Topic: Cycles and Patterns of Earth and the Moon Grade Level: 7

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1 7 th Grade Science Unit: Experiencing Eclipses Unit Snapshot Topic: Cycles and Patterns of Earth and the Moon Grade Level: 7 Duration: 7 Days Summary The following activities allow students to examine and discover the causes for lunar and solar eclipses. Students will have the opportunity to discover past and future eclipses. Clear Learning Targets I can statements identify and explain the causes for lunar and solar eclipses. explain why certain places around the world will experience a lunar and or solar eclipse. Activity Highlights and Suggested Timeframe Day 1 (1/2 Period) Day 2 Engagement: The objective of this activity is to gauge the levels of student prior knowledge of the types of lunar and solar eclipses. Also, to create excitement and interest for the topic. Exploration: The objective of this activity is to participate in a hands-on experience through explorelearning.com-gizmos. Days 3-4 Explanation: The objective of this activity is to allow students a way to show the knowledge that they have obtained by creating a newspaper front page. Day 5 Day 6 and on-going Day 7 Elaboration: The objective of this activity is to allow students the opportunity to research and predict future lunar and solar eclipses using the NASA Eclipse Website. Evaluation: Student will take an exit-ticket, similar to the pre-test that they took at the beginning of this mini-unit. A short-cycle assessment will be given covering eclipses, moon phases and tides. Extension/Intervention: Based on the results of the short-cycle assessment, facilitate extension and/or intervention activities. 1

2 LESSON PLANS NEW LEARNING STANDARDS: 7.ESS.4 The relative patterns of motion and positions of the Earth, moon and sun cause solar and lunar eclipse, tides, and phases of the moon. A solar eclipse is when Earth moves into the shadow of the moon (during a new moon). A lunar eclipse is when the moon moves into the shadow of the Earth (during a full moon). SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY and APPLICATION PRACTICES: During the years of grades K-12, all students must use the following scientific inquiry and application practices with appropriate laboratory safety techniques to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas: Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) that guide scientific investigations Developing descriptions, models, explanations and predictions. Planning and carrying out investigations Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) that conclude scientific investigations Using appropriate mathematics, tools, and techniques to gather data/information, and analyze and interpret data Engaging in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating scientific procedures and explanations *These practices are a combination of ODE Science Inquiry and Application and Frame-work for K-12 Science Education Scientific and Engineering Practices COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS for LITERACY in SCIENCE: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.2d Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. *For more information: STUDENT KNOWLEDGE: Prior Concepts PreK-2: The moon, sun and stars can be observed at different times of day or night. The observable shape of the moon changes throughout the month. The sun s position in the sky changes in a single day and from day to day. The sun is the principle source of energy. Grade 3-5: Earth s atmosphere, introduction to gravitational forces, orbits of planets and moons within the solar system, predictable cycles and patterns f motion between the Earth and sun, and the fact that Earth s axis is tilted is explored. Grade 6: objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy. Objects and substances can store energy as a result of its position (gravitational potential energy). Future Application of Concepts Grade 8: Gravitational forces, frame of reference, forces have magnitude and direction, and gravitational potential energy are explored. High School: Patterns of motion within the solar system are expanded to the universe. The Big Bang theory and origin of the universe are explored. Forces and motion are investigated in depth. 2

