1 Trends of the Periodic Table Basics Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the trend seems to do the wrong thing. It is important when investigating a particular trend that you examine at least four atoms in a group or period and see what the trend numbers are doing. Choosing just one pair of atoms might show you the exception to a trend rather than the trend itself. The seven trends we study in class are these: 1. atomic size (measured in picometers, pm, this is atomic radius - not really size) 2. average weighted atomic mass (measured in amu) 3. net nuclear charge (how positive is the nucleus, related to # of protons) 4. ion size (cations or anions) 5. electro negativity (relates to bonding) 6. 1st Ionization Energy (removing a mole s worth of electrons from a mole of atoms) 7. metal property or non-metal property (how metallic or non-metallic is this atom?) Group Trends: the trend that the atoms follow going down any particular group Period Trends: the trend that the atoms follow going across any particular period Atomic Size Reference table S shows us atomic radius, which is the measure of distance from nucleus to outer most electron orbital. The measurement is in picometers (1 x meters). The group trend for atomic size is INCREASING. That is because each atom that follows going down a group has one more orbital than the atom above it. Three orbitals are larger than two orbitals, four orbitals are larger than three. The period trend for atomic size is DECREASING. As you go across a period you always keep the same number of electron orbitals but you are adding with each atom an extra proton. The more protons pulling on the same number of electron orbitals pulls the atoms smaller and smaller as you go to the right on the table. The smallest atom in any period is the noble gas, that s the atom with the MOST number of protons with that particular number of orbitals.
2 Atomic Mass Atomic mass is measured in amu, or atomic mass units. The average weighted atomic mass for each atom is listed on the Periodic Table of Elements. Generally speaking the smallest atoms are those with the lowest atomic numbers, and they get heavier as this number increases. Atomic mass is a measure of the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus, as we accept that the mass of electrons is so small that we disregard it. In high school, atomic mass is how many particles are in the nucleus. All atoms have isotopes, chemically identical atoms with different masses because they have different numbers of neutrons. Neutrons are neutral, they don t really affect the chemistry or properties (other than mass), so all isotopes for a given atom react the same way. The group trend for atomic mass is INCREASING. Check this with the Periodic Table. The period trend for atomic mass is also INCREASING, but there are some exceptions (see cobalt and nickel). Exceptions like this are due to the numbers of neutrons in isotopes of certain atoms. Net Nuclear Charge The three subatomic particles, electrons, protons, and neutrons all have particular charges. Electrons are negative (-1) and are all located outside the nucleus. Neutrons are neutral (Ø) and even though they are in the nucleus, add NO CHARGE to the nucleus. The protons of the nucleus are positively charged (+1) and are the measure of net nuclear charge. This trend is a measure of how much positive charge is in the nucleus of the atom, which is measured by how many protons, each with a +1 charge, are in a nucleus of an atom. Since each atom has a certain number of protons (the ATOMIC NUMBER), it s easy enough to count the net nuclear charges. Examples: He has 2 protons and 2 neutrons in the nucleus, this adds to a +2 net nuclear charge Ar has 18 protons and 22 neutrons in the nucleus, this adds to a +18 net nuclear charge. The group trend for net nuclear charge is INCREASING. The period trend for net nuclear charge is INCREASING. There are NO exceptions to this trend. Ion Size Ions come in two varieties, cations are atoms that have lost electrons and become positively charged, and are always metals. Anions are atoms that have gained electrons and become net negatively charged, and are always non-metals. Ions form by gaining or losing enough electrons to get that special stable, noble gas electron configuration. When an ion forms, it obtains a noble gas electron configuration, which is called being ISOELECTRIC to a noble gas. These ions are not noble gases, they obtain the same electron configuration as a noble gas. When an atom becomes a cation it loses ALL of its valence, or outermost electrons. Group one atoms all lose only one electron. Group 2 atoms all lose 2 electrons as they become +2 cations. Metals always lose all of their valence electrons, to become isoelectric to a noble gas. Because cations lose a whole outer (valence) orbital, they are always smaller than the atoms they started out as. The sodium cation is smaller than the sodium atom. The calcium cation is smaller than the calcium atom. The aluminum cation is smaller than the aluminum atom. Cations are always quite a bit smaller than the atoms. When a non-metal atom becomes an anion it gains enough electrons to obtain a full outer orbital, so it can be ISOELECTRIC to a noble gas.
