# Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms

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1 Educational Goals Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms 1. Describe the subatomic structure of an atom. 2. Define the terms element and atomic symbol. 3. Understand how elements are arranged in the periodic table based on the number of protons they contain. 4. Understand how atomic number and mass number are used to indicate details of an atom s nucleus. 5. Know how isotopes of an element differ from one another. 6. Define the term mole and describe the relationship between moles and molar mass. 7. Given the molar mass of an element, convert between number of atoms, number of moles, and mass (grams). An Introduction to Atoms Matter (stuff) is made of. Model of the Atom Check your current model: Draw a carbon atom. Atoms are made of particles. There are three types of subatomic particles that will make up our atomic model: Protons and neutrons are compacted together in what we call the of an atom. Electrons are distributed in space around the nucleus. They are moving very fast in a volume surrounding the nucleus. Atoms are mostly empty space. 1

2 Electrical Charge There are a few fundamental properties of nature. Examples: Gravity, magnetism, and mass. Another fundamental property in nature is. Particles may or may not have electrical charge. There are two types of electrical charge; we arbitrarily call one type and the other type. Every thing we discuss in this course ultimately occurs because of the interaction of these two types of charges. Particles with opposite charges attract each other. The natural attraction is called force. Oppositely charged particles will accelerate toward one another if not held apart. Particles with like charges repel each other. The natural repulsion is called force. Like charged particles will accelerate away from one another if not held together. Subatomic Particles 1) Protons Protons are charged particles located in the of an atom. The number of protons a particular atom contains determines that atom s identity. For example, any atom that contains just one proton is called hydrogen. An atom with two protons is called helium. An atom with six protons is called carbon. Historically, matter with different numbers of protons, such as hydrogen, helium, and carbon were called the. There are 92 elements that occur in nature. About 25 others have been man-made by slamming two atoms together causing their nuclei to combine, however these new atoms do not last long (fractions of a second up to one year), they break apart into smaller atoms. A modern periodic table of the elements is shown on the next page. You can download a copy of this periodic table at: 2

3 3 I Alkali Metals Periodic Table of the Elements VIII Noble Gases 1 H Hydrogen II Alkaline Earth Metals III IV V VI VII Halogens 2 He Helium Li Lithium Be Beryllium B Boron C Carbon N Nitrogen O Oxygen F Fluorine Ne Neon Na Sodium Mg Magnesium Al Aluminum Si Silicon P Phosphorus S Sulfur Cl Chlorine Ar Argon K Potassium Ca Calcium Sc Scandium Ti Titanium V Vanadium Cr Chromium Mn Manganese Fe Iron Co Cobalt Ni Nickel Cu Copper Zn Zinc Ga Gallium Ge Germanium As Arsenic Se Selenium Br Bromine Kr Krypton Rb Rubidium Sr Strontium Y Yttrium Zr Zirconium Nb Niobium Mo Molybdenum Tc Technetium (98) 44 Ru Ruthenium Rh Rhodium Pd Palladium Ag Silver Cd Cadmium In Indium Sn Tin Sb Antimony Te Tellurium I Iodine Xe Xenon Cs Cesium Ba Barium La Lanthanum Hf Hafnium Ta Tantalum W Tungsten Re Rhenium Os Osmium Ir Iridium Pt Platinum Au Gold Hg Mercury Tl Thallium Pb Lead Bi Bismuth Po Polonium (209) 85 At Astatine (210) 86 Rn Radon (222) 87 Fr Francium (223) 88 Ra Radium (226) 89 Ac Actinium (227) 104 Rf Rutherfordium (261) 105 Db Dubnium (262) 106 Sg Seaborgium (263) 107 Bh Bohrium (262) 108 Hs Hassium (265) 109 Mt Meitnerium (266) 58 Ce Cerium Pr Praseodymium Nd Neodymium Pm Promethium (145) 62 Sm Samarium Eu Europium Gd Gadolinium Tb Terbium Dy Dysprosium Ho Holmium Er Erbium Tm Thulium Yb Ytterbium Lu Lutetium Th Thorium Pa Protactinium U Uranium Np Neptunium (237) 94 Pu Plutonium (244) 95 Am Americium (243) 96 Cm Curium (247) 97 Bk Berkelium (247) 98 Cf Californium (251) 99 Es Einsteinium (252) 100 Fm Fermium (257) 101 Md Mendelevium (258) 102 No Nobelium (259) 103 Lr Lawrencium (262)

