7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

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1 1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space between stars is known to contain A. large quantities of dust that absorb and scatter light but no gas, either atomic or molecular. B. variable amounts of gas but no dust, which forms only in planetary systems near stars. C. a perfect vacuum. D. gas, both atomic and molecular, and dust. 3. Interstellar extinction is the A. assimilation of interstellar matter by stars after gravitational attraction and capture. B. reduction of the apparent brightness of stars by scattering and absorption of their light by intervening interstellar clouds. C. wipe-out of species on the Earth by intense radiation from a nearby supernova. D. deaths of high-mass stars in the space between other long-lived stars. 4. The Pleiades cluster consists of a number of bright stars wrapped in a cloud of gas and dust that appears blue. This cluster is an example of A. a giant molecular cloud. B. a dark nebula. C. a reflection nebula. D. a stellar nursery. 5. How much of the visible mass of the Milky Way Galaxy is in the form of gas and dust spread out between the stars? A. 90% B. less than 1% C. 50% D. 10% 6. What is the most abundant element in the universe? A. carbon B. helium C. oxygen D. hydrogen 7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D. ultraviolet light

2 8. Which of the following easily observed molecular species is used as a tracer for the fundamental but difficult to observe H 2 molecules in giant molecular clouds? A. hydroxyl (OH) B. water vapor (H 2 O) C. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) D. carbon monoxide (CO) 9. The density of carbon monoxide is observed in a particular interstellar cloud to be 500 CO molecules per cubic meter. What will be the expected density of molecular hydrogen gas, H 2, in this cloud? A. 500 million molecules of H 2 per cubic meter B. 500 molecules of H 2 per cubic meter C. 5 million molecules of H 2 per cubic meter D. 50,000 molecules of H 2 per cubic meter 10. How is gas distributed in interstellar space? A. in clumps, concentrated in interstellar clouds B. concentrated in narrow riverlike streams of gas that extend across the Galaxy C. uniformly distributed through space D. concentrated around existing stars because of the stars' gravitational pull 11. What is the typical mass of a giant molecular cloud? A. 10 to 100 solar masses B to 10,000 solar masses C. 100,000 to 1 million solar masses D. 10 million to 1 billion solar masses 12. What is a typical size for a giant molecular cloud? A. 100 ly across B ly across C. anything up to about 1 ly across D. 10 ly across 13. The mass of a particular interstellar giant molecular cloud is 2 million solar masses. Approximately what is the mass of the hydrogen in this cloud? A. 40,000 solar masses B. 1 million solar masses C. 1.5 million solar masses D million solar masses

3 14. A reflection nebula is made visible by A. thermal energy emitted as a continuous spectrum by the very hot gas, much like that emitted by a hot body on the Earth. B. light from embedded stars reflected over a wide range of wavelengths toward the Earth by crystals of water, methane, and ammonia ices. C. emission lines from hydrogen, which itself has been ionized by UV light from embedded stars. D. blue light preferentially scattered by dust grains. 15. What radiation ionizes the hydrogen in an emission nebula (H II region)? A. ultraviolet radiation from O and B stars B. X rays from the coronas of solar-type stars C. infrared radiation from pre main-sequence stars D. gamma rays from neutron stars 16. The Horsehead Nebula in Orion (see Figure 10-2 in Comins, Discovering the Essential Universe, 5th ed.) is a distinct dark region surrounded by brighter regions. The Horsehead is an example of A. an emission nebula. B. a black hole. C. a Bok gobule. D. a dark nebula. 17. Which of the following statements about open star clusters is true? A. Open star clusters slowly condense into globular clusters as the stars drive off the remaining interstellar dust and gas. B. One star in an open cluster eventually undergoes a supernova explosion that quickly disperses the other stars. C. As open star clusters slowly condense, their residual rotation spins them into a flat pancake shape and they become spiral galaxies. D. The motions of individual stars are such that all open clusters eventually disperse. 18. How do massive stars normally end their lives? A. Massive stars gradually shrink to the size of the Earth. B. We don't know how massive stars normally end their lives since their lifetimes are longer than the age of the universe. C. Massive stars collapse and become black holes. D. Massive stars explode. 9. The most likely places in which stars and planetary systems are forming in the universe are A. the centers of galaxies. B. nebulae composed of gas and dust. C. regions surrounding quasars. D. the rarified space between galaxies.