3 Non-metals can gain one, two, or even three electrons to fill the outer valence orbital. When the atoms gain electrons in the valence orbitals this orbital must stretch a bit to accommodate this influx of negative charge. The electrons all repel each other, and the extra electron will force all the electrons in that orbital a bit further away from each other. Anions are always slightly larger than the atoms that they formed from. Atomic size increases going down a group because each atom lower on the table has more orbitals. Same for cations, although a cation is smaller than its atom, each successive cation has more orbitals than the previous. Cations get smaller going across a period as each cation has the same number of electrons as all the other cations in the period, but they gain electrons across the period, so more protons are pulling on the same number of electrons. Cations Na +1, Mg +2, and Al +3 all have ten electrons in a 2-8 configuration but have 11, 12, and 13 protons respectively. Sodium is larger than magnesium because Mg has that extra proton pulling the outer orbital in. The aluminum +3 ion is smallest because it has yet another proton pulling on the same number of electrons in the same number of orbitals. The Group Trend for Cations is INCREASING. The Period Trend for Cations is DECREASING. Anions are all larger than their atoms because they squeeze an extra electron into the outer orbital, where it can fit, but forces all the negatively charged electrons a bit further away from themselves. Looking at group 16, oxygen sulfur and selenium, all get larger as atoms moving down the table. Each anion is larger than it s atom, the anions get progressively larger as well. For a period trend, look at period 3, phosphorous, sulfur and chlorine. The atoms get progressively smaller going across the period. Anions for these three form as P -3, S -2, and Cl -1 respectively. Since there are more and more protons in these ions moving across the period, the anions tend to get smaller moving across the period. The Group Trend for Anions is INCREASING. The Period Trend for Anions is DECREASING. Electronegativity: the tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a bond When atoms make covalent bonds, they share electrons. Each atom puts up one electron, and when a pair of electrons is shared, a single covalent bond forms. H 2, Cl 2, and Br 2 all do this, for example. Each shares a single pair of electrons, each makes a single covalent bond. Since these atoms are identical to each other, and they have the same tendency to attract an electron to itself (they have the same electronegativity values), the bond is a single NON-POLAR covalent bond, neither atom gets those electrons more than the other atom does. When O 2 forms, each oxygen has 6 valence electrons, and each needs to borrow 2 electrons from the other atom in the bond, they form a DOUBLE covalent bond, sharing 2 pairs of electrons. The both oxygen atoms have the same electronegativity value, so it s a double NON-POLAR bond. N 2 has two nitrogen atoms, each with 5 valence electrons, each needing to borrow 3 more electrons to fill the outermost valence orbital. To do this, they both share three electrons, sharing these three pairs of electrons is called a TRIPLE NON-POLAR bond. It s non-polar because again, the two atoms are identical, neither pulls electrons stronger than the other. Electronegativity truly comes into play when atoms with different electronegativity values bond. A basic example is the H-Cl bond in hydrogen monochloride. Since the electronegativity values for H and Cl are 2.2 and 3.2 respectively, there is a difference in electronegativity. This shows the chlorine gets that electron from hydrogen more than hydrogen gets it from the chorine. This bond is not balanced, it s POLAR. It makes a single, polar covalent bond.