3 MATERIALS: Engage Eclipse Pre-Test Explore Computer Access for each individual student 3D Gizmos Handouts Explain Newspaper Front Page Handout Coloring Materials Elaborate Computer Access NASA Eclipse Website Handout SAFETY ADVANCED PREPARATION VOCABULARY: Primary Eclipse Lunar eclipse Solar eclipse Secondary Angle Annular Corona Gravitational Pull Hybrid Partial Path of Totality Penumbra Revolution Rotation Totality Umbra Students should follow all classroom guidelines and procedures; all CCS lab safety rules apply. In previous days to this lesson, students should have learned about the phases of the moon, rotation vs. revolution and orbit. Teachers should have previewed all movies, movie segments, animations and gizmo activities. Teacher should have all handouts and documents printed. Teacher should have all lab equipment out and prepared for students. Teacher should have already created explorelearning.com (Gizmo) accounts for each of their student. Teacher should preview the NASA Eclipse Website: Teacher should secure computer use for students for the elaborate section of the lesson (Day 4-5). Objective: The objective of this activity is to gauge the levels of student prior knowledge of the types of lunar and solar eclipses. Also, to create excitement and interest for the topic. ENGAGE (1 Day) (What will draw students into the learning? How will you determine what your students already know about the topic? What can be done at this point to identify and address misconceptions? Where can connections be made to the real world?) What is the teacher doing? What Do You Know About Eclipses? (Day 1) Introduce to the students that several times a year, spectacular events occur that involve our Sun and Moon. Students should have an understanding of the phases of the moon and the Earth s rotation and revolution. Distribute What Do You Know About Eclipses to the students. Tell the students that this is not a test, but a way to find out what they already know. Allow students time to work on What are the students doing? What Do You Know About Eclipses? (Day 1) 1. Students should be actively involved in taking part in the pre-test, showing what they already know about the types of eclipses. 2. Students should be participating in discussion, asking questions and being engaged in meaningful dialogue with their peers. 3

4 and complete the pre-test. Chapter 19 in the Pearson Prentice Hall textbook, Earth Science, has a great deal of background information if need be. After students take the pre-test, show the following video clip from YouTube; it was shot in Turkey in It is approximately 6 minutes in length. h?v=k42uqwgda_o After watching the clip, discuss with the students what they observed. Is this a common occurrence? Where in the world does it happen? Why is this happening? Teacher may draw out the positions of the eclipses to show the differences and why each occurs and the results of each. 3. Students should be watching the different videos on eclipses to get a basic understanding of what the phenomena is. 4. Students should be taking notes and or drawing the different patterns of each type of eclipse. Objective: The objective of this activity is to participate in a hands-on experience through - Gizmos. EXPLORE (1 Days) (How will the concept be developed? How is this relevant to students lives? What can be done at this point to identify and address misconceptions?) What is the teacher doing? Eclipse GIZMO (Day 2) This activity can be completed as a whole class by projecting the GIZMO on the board, or individually/small group using laptops, computers, or Ipads. Distribute Eclipse GIZMO handouts to help facilitate the investigation. While students are working on the Gizmo, teacher should be circulating to each of the students to help answer questions and to make sure students are on task. What are the students doing? Eclipse GIZMO (Day 2) 1. Students will complete the Eclipse Gizmo either individually or in small groups. 2. Students should be using the information that they have used to help understanding key vocabulary and concepts. EXPLAIN (2 Days) (What products could the students develop and share? How will students share what they have learned? What can be done at this point to identify and address misconceptions?) Objective: The objective of this activity is to allow students a way to show the knowledge that they have obtained by creating a newspaper front page. What is the teacher doing? Eclipse News (Days 3 and 4) Teacher will review and go over the Gizmo that the students worked on in class yesterday. What are the students doing? Eclipse News (Days 3 and 4) 1. Students will be engaged in reviewing their answers to the 3D Eclipse Gizmo. 4

5 ELABORATE (1 Day) (How will the new knowledge be reinforced, transferred to new and unique situations, or integrated with related concepts?) Teacher can answer and clarify any misconceptions or questions that students may be having. Explain to the students that they will be creating a Newspaper front page explaining about a recent solar eclipse. Teacher will instruct students to create a mock newspaper front page about a solar eclipse that just occurred. Students will have to Include the following in their article: 1.) A description of what was visible during the eclipse. 2.) The location(s) from which the eclipse was visible, including a map. 3.) An illustration of an eclipse. 4.) A brief explanation of what an eclipse is (assume the audience has heard of them but is not an expert.) 5.) An advertisement for something related to the Sun or an eclipse. 6.) Students may use the provided template attached below, or create their own. 7.) Students will Use the rubric at the end of this lesson to guide their efforts. Teacher will provide support for students in creating their newspaper. *This portion of lesson adapted from Mensa for Kids Website and the Mensa Education & Research Foundation Students may have the opportunity to share what they have created with classmates either in a whole or small group setting. 2. Students will use their knowledge of eclipses and creativity to actively create a newspaper front page. Objective: The objective of this activity is to allow students the opportunity to research and predict future lunar and solar eclipses using the NASA Eclipse Web Site. What is the teacher doing? NASA Solar vs. Lunar Eclipses (Day 5) Review the newspapers that the students created; ask the students, how often do we experience a solar and or lunar eclipse? What are the students doing? NASA Solar vs. Lunar Eclipses (Day 5) 5

