# Changes in Our Sky Grade Two

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1 Ohio Standards Connection: Earth and Space Sciences Benchmark A Observe constant and changing patterns of objects in the day and night sky. Indicator 2 Observe and describe how the sun, moon and stars all appear to move slowly across the sky. Related Indicators Indicator 1 Recognize that there are more stars in the sky than anyone can easily count. Indicator 3 Observe and describe how the moon appears a little different every day, but looks nearly the same again about every four weeks. Related Standard Scientific Inquiry Benchmark Gather and communicate information from careful observations and simple investigations through a variety of methods. Indicator 6 Recognize that explanations are generated in response to observations, events and phenomena. Lesson Summary: Students will observe how the sun and moon appear to move across the sky. If possible, the students will observe the stars as part of their homework connection and the changing positions of the stars will be expanded upon in the classroom setting. Much of the lesson will be observational as students track the position of the sun and moon (visible in the third quarter) in the daytime sky. The students will showcase their understanding by drawing and writing about what they have seen. Estimated Duration: Three hours Commentary: The lesson is extended over a minimum of five days. This lesson was piloted by teachers across Ohio. Some of the teachers comments follow: The activities excited the children and created interest in wanting to talk about it. The extension activities could be challenging for students who want to do further investigations. All my students, no matter what ability level or handicaps, were engaged with this lesson. While the subject matter is by itself exciting for children, I feel the way it was presented was also responsible for the high interest. Pre-Assessment: Take students outside on a clear morning and locate the sun. Predict the location of the sun by pointing where it will be at lunchtime and at dinnertime. Ask students the following questions and request that they respond with complete sentences: 1. Where will the sun be tomorrow morning? 2. Are the stars in the sky always in the same place every night, all year long? 3. Is the moon always in the same place in the sky? This assessment is intended to be completed with the entire class to determine levels of understanding. 1

2 Scoring Guidelines: Student response to questions: a. Correctly locates the sun and predicts where it will be seen at lunchtime and dinnertime; b. States that the stars are in different positions at different times of the year; c. States that the moon is in different positions throughout the night. Post-Assessment: Collect the accordion book of the appeared motion of the sun and star log from each student. Collect the accordion books of the appeared motions of the sun and moon from each student. Scoring Guidelines: Meets expectations of the grade-level indicator by completing the activity accurately, and communicating their understanding of Earth s rotation creating the appearance of motion of celestial bodies. Instructional Procedures: Engage: 1. Make a list of objects that appear in the sky. 2. Review the list and ask which objects are always there, and whether they can be seen when there are no clouds in the sky. 3. Ask the students if these objects are always in the same place in the sky. Explore: Position of the sun 4. Use a window or tree as a reference point to plot the position of the sun each hour; drawing the location in relation to the reference point. 5. Repeat this activity for three days. 6. Ask students the following questions: a. What changes have you seen? b. Is the sun in the same place every day at lunchtime? Explain: 7. Have students act out the following: a. Place the sun in one location in the room. b. Tell students they will be acting as Earth. Position students so that the sun is facing their right side, indicating sunrise. c. Have students slowly turn to their right. Ask them to observe the location of the sun. d. Direct students to use their right arm to point to the sun. Have students slowly rotate to the right, continuing to point at the sun. e. Direct them to stop when facing the sun (noon). f. Ask students if their arm stays in the same position. Ask them to think about what they did. g. Have them move into pairs to share their responses to the following questions: 2

3 Does the sun appear to move? What is really moving? What does this mean? What did you notice about the location of the sun at different times of the day? Where will the sun be tomorrow at lunchtime? Instructional Tip: Present a simulation of the location of the sun, moon and stars in the classroom by using glow-in-the-dark stars, moon, and sun (or other teacher-made models), and show how they appear to move slowly across the sky. Other instructional strategies are: access a star machine, if available in the school district; use the local high school astronomy class or visit a science museum that has resources available to enhance this lesson. 8. Direct students to make an accordion book. Have students assemble their own accordion pages based on notes that they recorded. a. Cut a large piece of white construction paper in half long ways or hot dog style. b. Fold each piece into four sections like an accordion. c. Glue two sections together so that you have a long accordion. d. Glue a piece of cardboard the same size as one of the sections to the cover of the book (this will help it keep its shape). 9. On each section, place or draw a tree or house in the same location. In each section, show and label the sun at different times of the day (e.g. morning, noon, after school, and after dinner). The drawing may be an actual placement or simulated, based upon the student s sense of direction and location of the sun in the sky. 10. Have students write a short paragraph about the how the sun appears to move across the sky. 11. Review students accordion books for accuracy in correctly labeling where the sun is located at different times of the day (morning, noon, after school, and at dinner) and correctly drawing the moon as it appears to move across the sky. Instructional Tip: To save time, the tree or house could be drawn and copied by the teacher prior to class and given to the students. It is important to reinforce the statement that the sun appears to move across the sky. The students should understand that the sun remains in the same location and it is Earth that moves. 3

