Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms

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1 Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms

2 Definitions Climate is the average weather of a place over many years Geographers discuss five broad types of climates Moderate, dry, tropical, continental, polar Vegetation: plants that grow naturally within a climate region Landform: an area of the Earth s surface with a definite shape

3

4 Michigan Vegetation

5 Climate Regions

6 Moderate Climate Found in the middle latitudes, this climate has moderate rainfall, temperatures that rarely fall below freezing, and varied vegetation.

7 Moderate Climate Forests include deciduous trees (trees that lose their leaves in fall), shrubs, low bushes, wildflowers, and a variety of grasses.

8 Dry Climate A dry, hot climate with little rain and sandy, gravelly soil.

9 Dry Climate Vegetation is sparse and plant roots are shallow to absorb water before it evaporates.

10 Dry Climate Some plants have small leaves, which lose little moisture.

11 Tropical Climate Found in the low latitudes, this climate is hot, wet, and sunny.

12 Tropical Climate The vegetation is tropical rain forest with thousands of kinds of plants.

13 Tropical Climate Trees grow to 130 feet (40 meters). Other trees, vines, and ferns grow in their shade.

14 Continental Climate Summer temperatures are moderate to hot; winters are cold.

15 Continental Climate Vegetation includes grasslands and forests.

16 Continental Climate Large deciduous forests occur where temperatures are moderate, while colder regions have coniferous trees (trees with needles and cones). Deciduous means the dropping of a part that is no longer needed. For example, deciduous trees or shrubs lose their leaves seasonally. They may also shed petals after flowering or fruit when ripe.

17 Polar Climate This climate is found in the high latitudes and is cold all year

18 Polar Climate Vegetation includes low shrubs, mosses, and lichens (plants that grow on rocks). There are no trees and few flowering plants.

19 Landforms Created by Water

20 Landforms Created by Water River: A large natural stream of water emptying into an ocean, lake, or other body of water Ecosystem: aquatic plants, fish, birds, beavers An ecosystem is a collection of living things (plants, animals, and their environment) and the environment in which they live

21 Landforms Created by Water River delta: deposit of clay, silt, and sand formed at the mouth of a river

22 Landforms Created by Water Lakes: an inland/enclosed body of water Ecosystem: aquatic plants, fish, frogs, ducks

23 Landforms Created by Water Waterfall: a steep drop of the water of a river

24 Landforms Created by Water Beach: the shore of a body of water Ecosystem : microscopic algae, insects Algae is a flowerless plant with an extremely simple structure. It is usually green, but in the seaweeds it is often beautifully colored

25 Landforms Created by Water Bay: a body of water partly enclosed by land but having a wide outlet to the sea Ecosystem: varies based on location

26 Landforms Created by Water Peninsula: a piece of land connected to a larger landmass and surrounded on three sides by water Ecosystem: varies based on location

27 Landforms Created by Water Island: a piece of land surrounded entirely by water Ecosystem: varies based on location

28 Landforms Created by Wind

29 Landforms Created by Wind Desert: a dry, often sandy region of little rainfall, extreme temperatures, and sparse vegetation Ecosystem: shrubs, Prickly Pears, cacti, kangaroo coyote, lizards

30 Landforms Created by Wind Sand Dunes: a hill or ridge of sand deposited by wind

31 Plains and Tundra

32 Plains and Tundra Plain: a large area of flat or gently rolling land

33 Plains and Tundra Tundra: a vast treeless plain in the arctic regions between the ice cap and the tree line

34 Volcanic Landforms

35 Volcanic Landforms Volcanoes: an opening in the earth's crust through which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected

36 Volcanic Landforms Caldera: a large crater formed by volcanic explosion or by collapse of a volcanic cone Crater Lake: a lake of southwest Oregon in a volcanic crater

37 Volcanic Landforms Geyser: hot spring from which water and steam are ejected periodically

38 Mountainous Landforms

39 Mountainous Landforms Mountain: a landform with steep sides that rises more than 2,000 feet above sea level

40 Mountainous Landforms Mountain range: a single line of connected mountains

41 Mountainous Landforms Plateau: a large, mostly flat area that rises above the surrounding land

42 Mountainous Landforms Valley: a long depression in the land between ranges of mountains, hills, or other uplands

43 Mountain Ecosystems If you climb from base to peak of a big mountain, you will pass through a number of different types of plant community.

44 Mountain Ecosystems The foothills may be covered in broadleaved forests

45 Mountain Ecosystems Higher up, coniferous trees like spruce and pines appear.

46 Mountain Ecosystems As you climb higher it gets colder and colder and the trees eventually thin out and disappear. The highest parts of the mountain support only sparse grasses and low growing alpine flowers. If the mountain is high enough even this vegetation disappears and the peak is bare and rocky and perhaps covered in snow and ice.

47 Glacial Landforms

48 Glacial Landforms Arête: a sharp, narrow mountain ridge or spur

49 Glacial Landforms Cirque: a steep walled semicircular basin in a mountain; may contain a lake

50 Glacial Landforms Horn: formed when several glaciers cut into a mountain peak

51 Time to Work on Your Booklets

52 Label the Booklet Pages Label the booklet pages as follows, starting with the smallest (blue) page Landforms Created by Water Landforms Created by Wind Plains and Tundra Volcanic Landforms Mountainous Landforms Glacial Landforms

53 What to Include on Each Page Front Side of Each Page Sketch and label the following items: 2 types of landforms 2 types of plants living in that ecosystem 2 animals living in that ecosystem Back Side of Each Page Write the name and definition of a climate type that corresponds with that landform

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