6 Show the following website: eclipse.html Show students where eclipses will be occurring and on which date. Click on Solar Eclipse on the top menu bar. Show the students that we will be having several different types of eclipses. Explain the different types of solar and lunar eclipse. See Vocabulary for specific words. 1. Students will be exploring the NASA Eclipse Website for different information on solar and lunar eclipses Show that on August 21, 2017, we will be having a total solar eclipse not far from Columbus. Bring up the map to show the path of totality. If you have computer access for students, allow students time to explore this website on their own, looking at eclipses during the birth year, or in future years. Students can try to find when the next total solar eclipse will come near Ohio. Allow students to explore website and develop 10 interesting facts. Example facts may be: 1.) When the next total solar eclipse will occur. 2.) Location of next solar eclipse. Allow students to share their findings with their classmates. 2. Students attempt to figure out when the next total solar eclipse will come near Ohio. 3. Students explore the NASA website and discover other interesting facts. EVALUATE (on-going) (What opportunities will students have to express their thinking? When will students reflect on what they have learned? How will you measure learning as it occurs? What evidence of student learning will you be looking for and/or collecting?) Objective: The objective of the assessments is to focus on and assess student knowledge and growth to gain evidence of student learning or progress throughout the lesson, and to become aware of students misconceptions related to the relative patterns of motions and positions of the Earth, moon and sun that cause eclipses. Formative 1. Students will take a five question assessment that involves writing and drawing of concepts that need to be mastered. Summative 1. By reviewing student work during this unit, especially their newspapers and questions from the eclipse website, teachers can look for overall growth. 6

7 EXTENSION/ INTERVENTION (1 day or as needed) EXTENSION 1. Have students research what early civilizations believed eclipse were/what they brought/what caused them. 2. Also, the scoring of the Exit- Ticket will help to establish if mastery of the various concepts has occurred. 3. A teacher created short-cycle assessment can be given related to eclipses, moon phases and tides to assess all learning targets. INTERVENTION 1. Prentice Hall All-In-One Teaching Resources, Unit 5 pp video clips. COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS 1. A solar eclipse can be seen from anywhere facing the sun. 2. The moon is completely visible during a lunar eclipse. 3. Every new and full moon there will be an eclipse. Strategies to address misconceptions: Consider using video clips, models, on-line simulation and diagrams to help address student misconceptions. Lower-Level: Consider pairing up students during the Elaborate section of the lesson to review the webpage together and complete a newspaper together. Higher-Level: Consider having students complete a newspaper article on the computer to practice their technology skills. Have higher-level students who may finish a section of the lesson early complete the extension activity. DIFFERENTIATION Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at the following sites: ELL Learners: Gifted Learners: Students with Disabilities: load.aspx?documentid=

8 Textbook Resources: Prentice Hall Earth Science Textbook Chapter 19, pp Earth in Space, pp Gravity and Motion, pp Phases, Eclipses and Tides, pp ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Websites: Observing Solar Eclipseshttp:// tions/es2505/es2505page01.cfm?chapter_no=25 NASA Eclipse Website- Eclipse Interactive x/220730/eclipse_interactive.swf::Eclipse%20Interactive Mechanics of Solar Eclipsehttp:// Solar Eclipseshttp://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/eclipses.html Mr. Eclipse- Solar Eclipse Educational Videohttp:// Total Solar Eclipse- All About Solar Eclipseshttp:// 7&t=Eclipse Lunar Eclipseshttp:// 3&t=Eclipse Why are Solar Eclipses Only Visible in Some Places?- 7&t=Eclipse Discovery Ed: All About Eclipses: Solar, Lunar, Annular, and Umbra (6:19) Observing the Sun s Corona During a Solar Eclipse (3:44) Literature: Salvatore, Tocci, Experiments with the Sun and the Moon (2003). Tesar, Jenny, The Moon, (1998). Gizmo: 3D Eclipse 2D Eclipse Penumbra Effect 8