4 20. What condition is considered sufficient for an interstellar cloud to collapse and form a star or stars (i.e., if this condition holds then the cloud has to collapse)? A. The cloud must be alone in space (far from stars and other interstellar clouds). B. Gravity must dominate gas pressure inside the cloud. C. Gravity must be strong enough to reach all parts of the cloud. D. The cloud must be cooler than 100 K. 21. The Jeans instability describes the A. explosion of a star at the end of its life, the supernova phenomenon. B. overcoming of gas pressure by self-gravity in a cold and dense interstellar cloud to form a star. C. conditions under which sufficient numbers of neutrinos can trigger the collapse of an interstellar cloud. D. expansion of a gas cloud after gravitational contraction because of build-up of great heat within the cloud from gravitational potential energy. 22. What is the typical temperature inside the dense core of a giant molecular cloud that is collapsing to form a star? A. less than 1 K B. 10 K C K D. 100 K 23. Parts of a supernova remnant become visible A. because of radioactive elements that were created in the supernova and carried along with the remnant. B. when large hot stars form within the gas and dust of the remnant and emit radiation which excites the remaining gas. C. when they collide with other clouds of gas and dust. D. when they interact with the galaxy's strong magnetic field. 24. How does an interstellar cloud collapse to become a star? A. The innermost part collapses first; then the outer part is drawn in by the gravity of the inner part. B. The collapse is turbulent and chaotic, with no overall pattern. C. The outer, less dense part falls in first and its weight accelerates the collapse of the inner part. D. All parts of the cloud accelerate inward more or less smoothly and evenly. 25. What is a protostar? A. sphere of gas after collapse from an interstellar cloud but before nuclear reactions have begun B. small interstellar cloud before it collapses to become a star C. star near the end of its life before it explodes as a supernova D. shell of gas left behind from the explosion of a star as a supernova

5 26. Where are protostars most likely to form? A. emission nebulae B. reflection nebulae C. dark nebulae D. planetary nebulae 27. Protostars are A. very young objects still contracting before becoming true stars. B. old stars contracting after using up all of their available hydrogen fuel. C. objects with less than about 0.08 solar mass that do not have enough mass to become true stars. D. stars made almost entirely out of protons. 28. What is believed to be the most important factor determining whether a collapsing region (dense core) in an interstellar cloud becomes a single-star or a multiple-star system? A. fraction of heavy elements in the cloud B. temperature C. mass of the collapsing region D. amount of rotation (spin) 29. Accretion of matter in an interstellar cloud leads to A. a supernova explosion since accretion is a nuclear process. B. explosion of this matter when it is attracted to and falls onto the surfaces of stars. C. the formation of molecules from atomic gases. D. a protostar. 30. In order to produce protoplanets around a new star within a condensing interstellar cloud, a necessary condition seems to be that the cloud must A. be rotating. B. have a relatively high temperature. C. have no rotational motion at all. D. contain a high fraction of its mass as dust. 31. What is the most important process that causes a protostar to stop accreting mass? A. Radiation and particles from the hot protostar push infalling matter away from the protostar. B. Other protostars formed in the vicinity pass randomly through the infalling material and eventually disperse it. C. The dense core spins up as it collapses, and eventually the infalling matter is held away from the protostar by the centrifugal force. D. All of the infalling matter has been used up in the accretion. 32. What is a protostar called in the stage after it has finished accreting mass? A. white dwarf B. red giant (or supergiant) C. pre main-sequence star D. main-sequence star

6 33. What point defines the end of the pre main-sequence phase of a star's life and the start of the mainsequence phase? A. The star begins to expand and become a red giant. B. Convection begins in its interior. C. The star stops accreting mass from the interstellar cloud. D. Nuclear reactions begin in its core. 34. At what temperature do nuclear reactions begin in the core of a pre main-sequence star? A. 100 million K B. 1 million K C. 10 million K D. 100,000 K 35. The evolutionary track of a star represents A. its orbit around the center of the galaxy in which it resides. B. changes in its luminosity and temperature on a graph of these two parameters as the star ages. C. its path across the Earth's sky as a consequence of its true motion in space. D. changes in its size and mass on a graph of these two parameters as the star ages. 36. A main-sequence star can be no smaller than 0.08 solar mass. The reason is that A. thermonuclear reactions begin so suddenly in stars of less than 0.08 solar mass that the star is disrupted by an explosion. B. protostars of less than 0.08 solar mass cannot form. C. protostars of less than 0.08 solar mass are not massive enough to contract. D. the temperature in a contracting protostar of less than 0.08 solar mass does not become high enough for nuclear reactions to start. 37. A brown dwarf is a A. high-mass star surrounded by an extensive and cool atmosphere of dust and gas. B. star of mass less than about 0.08 solar mass whose core temperature is too low to initiate hydrogen fusion. C. type of asteroid, so named because of its color, which indicates oxidized iron, or rust. D. star in the late phases of evolution following the red giant phase whose temperature is very low hence the brown color. 38. What appears to be the limit to the amount of mass that can accumulate as a star before energy from intense nuclear fusion, emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation, ejects further mass away from the star? A. at least 150 solar masses B. only about 3 solar masses, hence the similarity of all observed stars C. 10 solar masses D solar masses

