Betts Atmospheric Research, CMMAP August 19, 2009

2 Outline of Talk Land-surface climate: - surface, BL & cloud coupling 1) LBA data: Jaru forest & Rondonia pasture - BL-cloud-radiative flux coupling 2) Idealized equilibrium model: - forest and grassland; double CO 2 - impact on BL cloud, NEE and temperature

3 References Betts, A. K. (2007), Coupling of water vapor convergence, clouds, precipitation, and land-surface processes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10108, doi: /2006jd Betts, A. K. (2009), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model Earth Syst., Vol. 1, Art. #4, 18 pp., doi: /JAMES Betts, A. K. (2009), Idealized model for changes in equilibrium temperature, mixed layer depth and boundary layer cloud over land in a doubled CO 2 climate. J. Geophys. Res. (submitted), 2009JD012888

4 Land surface climate Highly coupled system: mean state + diurnal cycle - Surface processes: evaporation & carbon exchange - Atmospheric processes: clouds & precipitation; ω Clouds have radiative impact on SEB in both shortwave and longwave Precipitation affects RH and LCL Clouds are observable, but are poorly modeled Quantify by scaling shortwave cloud forcing as an effective cloud albedo

5 Cloud Albedo SW net = SW down -SW up =(1- α surf )(1- α cloud ) SW down (clear) surface albedo α surf = SW up /SW down effective cloud albedo -a scaled surface short-wave cloud forcing, SWCF where α cloud = - SWCF/SW down (clear) SWCF = SW down -SW down (clear) [Betts and Viterbo, 2005; Betts, 2007]

6 Jaru forest & Rondonia pasture : SWCF [daily mean data: von Randow et al 2004] More cloud over pasture in dry season Aerosol gap in September burning season

7 Jaru forest & Rondonia pasture - transformation to α cloud More cloud over pasture in dry season

8 SW energy balance: forest and pasture Pasture in July, has +8% surface albedo +7% cloud albedo

9 RH & cloud LW net ERA40 point ; Jaru tower & Rondonia pasture Broadly similar [ERA-40 has drier data] Humidity and cloud greenhouse effects [ERA-40 calculations for clear sky]

10 LW net Diurnal Temp. Range DTR quasi-linear with LW net ERA40 has steeper slope than observations Precipitation reduces DTR

11 Organize by α cloud [observable] α cloud, LCL & RH linked Relation tight in rainy season; - poor in dry season

12 T max, T min, DTR with α cloud DTR and α cloud linked ERA-40: T max decreases & T min increases Data: Wet season: T max decreases: T min flat

13 Organize fluxes by α cloud Energy fluxes: quasi-linear Jaru forest carbon flux flat at low α cloud

14 Summer Boreal forest: Saskatchewan [Betts et al. 2006] Similar dependency on α cloud Net CO 2 flux peaks at α cloud ~ 0.35

15 Conclusion -1 Land-surface climate [T, RH, LCL, DTR, fluxes] & cloud are tightly coupled Organize data by α cloud

16 Part 2: How will T, RH, cloud-base, BL clouds and surface fluxes change in a warmer, high CO 2 world? Strategy 1: Fully coupled Earth system model sensitivity tests with ensembles of models Large inter model variation vegetation CO 2 λe BL cloud coupling may have significant errors? Strategy 2: Use idealized model to understand coupled BL cloud system with specified mid tropospheric forcing with SWCF and LWCF for BL clouds

17 Idealized Equilibrium BL model Betts, A. K. (2009), Idealized model for changes in equilibrium temperature, mixed layer depth and boundary layer cloud over land in a doubled CO 2 climate. J. Geophys. Res. (submitted), 2009JD [extension of Betts, Helliker and Berry, JGR 2004] - Vegetation model, equilibrium BL model [24-h mean] with BL-cloud radiative forcing

18 Model Structure External variables: soil moisture index; midtropospheric CO 2, RH, lapse rate [coupled to moist adiabat]; Clear sky SW net radiation SW net, LW net, R net and ML cooling coupled to cloud base mass flux [ cloud forcing ] Canopy photosynthesis model: [Collatz et al, 1991] [LAI, E veg, Q 10 ] = [5, 6, 1.9] for forest [Wisconsin] = [3, 10, 2.1] for grassland Temperature and soil water stress factors

19 Schematic θ mid, RH mid, CO 2mid P s = 650 hpa : specified Cloud-layer subsidence: ρ b W sub q cld, θ cld, CO 2cld Entrainment fluxes linked to jumps and ρ b (W sub + W cld ) P ML = P LCL = cloud-base Mixed layer balance θ m, q m, CO 2m Constant mass divergence Surface fluxes Vegetation model Cloud forcing P LCL : RH m, T m, q m, CO 2m RH sf, T sf, q s (T sf ), CO 2L P s : surface pressure Soil moisture specified

