# Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon Reading Assignment Chapter 7.1: Overall Structure of Planet Earth Chapter 7.3: Earth s Interior More Precisely 7-2: Radioactive Dating Chapter 7.5: Earth s Magnetosphere Chapter 7.4: Surface Activity Chapter 7.2: Earth s Atmosphere Discovery 7-1: The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Chapter 8.2: Physical Properties (The Moon) Chapter 8.8: The Origin of the Moon Chapter 8.1: Orbital Properties (The Moon) Chapter 7.6: The Tides Chapter 8.4: Rotation Rates (The Moon) Chapter 8.7: Interiors (The Moon) Chapter 8.3: Surface Features on the Moon and Mercury (The Moon) More Precisely 8-1: Why Air Sticks Around Chapter 8.5: Lunar Cratering and Surface Composition Chapter 8.9: Evolutionary History of the Moon and Mercury (The Moon) Math Notes Average Surface Temperature of a Rapidly Rotating or a Sufficiently Atmosphered Planet (or Moon) Read Chapter 7.2. If a planet (or moon) rotates rapidly, the side facing the sun does not have enough time to heat up too much and the side facing away from the sun does not have time to cool down too much, so both sides of the planet radiate about the same amount of heat into space, cooling the planet. If a planet (or moon) rotates slowly but has a sufficiently thick atmosphere, the atmosphere will redistribute heat from the side facing the sun to the side facing away from the sun, again resulting in a relatively uniform distribution of surface temperature. So again, both sides of the planet radiate about the same amount of heat into space, cooling the planet. A = albedo, or average fraction of incoming light that is reflected back into space d = average distance from the sun T = (278 K) (1 - A) 1/4 (d / 1 AU) -1/2

2 Note: This equation assumes that there is no greenhouse effect. If the planet (or moon) has an atmosphere and it has a greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature will be higher. Note: This equation also holds for Jovian planets, in which case surface refers to the depth at which we can no longer see any deeper (i.e., the cloud tops). Subsolar Temperature of a Slowly Rotating, Insufficiently Atmosphered Planet (or Moon) Read Chapter 8.2. The subsolar point is the point on a planet s (or moon s) surface that is directly below the sun. The subsolar temperature is the temperature at this point. If a planet (or moon) rotates slowly and does not have a sufficiently thick atmosphere to redistribute heat, the side facing the sun heats up and the side facing away from the sun cools down. Furthermore, this means that only one side of the planet radiates most of the heat into space, which means that the planet cools less than if both sides were radiating heat into space. A = albedo d = distance from the sun T = (393 K) (1 - A) 1/4 (d / 1 AU) -1/2 Average Density average density = (1 Earth density) (M / 1 Earth mass) / (R / 1 Earth radius) 3 average density = (5520 kg/m 3 ) (M / 1 Earth mass) / (R / 1 Earth radius) 3 the moon is Earth radii. What is the average density of the moon? Solution: average density = (5520 kg/m 3 ) / (0.273) 3 = 3340 kg/m 3 Surface Gravity surface gravity = (1 Earth surface gravity) (M / 1 Earth mass) / (R / 1 Earth radius) 2 the moon is Earth radii. What is the surface gravity of the moon? Solution: surface gravity = (1 Earth surface gravity) / (0.273) 2 = Earth surface gravity