7 39. What name is given to a young, cool star (spectral class G, K, or M) that is ejecting gas into the interstellar medium? A. Cepheid variable B. flare star C. RR Lyrae star D. T Tauri star 40. The Orion Nebula is a A. spiral galaxy in the constellation Orion. B. red supergiant star. C. large interstellar gas and dust cloud containing young stars. D. supernova remnant, the material thrown out by an exploding star. 41. What is the relationship between a giant molecular cloud and an H II region? A. They are two names for the same entity. B. In giant molecular clouds, H II regions surround ultraviolet-emitting stars (types O and B), which have ionized the hydrogen around them. C. In H II regions, giant molecular clouds are concentrations of other molecules like CO and H 2 O. D. Giant molecular clouds evolve into H II regions as the molecules other than hydrogen are used up in star formation. 42. Why do H II regions glow? A. The hydrogen cannot emit radiation because it is fully ionized, so the radiation comes from neighboring molecules of carbon monoxide. B. The H II region collides with a giant molecular cloud exciting the molecules in the cloud to radiate. C. Some H II ions unite with electrons to re-form neutral hydrogen. In this process, the electron passes from level to level in the atom and emits a cascade of photons. D. Protons, which make up H II, collide with each other, resulting in gamma-ray emission from the nuclei. 43. Thermonuclear reactions convert hydrogen into helium in the core of a star during which phase of a star's life? A. main-sequence phase B. protostar phase C. horizontal-branch phase D. as the star moves up the red giant branch for the first time 44. Why is it that the majority of stars in the sky are in the main-sequence phase of their lives? A. Most stars die at the end of the main-sequence phase. B. The main-sequence phase is the longest-lasting phase in each star's life. C. The main-sequence phase is the only phase that is common to all stars. D. Most stars in the sky were created at about the same time, so these are all in the same phase of their lives.

8 45. How is the length of a star's lifetime related to the mass of the star? A. Lower-mass stars run through their lives faster and have shorter lifetimes. B. The lifetimes of stars are too long to measure, so it is not known how (or if) their lifetimes depend on mass. C. A star's lifetime does not depend on its mass. D. Higher-mass stars run through their lives faster and have shorter lifetimes. 46. The total time the Sun will spend as a main-sequence star is A. at least 200 billion years ( ) years. B. about 1 million years. C. about 4.5 million years. D. about 10 billion years (10 10 years). 47. Over which of the following stages of stellar evolution does the radius of a star remain approximately constant? A. main-sequence phase B. asymptotic giant branch phase C. red giant phase D. birth and initial formation 48. What does the term hydrostatic equilibrium mean in reference to stars? A. The pressure throughout a star is constant. B. The pressure within a star is sufficient to cause the star to expand at a constant rate. C. The gravitational force within a star is sufficient to cause the star to collapse inward at a steady rate. D. Each layer within a star is in balance with respect to pressure and gravity. 49. The end of the life of a red dwarf star is predicted to be a sphere of almost pure helium. But no such spheres have been detected. What do we believe is the reason? A. These helium stars are very dim and consequently hard to detect. B. There are very few red dwarfs, so their end products are expected to be rare. C. The evolution rate for red dwarfs is so slow that none has yet evolved to its end stage. D. Helium is a relatively light material, so these helium spheres are expected to dissipate in a short time. 50. What is unique about a low-mass red dwarf star compared with stars at other stages of evolution, such as main-sequence stars? A. A low-mass red dwarf is the smallest in size of any star. B. Nuclear fusion occurs not in the core of a red dwarf but in a region just beneath its surface. C. A red dwarf has the lowest surface temperature of any star. D. Convection occurs throughout the interior of a red dwarf such that the star does not develop separate core and outer layer regions.

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