4 Note that each element is represented by its atomic (a one- or two-letter name abbreviation) and occupies a box in the table. Above each element s symbol is the. The atomic number tells us the of in an atom of that particular element. Example: Look at carbon, symbol C, atomic number 6. Carbon has an atomic number of six because an atom with six protons is called carbon. If it had seven protons, it would not be carbon - it would be nitrogen and have an atomic number of 7. Atomic number can be abbreviated using "Z." o For example, with carbon, Z = 6, with hydrogen, Z = 1. Elements are ordered in the periodic table by increasing atomic number. 2) Electrons Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. They are light-weight particles that move extremely fast. For the remainder of chapter 2 we can visualize the electrons as bees flying around a beehive (the bee hive represents the nucleus). In chapter 3 you will learn more details about the regions around the nucleus that the electrons can occupy. Electrons are very light compared to protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are about 2000 times heavier than electrons and therefore compose most of an atom s mass. 3) Neutrons Neutrons are located in the (with the protons). Neutrons do not have electrical charge; we say they are electrically. The names, charges, and symbols for the three types of subatomic particles are shown below: How many neutrons are in an atom? We cannot determine the number of neutrons in an atom based on the number of protons. This is because atoms of a particular element do not all have the same number of neutrons. Example: Some carbon atoms have six neutrons, some have seven neutrons, and some have eight neutrons. These three different forms of carbon are called of carbon. Isotopes are defined as atoms with the same number of protons (same element), but a different number of neutrons. 4

5 You learned that an atom s atomic number (Z) is the number of protons it contains. When considering the number of neutrons in an isotope of a particular atom, it is useful to learn a new term called mass number. The of an atom is defined as the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. Mass number can be abbreviated using A. mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons Example: How many neutrons are in a sodium (Na) atom that has a mass number of 23? Take notes here: Understanding Check: How many neutrons are in a carbon (C) atom that has a mass number of 14? You will often see one of two shorthand notation methods used to differentiate the various isotopes: Method 1: Write the element symbol, a dash, then the mass number (A) Let s use our three isotopes of carbon for examples: Method 2: Write the element symbol, we superscript the mass number (A) to the left of the symbol. Although redundant, sometimes the atomic number (Z) is also subscripted to the left of the symbol. For example: 5

6 Understanding Check: Fill in the blanks for the following isotopes: a. 14 N number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number b. 15 N number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number c. 42 Ca number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number d. 1 H number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number Atoms are electrically neutral; their total charge is equal to zero. They have the same number of electrons (-) as protons (+), so the positive and negative charges add up to zero (cancel). The Mole Atoms are so tiny and small in mass that it is more convenient to do calculations with a large number of atoms Just like bakers and chefs use eggs by the dozen, chemists use atoms and molecules by the mole. A is a counting unit used for atoms and molecules. A is any term that refers to a specific number of things. a couple = 2 items (e.g. people) a dozen = 12 items (e.g. eggs, donuts) a mole = x (e.g. atoms, molecules) The Chemist s Mole One mole of anything represents x of the things. This is referred to as Avogadro s number. 1 mole = x Understanding Check: How many atoms are in 1 mole of helium (He)? Because the mole is the standard counting unit used to indicate the number of atoms present in a sample, it is useful to convert back and forth from moles to atoms. Use our conversion factor method. The relationship between # of atoms and moles is: 1 mole = x