9 Name Per. Date WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ECLIPSES? Directions: Think about what you already know about eclipses. To the best of your ability, answer the following questions in complete sentences or in drawings and illustrations. 1.) What is the cause of an eclipse? 2.) Draw the positions of the Sun, Earth and moon for a lunar and solar eclipse. 3.) Explain the differences between the umbra and penumbra Name Per. Date WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ECLIPSES? Directions: Think about what you already know about eclipses. To the best of your ability, answer the following questions in complete sentences or in drawings and illustrations. 1.) What is the cause of an eclipse? 2.) Draw the positions of the Sun, Earth and moon for a lunar and solar eclipse. 3.) Explain the differences between the umbra and penumbra. 9

10 Name ANSWER KEY Per. Date WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ECLIPSES? Directions: Think about what you already know about eclipses. To the best of your ability, answer the following questions in complete sentences or in drawings and illustrations. 1.) What is the cause of an eclipse? Eclipses are caused by the alignment of the sun, earth and moon. There are two main types of eclipses, a lunar and solar eclipse. Lunar Eclipses occur only during a Full moon, while a Solar Eclipse occur during a New Moon. 2.) Draw the positions of the Sun, Earth and moon for a lunar and solar eclipse. Students can explain and even draw a diagram like below. 3.) Explain the differences between the umbra and penumbra. The umbra is the darkest part of the shadow created by the moon or the earth, while the penumbra is a partial shadow. 10

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16 3D Eclipse Answer Key Vocabulary: eclipse, lunar eclipse, path of totality, penumbra, solar eclipse, umbra Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) [Note: The purpose of these questions is to activate prior knowledge and get students thinking. Students are not expected to know the answers to the Prior Knowledge Questions.] 1. Have you ever seen an eclipse? If so, describe what you saw. Answers will vary. 2. About how often do you think eclipses happen? Answers will vary. Gizmo Warm-up If you see a two-dimensional image of the Earth, Moon, and Sun, you might predict that an eclipse occurs every time the Moon passes in front of or behind Earth, or about twice a month. However, eclipses occur much more rarely. The 3D Eclipse Gizmo shows two views of the Earth, Moon, and Sun: a top view (above) and a side view (below). The sizes of the Earth, Moon, and Sun are not to scale. (If they were, the Earth and Moon would be microscopic!) 1. Set the speed slider to a middle value, and click Play ( ). Based on what you see in the top view on the SIMULATION pane, describe the motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The Moon goes around Earth in a counterclockwise orbit. Earth rotates on its axis and also moves in a counterclockwise orbit around the Sun. The Sun rotates in a counterclockwise direction. 2. Click Reset ( ), and then click Play again. This time, focus on the side view at the bottom of the SIMULATION pane. What do you notice about the Moon s orbit? The Moon s orbit is not completely level. Sometimes the Moon is above Earth and sometimes it is below Earth. 16

17 Activity A: Solar eclipse Get the Gizmo ready: Click Reset. Under Shadows, select Moon. Set the Moon angle to 0.0. Introduction: There are two parts to the Moon s shadow. The umbra is the central, darkest portion of the shadow. An observer standing in the umbra cannot see the Sun. The penumbra surrounds the umbra. An observer in the penumbra sees part of the Sun. Only the umbra is shown in the 3D Eclipse Gizmo. Question: What controls whether a solar eclipse will occur? 1. Observe: Click Play and then Pause ( ) when the Moon is directly between the Earth and Sun. (If you go too far, you can click the Back button to step back.) A. What do you notice about the Moon s shadow? The Moon s shadow forms a cone. The tip of the cone is striking Earth s surface. B. Under Views, select Earth. What do you see? The Moon s shadow is striking Earth s surface. Any person standing in the Moon s shadow will experience a solar eclipse. During a total solar eclipse, the entire disk of the Sun is blocked by the Moon. 2. Observe: Set the speed to a lower setting and click the Back button until just before the Moon s shadow crosses Earth s surface. Click Play and observe. A. What do you notice? The Moon s shadow passes across Earth s surface from west to east. B. The path the Moon s umbra traces across Earth s surface is called the path of totality. What would you see if you were standing in the path of totality? If you were standing in the path of totality, you would see the Moon cross in front of the Sun, blocking it out to create a solar eclipse. 3. Record: Click Reset. Set the speed to a higher setting and click Play. Use the Gizmo to determine the dates of the first six solar eclipses of the year. Record these dates below. January 9, February 9, March 9, April 8, May 7, June 6 [Note: Due to the geometry of the Gizmo simulation, each eclipse lasts for several days. Actual eclipses only last a few hours. Dates listed above and throughout this key are for the start of the eclipse.] Do you think solar eclipses really happen this often? Explain. Answers will vary. [Solar eclipses do not occur every month. Usually there are 2 4 solar eclipses in a year.] (Activity A continued on next page) 17

