From Quantum to Matter 2006

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1 From Quantum to Matter 006 Why such a course? Ronald Griessen Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam AMOLF, May 4, 004 vrije Universiteit amsterdam Why study quantum mechanics? From Quantum to Matter: The main themes Wave functions Molecules Atoms Solids Liquids Books and Lecturers, but ONE idea From Quantum to Matter:The Physics Cees Gooijer Ronald Griessen Quantum physics in every day life Light behaving like particles Particles behaving like waves The Schrödinger equation Ronald Griessen Particle in a box Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam The hydrogen atom Many electron atoms The Periodic System AMOLF, May 4, 004

2 From Quantum to Matter:The Physics From Quantum to Matter: The course AMOLF, May 4, 004 Intermolecular forces Crystal structures Metals Semiconductors Insulators Amorphous solids Liquids x lectures per week tutorial per week Study at home / of final mark Q05/M4/C / of final mark 5 Studentassistenten Tjaart Krueger Sven de Man Jetze Sikkema Ronald Griessen Vrije Anna Universiteit, Wegloop Amsterdam Willem-Jan van Zeist AMOLF, May 4, Mentoren Joost van Barneveld Tomek van de Watering Enak van Essen Anton Koers Max Ongering Ronald Griessen Vrije Loes Universiteit, Scheffers Amsterdam Harriet Mulders Hans Harms AMOLF, May 4, 004 (n&s) (n&s) (sch) (sch) (sch) (mnw) (mnw) (mnw) Indeling studenten 006

3 Quantum Physics in everyday Life Hot Steel and Pyrometer Ronald Griessen Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam AMOLF, May 4, 004 vrije Universiteit amsterdam The energy of photons is quantized E = hν = hω deω ω = dω π c e hω hω k B T x Quantum Physics Electron tunneling Heisenberg s uncertainty principle Spin of the electron p x h + V ( x) p = mv h Ψ m x Ψ = ih t Electron tunneling Heisenberg s uncertainty principle

4 Electron tunneling Most elements are metals The Periodic Table of the Elements Group Period H Li Na 9 K 7 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 4 Be Mg 0 Ca 8 Sr 5 B 6 C 4 Al Si Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge 9 Y Zr Nb Mo 56 Ba * La Hf Ta 88 Ra ** METALS Tc Ru Rh Pd W Re Os Ir Pt NON-METALS Ag Cd Au Hg 7 N 5 P 8 O 6 S 4 As Se In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi 84 Po He 9 0 F Ne 7 8 Cl Ar 5 6 Br Kr 5 54 I Xe At Rn *Lanthanoids * Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er **Actinoids ** Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md Tm Yb Yb 0 No Semiconductors Memory Chip Memory Chip+tunneling 4 atoms 4

5 Memory Chip+tunneling 4 atoms Bloch s theorem ikna Ψ x + na = e Ψ x n N k ( ) ( ) ; k Energy bands e µ S z m S z = ± h Spin of the electron Maxon mini-motor Permanent magnet Spin and the Pauli exclusion principle Permanent magnet Electrons do not like each other PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Why s s p 4? 5

6 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnet Spins can save your life! Brain MRI Detail brain MRI How do you produce strong magnets? 6

7 Sometimes electrons form pairs Meissner effect Superconducting currents J=0 4 A/m Group Period H He Superconductivity is quite common The Periodic Table of the Elements Li Na 9 K 7 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 4 Be Mg 0 Ca 8 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra ** Sc 9 Y * 7 Lu Ti 40 Zr 7 Hf V 4 Nb 7 Ta 4 Cr 4 4 Mo Tc 74 W 5 6 Mn Fe 75 Re 44 Ru 76 Os 7 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 8 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 9 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 0 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 5 B Al Ga 49 In 8 Tl 6 C 4 Si 7 N 5 P Ge As 50 Sn 8 Pb 5 Sb 8 Bi 8 O 6 S 4 Se 5 Te 84 Po 9 F 7 Cl 5 Br 5 I 85 At 0 Ne 8 Ar 6 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnet *Lanthanoids * 57 La **Actinoids ** 89 Ac 58 Ce 90 Th 59 Pr 9 Pa 60 Nd 9 U Pm Sm Eu 9 Np 94 Pu Gd Tb Am Cm Bk 66 Dy 98 Cf 67 Ho 99 Es 68 Er 00 Fm Tm Yb 0 0 Md No Levitating super-trains Photons and electrons in biological systems 7

8 Photosynthesis oveview Photsynthesis antenna Photosynthesis oveview Electron transport Eye vision Retinal 8

9 Up side down thanks to London interaction Scanning tunneling microscope The principle The STM New photo STM Surface of Si Surface of Si with 7x7 reconstruction Br Induced Step Faceting of a Cu Surface 0-9 m The principle Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging of DNA 0-6 m 0-6 m 9

10 Measuring the wave function of an electron Fe on Cu () Gallium-Nitride laser diode Solid state lasers Below threshold Above threshold That s all for today vrije Universiteit amsterdam 0

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F.

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr Ho Bi Ce u Ac I Fl Fr Mo i Md Co P Pa Tc Uut Rh K N Dy Cl N Am b At Md H Y Bh Cm H Bi s Mo Uus Lu P F Cu Ar Ag Mg K Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of cience ducation

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