4 Electronegativity When CO 2 forms, carbon and each oxygen form double bonds, but since the electronegativity values are 2.6 and 3.2, the oxygen atoms pull these electrons in the bond more so to the oxygen side of the bond. This bond is a double polar covalent. When you compare bonds, such as H-Br, H-Cl, and H-F, the greater the difference in electronegativity, the greater the bond polarity. The E.N. differences here are 0.8, 1.0 and 1.8 respectively. So, the H-F bond is the most polar, the H-Br bond is least polar. If there is ANY difference in electronegativity, the bond is polar. If the difference is ZERO, the bond is non-polar. Linus Pauling created this concept of electronegativity and measured that fluorine has the greatest tendency to gain electrons in a bond. Since he created this scale, he could do what he wanted, and he did just that. Dr. Pauling decided that F would have an EN value of 4.0, the highest value on the table. All other atoms would be compared to Fluorine. Since all atoms are compared to a single standard atom, this is a relative scale. All atoms are measured, relative or compared to a standard that HE decided upon. Electro negativity is an example of a relative scale. Electronegativity does not have units. The numbers he chose because he could as well. They are just numbers to rank the atoms, they do not stand for anything in particular. In addition to being a relative scale, this electronegativity scale is ARBITRARY as well. Table S shows all the EN values for the elements. Some atoms, the smaller noble gases, have no Electronegativity values. These atoms do not make bonds ever, they have NO TENDENCY to gain (or lose) electrons. The Group Trend for electro negativity is decreasing. The Period Trend for electro negativity is increasing. The table trend is the closer you are to F, the higher the EN value (except for noble gases). Some noble gases do have an EN value, and under some unusual conditions some can be forced into a bond. This is an exception, noble gases tend to be relatively INERT, or non-reactive. The period trend for electronegativity is increasing, because in any period you have one orbital, and more and more protons pulling tighter and tighter. There is a greater inward attraction to gain electrons as you move across the table. Until you get to group 18, which already has full orbitals. The group trend for electronegativity is decreasing. This seems odd at first, more and more protons are in the atoms going down any group, but this increased positive charge in the nucleus pulling inwards is offset by the distance the outer most valence orbital is to the nucleus. More protons helps pull inward, distance hurts more than the increased number of protons helps.
5 1st Ionization Energy First Ionization Energy is defined as the amount of energy required to change one mole of atoms into one mole of +1 cations. The +1 cation is called a first order cation. To become a +1 cation, electrons from atoms of lithium or sodium don t just fly off, they are removed, and to do this requires energy to be used up. How much? The amount of energy to make one mole of Na atoms into one mole of Na +1 cations is listed on Table S as 496 kj/mole. Every atom on table S has a First Ionization energy with units of kilojoules per mole. For us, this trend is a vocabulary word, and a trend to follow. Going down group 1 the group trend for 1st Ionization energy is decreasing. Why? With more and more protons one might guess that it would take more energy it remove those electrons in the valence orbital But, as you go down the group each atom adds a whole orbital. The number of protons increases, and they pull with greater inward attraction while the distance grows greater and greater. The distance hurts more than the proton number helps. Electrons far from a nucleus are easier to pull off. Going across a period the trend for 1st ionization energy increases. This is actually intuitive, as with any period trend, you re adding protons in the nucleus with each successive box on the table, while holding the number of orbitals steady. With more protons and the same number of orbitals the atoms get smaller in radius, and their electrons get harder to pull off, because the atoms get smaller and the electrons are pulled inward with greater strength. Metals have lower 1st ionization energy than nonmetals (look at the trends) because metals tend to lose electrons to form cations. Nonmetals can be forced to become +1 cations, but it takes A LOT of energy. Even noble gases can be made into +1 cations, but that takes the MOST energy. Atoms like Mg and Ca only make +2 cations. Aluminum makes a +3 cation. To convert a mole of Mg into a mole of +2 ions requires the application of the 1st Ionization energy PLUS the application of the 2nd Ionization energy (the energy required to remove a second electron from a mole of +1 ions to make them form into +2 ions.) We don t have a chart for the 2nd ionization energy but it s real. As the 3rd Ionization energy. (We concern ourselves only with the 1st level energy, not the others. I add it here because you are smart enough to understand it, and also smart enough to let it go). Noble gases tend to be perfect atoms, and it s very hard to remove their electrons, as the Table S shows us with very high 1st ionization energies. The atom with the highest 1st ionization energy is helium, only 2 electrons but super small. It s so hard to remove those electrons!