3 Consequently, your weight on the moon is your weight on Earth. Escape Speed escape = (1 Earth escape ) [(M / 1 Earth mass) / (R / 1 Earth radius)] 1/2 escape = (11.2 km/s) [(M / 1 Earth mass) / (R / 1 Earth radius)] 1/2 the moon is Earth radii. What is the escape of the moon? Solution: escape = (11.2 km/s) ( / 0.273) 1/2 = 2.38 km/s Atmospheric Composition Read More Precisely 8-1. Consider molecules in a planet s (or moon s) atmosphere. The hotter the atmosphere, the faster the molecules move. Most molecules move near the average for a gas of that temperature. But many molecules move slower and faster. If the faster moving molecules are moving in excess of the gravitational escape of the planet, they will be lost into space. Eventually, slower moving particles will warm up and take their place, and will also be lost into space. Eventually, nearly all of that type of molecule will be lost into space. So how fast is too fast? As a rule of thumb, if 6 average > escape, nearly all of that type of molecule will be lost into space. T = surface temperature m = mass, or number of protons plus number of neutrons average = (0.157 km/s) [(T / 1 K) / m] 1/2 Note: This equation also holds for Jovian planets, in which case surface refers to the depth at which we can no longer see any deeper (i.e., the cloud tops). Example: Earth s average surface temperature is 288 K and its escape is 11.2 km/s. The following table shows which molecules escape (lighter molecules, like hydrogen) and which are gravitationally bound (heavier molecules, like nitrogen and oxygen, which make up most of Earth s atmosphere):

4 Molecule m T (K) average 6 average escape Escapes? H Yes He No * N No O No * He would be gravitationally bound, but escapes due to other processes. Example: The moon s average surface temperature is 227 K and its escape is 2.4 km/s. The following table shows which molecules escape (all of them) and which are gravitationally bound (none of them): Molecule m T (K) average 6 average escape H Yes He Yes N Yes O Yes Escapes? Radioactive Dating Some elements are not stable. For example, 238 U (uranium) decays to 206 Pb (lead) and 235 U decays to 207 Pb. Uranium has 92 protons and lead has 82 protons. The number in the upper left hand corner is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons: Element Protons Neutrons Protons + Neutrons 238 U U Pb Pb Consider a sample of 238 U. Half of it will decay to 206 Pb in 4.5 billion years. This is called the half-life 238 U. Half of what s left will decay in another 4.5 billion years, leaving only one quarter of the original sample after two half-lifes. Half of what s left will decay in another 4.5 billion

### 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets

The Jovian Planets The Jovian planets are gas giants - much larger than Earth Sizes of Jovian Planets Planets get larger as they get more massive up to a point... Planets more massive than Jupiter are

### Objectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory

PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics Basic Atomic Theory Objectives Introduce and Molecules The periodic Table Electronic Energy Levels Atomic excitation & de-excitation Ionisation Molecules Constituents

### Name: Date: Period: Gravity Study Guide

Vocabulary: Define the following terms. Law of Universal Gravitation Gravity Study Guide Weight Weightlessness Gravitational Field Black hole Escape velocity Math: Be able to use the equation for the law

### UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

### CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet? 2. That Earth, evidence that Earth differentiated.

### WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM??

WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM?? In the very beginning, both space and time were created in the Big Bang. It happened 13.7 billion years ago. Afterwards, the universe was a very hot, expanding soup

### Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

### Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

### Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1.

IB PHYSICS: Gravitational Forces Review 1. This question is about gravitation and ocean tides. (b) State Newton s law of universal gravitation. Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational

### Geol 116 The Planet Class 7-1 Feb 28, 2005. Exercise 1, Calculate the escape velocities of the nine planets in the solar system

Exercises/Discussions Atmospheric Composition: Escape Velocities and Surface Temperature Objectives Escape velocity and the mass and size of a planetary body The effect of escape velocity and surface temperature

### Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

### Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 What is the constitution of the Solar System? The Solar System is constituted not only by planets, which have satellites, but also by thousands

### Name Class Date. true

Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

### A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

Q12.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

### Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name:

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose

### Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Announce: Mercury Transit Part 2 of Projects due next Thursday Ch. 8 Formation of the Solar System Philip on The Physics of Star Trek Radiometric Dating Lab

### Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? 1. Patterns of motion of the large bodies Orbit in same direction and plane 2. Existence of

### Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma)

### Layers of the Earth s Interior

Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior.

### 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

### Composition of the Atmosphere. Outline Atmospheric Composition Nitrogen and Oxygen Lightning Homework

Molecules of the Atmosphere The present atmosphere consists mainly of molecular nitrogen (N2) and molecular oxygen (O2) but it has dramatically changed in composition from the beginning of the solar system.

### STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

### The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe

### Solar Nebula Theory. Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained:

Solar Nebula Theory Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained: 1. All planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun s rotation 2. All planetary orbits are confined to the

### Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

### Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

### Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

### Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

### Teaching Time: One-to-two 50-minute periods

Lesson Summary Students create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet s temperature. Students will explore some of the same principles scientists

### CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

reflect Our solar system is made up of thousands of objects, at the center of which is a star, the Sun. The objects beyond the Sun include 8 planets, at least 5 dwarf planets, and more than 170 moons.

### Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

### Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

### Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

### California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

### Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System 8.1 The Search for Origins What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? What theory best explains the features of our solar system? What properties

### Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

### 8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1.1 Moon and Terrestrial planets At visible wavelengths all the emission seen from these objects is due to light reflected from the sun. However at radio

### KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

### 3 Atomic Structure 15

3 Atomic Structure 15 3.1 Atoms You need to be familiar with the terms in italics The diameter of the nucleus is approximately 10-15 m and an atom 10-10 m. All matter consists of atoms. An atom can be

### This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship. For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June 2008: 14:00 to 16:00

Imperial College London BSc/MSci EXAMINATION June 2008 This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship SUN, STARS, PLANETS For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June

### The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8.

Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:

### Practice TEST 2. Explain your reasoning

Practice TEST 2 1. Imagine taking an elevator ride from the1 st floor to the 10 th floor of a building. While moving between the 1 st and 2 nd floors the elevator speeds up, but then moves at a constant

### What causes Tides? If tidal forces were based only on mass, the Sun should have a tidegenerating

What are Tides? Tides are very long-period waves that move through the oceans as a result of the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun for the water in the oceans of the Earth. Tides start in

### Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

### Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

### The Sun and Solar Energy

I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives

### Introduction to Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus

### Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

### GRAVITY CONCEPTS. Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter

IT S UNIVERSAL GRAVITY CONCEPTS Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter Weight is a measure of the gravitational force pulling objects toward Earth Objects seem weightless when

### Noble Gases. Outline Nobel Gas Elements Radon and Health Chemistry Homework

Radon and Other Noble Gases The elements in the last column of the periodic table are all very stable, mono-atomic gases. Until 1962, they were called inert gases because they did not react with other

### Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

### Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Hassen M. Yesuf (hyesuf@ucsc.edu) September 29, 2011 1 Lecture summary Protein molecules, the building blocks of a living organism, are made

### Solar Energy Production

Solar Energy Production We re now ready to address the very important question: What makes the Sun shine? Why is this such an important topic in astronomy? As humans, we see in the visible part of the

### Q3.2.a The gravitational force exerted by a planet on one of its moons is 3e23 newtons when the moon is at a particular location.

Q3.2.a The gravitational force exerted by a planet on one of its moons is 3e23 newtons when the moon is at a particular location. If the mass of the moon were three times as large, what would the force

### WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System Aurorae in the Solar System Sponsoring Projects Galileo Europa Mission Jupiter System Data Analysis Program ACRIMSAT Supporting Projects Ulysses Project Outer Planets

### ............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq.

1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,

### Radiometric Dating. Dating Methods for Igneous Rocks

Radiometric Dating why radiometric? although several different dating techniques are employed, all but radiometric dating is able to estimate ages in timescales relevant to astronomers. How it works Radiometric

### Assignment 5. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Assignment 5 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the single most important reason that astronomers have learned more

### PHYA5/1. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2012. Unit 5 Nuclear and Thermal Physics Section A

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examinerʼs Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examinerʼs Initials General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2012 Question 1 2 Mark Physics

### THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

### Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

OpenStax-CNX module: m42217 1 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

### Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

### SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

Lesson Topics Covered SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 Note: History of Atomic Theory progression of understanding of composition of matter; ancient Greeks and

### 22.1 Nuclear Reactions

In the Middle Ages, individuals called alchemists spent a lot of time trying to make gold. Often, they fooled people into believing that they had made gold. Although alchemists never succeeded in making

### The Earth's Atmosphere. Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere

The Earth's Atmosphere The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space.

### Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

### SGL 101 MATERIALS OF THE EARTH Lecture 1 C.M.NYAMAI LECTURE 1. 1.0 ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH

LECTURE 1. 1.0 ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH 1.1 INTRODUCTION. Welcome to Lecture 1 of this unit. To start with, stop and look around you wherever you are. Take a look at all the things

### Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17

Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 17 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative

### The Moon. Nicola Loaring, SAAO

The Moon Nicola Loaring, SAAO Vital Statistics Mean distance from Earth Orbital Period Rotational Period Diameter 384,400 km 27.322 days 27.322 days 3476 km (0.272 x Earth) Mass 7.3477 10 22 kg (0.0123

### GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS PHYSICS 20 GRAVITATIONAL FORCES. Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units:

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units: Formula Description This is the formula for force due to gravity or as we call it, weight. Relevant

### Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes

Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes Standards Connections Connections to NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation C.3.a.1 Fundamental structures of atoms and molecules. C.3.b.27 Applications

### Transcript 22 - Universe

Transcript 22 - Universe A few introductory words of explanation about this transcript: This transcript includes the words sent to the narrator for inclusion in the latest version of the associated video.

### Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

### Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart.

Physics Unit Exam, Kinematics 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by

### 7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

### Chapter NP-1. Nuclear Physics. Atomic Nature of Matter TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES

Chapter NP-1 Nuclear Physics Atomic Nature of Matter TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES 1.1 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 2.0 COMPOSITION OF ATOMS 2.1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

### Solar System Overview

Solar System Overview Planets: Four inner planets, Terrestrial planets Four outer planets, Jovian planets Asteroids: Minor planets (planetesimals) Meteroids: Chucks of rocks (smaller than asteroids) (Mercury,

### Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

### CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

### Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) Dating

Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) Dating K-Ar Dating In 10,000 K atoms: 9326 39 K 673 41 K 1 40 K Potassium Decay Potassium Decay Potassium Decay Argon About 1% of atmosphere is argon Three stable isotopes of argon

### Presentation of problem T1 (9 points): The Maribo Meteorite

Presentation of problem T1 (9 points): The Maribo Meteorite Definitions Meteoroid. A small particle (typically smaller than 1 m) from a comet or an asteroid. Meteorite: A meteoroid that impacts the ground

### State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

5 Question 1. [Marks 20] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

### Appropriate space vocabulary for Primary School

Appropriate space vocabulary for Primary School Stuff Looks like Gas Dust Rock Liquid Fatter (moon) Thinner (moon) Faster Slower Hot Cold Material Shape Straight at (an object) Direct (light) Indirect

### Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted

### PTYS/ASTR 206 Section 2 Spring 2007 Homework #2 (Page 1/5) NAME: KEY

PTYS/ASTR 206 Section 2 Spring 2007 Homework #2 (Page 1/5) NAME: KEY Due Date: start of class 2/6/2007 5 pts extra credit if turned in before 9:00AM (early!) (To get the extra credit, the assignment must

### Characteristics of the. thermosphere

Characteristics of the Atmosphere. If you were lost in the desert, you could survive for a few days without food and water. But you wouldn't last more than five minutes without the ' Objectives Describe

### 7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

### Newton s Law of Gravity

Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

### Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION

Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

### EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

### The Layout of the Solar System

The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density

### Atomic Theory Part 1

Atomic Theory Part 1 Reading: Ch 2 sections 1 6, 8 Homework: Chapter 2: 39, 47, 43, 49, 51*, 53, 55, 57, 71, 73, 77, 99, 103 (optional) * = important homework question The Atomic Theory (John Dalton, 1803)

### The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability

### 1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle?

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.

### Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

### ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 3 Answers

ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 3 Answers 1. Earth's atmosphere differs from those of near-neighbor planets, Venus and Mars, in one important respect

### Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES SCHEDULE PREPARATION VOCABULARY MATERIALS. For each team of four. The students. For the class.

activity 4 Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES Students are introduced to the structure of the atom and the nature of subatomic particles. The students are introduced to the properties of protons, neutrons, and