18 Activity A (continued from previous page) 4. Explore: Click Reset. A solar eclipse does not occur every month because the Moon s orbit is tilted 5.14 relative to Earth s orbit. To model this, set the Moon angle to 5.1. Play the simulation until January 9. Click Pause, reduce the speed, and click Play. What do you notice about the path of totality now? The path of totality passes across Earth s surface farther south than it did before. 5. Explore: Advance the simulation to February 8, and again play the simulation at a low speed. Does the umbra cross Earth s surface this time? No, it passes below the South Pole. In this situation, a total solar eclipse will not be visible from any location on Earth s surface. 6. Record: Use the Gizmo to find the dates of the next three solar eclipses. Be sure to check carefully whether the Moon s umbra crosses Earth s surface. Record these dates below. June 6, July 5, November 30 Do you think this frequency of solar eclipses is more realistic? Explain. Answers will vary. [This timing is more realistic. There are usually 2 4 solar eclipses in a year.] 7. On your own: Experiment with different Moon angle values. How does the angle of the Moon s orbit affect the number of solar eclipses that occur in a year? With the greater angle, there are still solar eclipses on January 9, June, 6, July 5, and November 30. However, these eclipses are shorter in duration and the Moon s umbra does not pass over as much of Earth. With a lower angle, solar eclipses occur every month. 8. On your own: Return the Moon angle to 5.1, and increase the Moon distance to How does increasing the Earth-Moon distance affect the occurrence of total solar eclipses? When the Moon distance is increased by a factor of 1.5, the Moon s umbra no longer reaches Earth s surface. Total solar eclipses will not occur in this scenario. [Annular solar eclipses will occur. In an annular eclipse, the Moon blocks part but not the entire solar disk.] 18

19 Activity B: Lunar eclipse Get the Gizmo ready: Click Reset. Under Shadows, select Earth. Set the Moon distance to 1.00 and the Moon angle to 0.0. Introduction: A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon goes into Earth s shadow. If the Moon goes into Earth s penumbra, it is called a penumbral lunar eclipse. If the Moon goes into Earth s umbra, it is a total lunar eclipse. A partial lunar eclipse occurs when only part of the Moon goes into Earth s umbra. (Note: Earth s penumbra is not shown in the Gizmo.) Question: What controls whether a lunar eclipse will occur? 1. Observe: Click Play, and then click Pause when the Moon is in Earth s shadow. Select the Moon view. What do you see? The Moon is darkened by Earth s shadow. 2. Observe: Set the speed to a lower setting and click the Back button until just before Earth s shadow crosses the Moon. Click Play and describe what you see. Earth s shadow moves across the Moon from left to right (west to east).the edge of Earth s shadow is slightly curved. 3. Infer: Select the Earth view. Who on Earth would be able to see the lunar eclipse? Explain your answer. Anyone on the night time side of Earth during the eclipse will be able to see the eclipse. These observers will be facing away from the Sun and will be able to see the Moon. 4. Record: Click Reset and select the Moon view. Set the speed to a higher setting and click Play. Use the Gizmo to determine the dates of the first six lunar eclipses, and record below. January 24, February 23, March 24, April 23, May 22, June 21 Do you think lunar eclipses really happen this often? Explain. Answers will vary. (Activity B continued on next page) 19