20 Mid-tropospheric boundary conditions Above cloud-base to 650 hpa θ(p) = θ 00 + Γ w (950-p) with Γ w = -dθ w /dp, moist adiabat thru (θ 00, 950). θ cld = θ 00 + Γ w (P ML 50) for Ps = 1000 θ mid = θ 00 + Γ w (300) RH mid = 40% gives q mid ; CO 2mid = 380, 760 ppm Set Oceanic reference θ 00 = (297, 299K) for the present and doubled CO 2 climates

21 Surface radiation & Cloud forcing SW net (clear) = 250 Wm -2 [mid-lat. summer] LW net (clear) = (300-P ML ) Wm -2 SWCF = - 0.4*250 (ρ b W cld )/(ρ b W 40 ) Cloud mass flux 40% cloud albedo LWCF = 20 (ρ b W cld )/(ρ b W 40 ) ML cool = -3[1-0.4 (ρ b W cld )/(ρ b W 40 )] K day -1

22 ML Budget equations Surface energy balance λe+h = R net = SW net (clear)+swcf + LW net (clear)+lwcf - EF = λe/( λe + H) Water balance λe = L ρ b W sub (q m q mid ) = L(ρ b W sub + ρ b W cld )(q m q cld ) Transpiration Subsidence cloud-base flux Heat balance H = - (C p /g) ML cool P ML + C p (ρ b W sub + ρ b W cld ) (θ m θ cld ) Sensible Radiation cloud-base flux CO 2 balance NEE = A ρ b W sub (CO 2m CO 2mid ) = A(ρ b W sub +ρ b W cld )( CO 2m CO 2cld ) where A = 287/8.314 = 34.52

23 Sensitivity studies: SW net (clear) Cloud increases, R net, T air, ML depth barely rise; small increase of EF

24 Sensitivity studies: θ oo Cloud decreases, T air, R net, λe increase, ML a little shallower, small increase of EF

25 Sensitivity studies: CO 2 Canopy conductance drops EF falls a lot, Cloud decreases, R net flat, T air increases & q m decreases, ML deepens a lot

26 Sensitivity studies: subsidence q m falls, ML deepens, cloud decreases, R net increases, T air flat, EF falls a little

27 Climate Change Equilibrium solutions for forest and grassland Current climate: 380 ppm CO climate: 760 ppm CO 2 & moist adiabat tropospheric reference T: tied to SST increase of θ oo +2K [very approx. A1B scenario; AR4-WG1, Ch 11]

28 Changes in ML equilibrium & cloud-base T air RH P LCL P ML Q θ E Soil water index

29 Changes in Surface energy fluxes R net Cloud mass flux & Albedo H λe Soil water index

30 Changes in CO 2 fluxes PH Resp NEE g veg Soil water index

31 Changes with ML depth Forest & grassland data merge Warms and dries as P ML deepens hpa thickness increases

32 Changes with ML depth-2 EF falls as P ML deepens - Upper boundary conditions disappear Cloud mass flux 0 as P ML increases

33 Coupling of NEE, CO 2 and EF NEE, subsidence and CO 2m linked NEE, EF and surface temperature linked NEE > 0 for T sf > 33.5 o C for both climates

34 Equilibrium model conclusions ML-depth, BL-clouds, energy and water balance, CO 2 budget and transpiration are a tightly coupled system Mid-lat. forest to grassland conversion increases BL cloud albedo by +3% and lowers cloud-base by 25 hpa Doubling CO 2 +2K background warming reduces transpiration, RH (-15%) and BL cloud albedo (-10%), deepens ML (60hPa) This amplifies surface warming over land From +2K over ocean to +5K at 2-m over land EF and P ML tightly coupled NEE and CO 2m tightly coupled NEE >0 for T sf > 33.5 o C [Caveats: soil-water & subsidence changes unknown]

35 Conclusions Simplified model shows large changes in BL-cloud over land with vegetation change and warmer high CO 2 climate - qualitative agreement with Hadley model GCM vegetation models should be tested offline in coupled BL mode to separate cloud forcing and carbon sink issues

36

37 Cloud - BL coupling Jaru forest Noon ±2h Cloud amount coupled to cloud-base & RH Temperature decreases as cloud increases θ E is flat: regulated by cloud transports

38 Land-surface-BL Coupling SMI-L1 = (SM )/( ) (soil moisture index) P LCL stratified by Precip. & SMI-L1 or EF Highly coupled system: only P LCL observable: Mixed layer depth

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