7 Example: How many carbon atoms are there in mole of carbon? Take notes here: You try one: How many moles are 2.9 x F atoms? The Mole and Mass The of an element is equivalent to the mass (in grams) of one mole of the element. Molar mass is given in the periodic table the symbol of the element. Molar mass units: Example: Carbon molar mass is Another example: 1 mole of argon (Ar) = g Molar mass of argon is g/mole Understanding Check: 1 mole of C = grams of carbon (C) = atoms of C 1 mole of Al = grams of aluminum (Al) = atoms of Al Because the molar mass gives us the between the number of moles and the mass of an element, it can be used to back and forth between moles and mass (in grams). - Use our conversion factor method 7

8 Example: Carbon The relationship between # of moles of carbon and grams of carbon is: 1 mole Carbon = g This can be written as conversion factors: Example Problem: What is the mass of moles of carbon? Take notes here: You try one: How many moles are there in 50.0 g of lead? 8

9 Converting Between the Number of Atoms and Grams Example: (atoms to grams) What is the mass of 2.50 x Lead (Pb) atoms? Take notes here: You try one: (grams to atoms) Compute the number atoms in 10.0 g of Aluminum (Al)? 9

10 The Periodic Table As we continue to build our model of atoms and matter in later chapters, we will gain more understanding of why the elements are arranged as they are in the periodic table and how the periodic table can be very useful in predicting the chemical and physical properties of matter. Classification of Elements Based on Electrical and Heat Conduction 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac Metals (Green) 22 Ti 40 Zr 72 Hf 104 Rf 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 105 Db 24 Cr 42 Mo 74 W 106 Sg Nonmetals (Blue) 25 Mn 43 Tc 75 Re 107 Bh 26 Fe 44 Ru 76 Os 108 Hs 27 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 109 Mt Metalloids (Red) 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 29 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 30 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 5 B 13 Al 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl 6 C 14 Si 32 Ge 50 Sn 82 Pb 7 N 15 P 33 As 51 Sb 83 Bi 8 O 16 S 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 58 Ce 90 Th 59 Pr 91 Pa 60 Nd 92 U 61 Pm 93 Np 62 Sm 94 Pu 63 Eu 95 Am 64 Gd 96 Cm 65 Tb 97 Bk 66 Dy 98 Cf 67 Ho 99 Es 68 Er 100 Fm 69 Tm 101 Md 70 Yb 102 No 71 Lu 103 Lr 10

11 Elements in the periodic table are arranged in columns called (sometimes, but much less often, called Families). Sometimes these groups are shown with group numbers in Roman numerals above the column I 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr II 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac s-block p-block III IV V VI VII d-block f-block B C N O F Transition Metals Al Si P S Cl Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (Inner) Transition Metals VIII 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 6 Lanthanides 58 Ce Actinides 90 7 Th 59 Pr 91 Pa 60 Nd 92 U 61 Pm 93 Np 62 Sm 94 Pu 63 Eu 95 Am 64 Gd 96 Cm 65 Tb 97 Bk 66 Dy 98 Cf 67 Ho 99 Es 68 Er 100 Fm 69 Tm 101 Md 70 Yb 102 No 71 Lu 103 Lr The elements in Group I (also called Group 1A) are called the metals. Although it is not a metal, note that hydrogen is in this group for reasons that I will discuss in chapter 3. The elements in Group II (also called group 2A) are called the earth metals. The elements in Group VII (also called group 7A) are called the. The elements in Group VIII (also called group 8A) are called the. The elements in Group I and Group II are in what is called the -Block. The elements in Groups III - VIII are in the -Block. The, located between the s- and p-blocks, are in the -Block. The Inner Transition Metals, located in the bottom two rows of the periodic table are in the -Block. They are called lanthanides (top row of the f-block) and actinides (bottom row of the f-block). The rows in the periodic table are called. The periods are often numbered to the left of each row. 11

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