20 Activity B (continued from previous page) 5. Explore: Click Reset. Set the Moon angle to 5.1. Play the simulation until January 24. Click Pause, set the speed to a low value, and click Play. A. Is there a lunar eclipse this time? No B. Why not? (Hint: Look at the side view on the bottom of the SIMULATION pane.) Earth s shadow passes below the Moon. 6. Record: Use the Gizmo to find the dates of the first three lunar eclipses. Be sure the Moon is actually darkened by Earth s shadow for each eclipse. June 21, July 20, November 16 Do you think this frequency of lunar eclipses is more realistic? Explain. Answers will vary. [This timing is more realistic. There are usually 2 4 lunar eclipses in a year.] 7. Think and discuss: A person living in North America will be able to see 15 lunar eclipses in the decade. In the same time period, only two solar eclipses can be observed in North America. Why will more lunar eclipses than solar eclipses be visible from North America in this decade? If possible, discuss your answer with your classmates and teacher. A total solar eclipse is only visible to observers on the path of totality, which only covers a small part of Earth s surface. A lunar eclipse is visible by anyone on the night half of Earth, which represents a much larger number of people than those who are on or near the path of totality. 20

21 Name Per. Date Solar Eclipse Newspaper Front Page Imagine that a solar eclipse just happened here in Columbus, (there will be a total solar eclipse in Kentucky in 2017.) This happens very rarely so it would be worthy of front-page coverage. You are the editor and chief of the Columbus Dispatch. Your job is to create a mock newspaper front page about the solar eclipse that just occurred. Include the following in your article: 1.) A description of what was visible during the eclipse. 2.) The location(s) from which the eclipse was visible, including a map. 3.) An illustration of the eclipse. 4.) A brief explanation of what an eclipse is (assume your audience has heard of them but doesn t know exactly what they are). 5.) An advertisement for something related to the Sun or an eclipse. 6.) You may use the template provided, or create your own. 7.) Use the rubric at the end of this lesson to guide your efforts. 21

22 Name Per. Date The Sun map illustration advertisement Solar System: The Sun : This lesson plan is the property of the Mensa Education & Research Foundation, It is provided as a complimentary service to the public. Reproduction and distribution without modification are allowed. Images, links and linked content referenced herein are the property of the originating entities. 22

23 Name Per. Date 23

24 Name Per. Date 20 pts. Directions: Explore the website regarding solar and lunar eclipses. Take some time to look around the website for data and facts that interest you. You goal today is to come up with 10 interesting facts from this website. (Each fact is worth 2 points.) An example of an interesting fact could be: There is going to be a solar eclipse near Columbus in 2017! How amazing to be able to see the eclipse so close to home. Interesting Facts: Space to Draw Diagrams or Examples 24

25 Name Per. Date WHAT DO YOU NOW KNOW ABOUT ECLIPSES??? 1.) Name and identify the two types of eclipses. 2.) Draw and label the position of the Sun, Earth and moon for a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse. You should also include the umbra and penumbra in each drawing. Solar Lunar 3.) When a solar eclipse occurs, why can only a limited amount of people see the actual eclipse? 4.) How does revolution and rotation influence eclipses? 5.) What is the difference between the umbra and penumbra? 25

26 Name: TEACHER ANSWER KEY Per. Date WHAT DO YOU NOW KNOW ABOUT ECLIPSES??? 1.) Name and identify the two types of eclipses. The two types of solar eclipses are solar and lunar. 2.) Draw and label the position of the Sun, Earth and moon for a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse. You should also include the umbra and penumbra in each drawing. Solar Lunar 3.) When a solar eclipse occurs, why can only a limited amount of people see the actual eclipse? First, you must be on the side of the Earth that is being illuminated by the sun. Secondly, because of the scale of the Earth, moon and sun, the shadowed are will be very small. This small shadowed area is called the path of totality. 4.) How does revolution and rotation influence eclipses? As the moon comes between the Earth and the sun, a shadow is cast onto Earth (solar eclipse). The moon is rotating around the Earth as the Earth and the sun are revolving around the sun. For a solar eclipse, the Earth revolves around the sun. While the moon is rotating around the Earth the Earth is places between the moon and the sun, this causing a solar eclipse. 5.) What is the difference between the umbra and penumbra? Penumbra Partial Shadow (some light is blocked) Umbra Full Shadow (all light is blocked) 26

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