6 Metallic Property and Non-Metallic Property Metals are on the left side of the Periodic Table of Elements. They have a variety of properties that make them metallic, such as: luster, electric conductivity, electric conductivity, malleable, ductile, low specific heat capacity, higher density, higher melting point, form cations, etc. If each property could somehow be ranked, and we measure all metals against each other, the MOST METALLIC METAL would be Francium, Fr. In fact, the closer to Fr a metal is on the table, the more metallic it is. Use this idea to rate or rank groups of metals. Example: polonium, lead, silver and zirconium are all metals. Zr is the closest to Fr on the table, therefore, Zr is the most metallic of these four metals. Non-metals are on the right side of the table (plus Hydrogen). They have pretty much the opposite properties of metals. Nonmetal solids are brittle, not able to change shape. The gases are weirder. They also tend to form anions, or no ions, they don t conduct heat, don t conduct electricity, and are dull rather than lusterous. If these nonmetals were ranked (which is the most nonmetallic of them all?) Helium would come up as the MOST NON-METALLIC NON-METAL. The closer an atom is to He on the table, the more non-metallic it is. Example, C, Cl and Ne are all non-metals and neon is the closest on the table to helium, so Ne is the most non-metallic of these three non-metals. Sometimes kids think of crazy questions, like which is more metallic, Cesium or radium, or which is more non-metallic, F or Ne. These questions cannot be answered by our simple proximity tests, so don t worry, no one will ever ask those questions of you. Allotropes Allotropes are sort of stuck into this section. They re cool, important, but don t really fit into any particular spot of the course work. Allotropes are chemically pure forms of an element, but are bonded together in a different fashion. For example: oxygen can be pure O2 or can exist as ozone which has a chemical formula of O3. You can t live by breathing ozone even though it s pure oxygen, and ozone can t keep combustion going either. But ozone protects us from the harmful rays from the Sun, and oxygen is essential for us to stay alive even in the next minute! Allotropes are pure forms of an element, but have different properties and different bonding patterns. Another famous allotrope is graphite in your pencils. They re sheets of carbon atoms bonded together. Diamonds are also carbon atoms bonded together in a different way. Both are pure carbon, but one s good during Regents Week and the other is better for getting engaged! Pure carbon is not always bonded the same way! Allotropes are pure but they have different properties.
7 Parts of the Periodic Table of Elements Even the name of the table is important. The properties of the elements periodically repeat themselves, so that is why it s the PERIODIC table. Group 1 = alkali metals Group 17 = halogens Group 2 = alkaline Earth metals Group 18 = Noble Gases H is the exception, it s a non-metal that acts like a group 1 metal in bonding Transitional metals stretch the middle of the table, plus in the triangle of elements bounded by Al, Tl, and Po. Inner Transitional metals are at the bottom of the chart, and all fit into GROUP 3. Under Yttrium #39 fits all atoms numbered Under that fits all atoms numbered All of these are group 3 metals 7 Metalloids touch the staircase line on the separation between the metals and the nonmetals, with the 2 exceptions being Al & Po (AlPo dog food exception!) Metalloids are metal atoms with some nonmetallic properties, such as Sb Antimony being brittle; or nonmetals with some metallic properties, such as Si silicon being lustrous and able to conduct electricity. All atomic masses are based relative to carbon-12. Carbon is an atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons. It s said to have the exact mass of 12 amu. 1 amu is equal to one twelfth the mass of one C-12 atom. The atomic masses are technically average weighted atomic masses, taking into mathematical consideration all of the naturally occurring isotopes. At STP, all metals are solids, except for Hg, which is liquid. At STP most non-metals are gases, but Br is a liquid and some are solids as well. The modern periodic table was first devised by Dimitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist. It was a tremendous achievement of figuring out a pattern for 70 plus elements into a table that had no particular shape. (remember the puzzle lab!) The table has 118 elements so far, most have been named but a few are still awaiting official confirmation and acceptance.
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KEY for Unit 1 Your Chemical Toolbox: Scientific Concepts, Fundamentals of Typical Calculations, the Atom and Much More The Modern Periodic Table The Periodic Law - when elements are arranged according
THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27) THE PERIODIC TABLE In 1872, Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table arranged
Atomic Theory: History of the Atom Atomic Theory: experimental observations that led scientists to postulate the existence of the atom (smallest bit of an element). 1. Law of Conservation of Mass -During
Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels As you already know, all atoms are made of subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. Positive protons and neutral neutrons are found