4 Explore: Position of the moon 12. The next phase of observations should occur at the beginning of the third quarter of the moon (when it can be seen during the daytime). Have students observe the location of the moon, again using a reference point. Repeat the observations at different intervals throughout the day. If this is not feasible, name a student astronomer to make the observation and report the findings to the class. 13. Repeat the accordion book activity from step Eight above. 14. Have students draw three windows. In the first window, have them draw the moon where it would be located just after dark; in the second window, where it would be just before they go to bed and in the third window, where they think the moon will be in the sky at 12:00 a.m., as it would be viewed from their window. 15. Ask students, Does the moon stay in the same place in the sky? Instructional Tip: During this observation of the moon, only the position in the sky should be noted. The phases of the moon should be introduced at a later time. Explain: 16. Ask students, What was observed?, How can you explain this change? (In this case, the Earth is rotating, changing the location of the moon and the moon is orbiting the earth, which also affects the location.) Explore: Position of the stars 17. Have students locate one group of stars (i.e., the Big Dipper, an easy asterism to locate in the constellation of Ursa Major). Instruct students to draw its position in relation to a reference point on the first clear night of each month (or around the 20 th of each month; do your comparisons at the equinoxes or solstices). 18. Direct students to keep a star log. Give them a sheet of paper that has the last star (Alkaid) drawn in the center of each box and North at the top of the paper. One time per month, (around the 15 th, ) instruct students to draw the other six stars relative to Alkaid. It is the end star in the handle of the Big Dipper. It is not important that they know the star s name, but will help them to reference other stars. 19. Compare the locations of the stars every two to three months. Explain: 20. Place the stars to form the Big Dipper on the center of the ceiling of the room. 21. Instruct students to stand under the group of stars called the Big Dipper and slowly rotate a quarter turn. Ask students the following questions: a. Does it look the same? b. Is the scoop in the same place? c. What has changed? 4

5 22. The Big Dipper rotates around the North Star through the night and through the seasons. See attachment A, The position of the big Dipper during different seasons of the year. This results from Earth s revolution around the sun. 23. Show pictures of the asterism, The Hunter, in the constellation of Orion, slowly moving across the sky with reference points. Have students interpret pictures. Use a simple starfinder to demonstrate how the stars move across the sky during the night, by turning the wheel as the time of night changes. Observe the pattern as the stars move across the viewer in the star-finder. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). Have students work independently, in pairs or heterogeneous groups; Create a study guide with words or pictures that correspond to the questions asked during the lessons; Provide for students moving beyond the indicator to conduct an independent study on a constellation of their interest, and choose from a variety of presentation modes to share with the class; Utilize a globe and flashlight as a hands-on demonstration to show how the sun hits the Earth and how Earth rotates; Allow students who complete the moon journal to share their observations with the class. Challenge students to design a planetarium; Have students use a compass rose and cardinal directions to describe the relative location of places. Cardinal directions can be introduced in a general way as students observe the direction of the sun and moon across the sky. Extension: Allow students to tell a story or myth about groups of stars, such as the Big Dipper, and have students act it out. Have students retell and summarize the myth and then have students write a story of their own about why the sun moves across the sky; Guide students in constructing shadow clocks; Provide resources for students to study careers (e.g., astronaut, astronomer); Guide students in their research of the life of astronomers (e.g., Galileo, Annie Jump Cannon); Guide students in their research about technology to aid observations of the moon, sun and stars (e.g. telescope, space exploration, satellites). 5

6 Homework Options and Home Connections: Send a letter home asking parents to help with the moon and star observations. Keep a journal of the moon looking out the same window of a house. Using a window at home where they can see the moon, have them look at the moon and draw its location four times in 30 minute increments. This activity works best with a full moon in late fall or early winter, because the full moon rises as the sun sets. Locate the Big Dipper. Draw it on the fall and spring equinox and the first day of winter (or the first clear day after the change of season). Interdisciplinary Connections: English Language Arts If students complete the extension writing activity, indicators from English Language Arts can be addressed. Students can design their own constellation and write a myth focusing on the constellation. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: For the students: Large stars to place on the ceiling (made on construction paper) or glow-in-the-dark stars. Paper, pencils, crayons, scissors. Vocabulary: moon move position sky stars sun 6

7 Technology Connections: Search the NASA Web site: Learning Resources and information for students at: Search the Ohio Public Library Information Network by going to: (search for the kids section, select Science: Astronomy); With assistance of the teacher or volunteer, have students create a slide show, stack, or story board to display objects in the sky. Provide resources for students to draw or paint pictures and guide students in accessing pictures from the Internet; Collaborate with the school media specialist to access age-appropriate CD-ROMs available on the stars, sun and moon; Search for information about the sun, moon and stars by going to the site titled Windows to the Universe, at Research Connections: Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Summarizing and note-taking are two of the most powerful skills used to help students identify and understand the most important aspects of what they are learning. Nonlinguistic representations help students think about and recall knowledge. That includes the following: Creating graphic representations (organizers); Making physical models; Generating mental pictures; Drawing pictures and pictographs; Engaging in kinesthetic activity. General Tips: Clearly communicate with parents how the homework assignment is to be completed. Gather trade books at different levels for the students to use as resources. It is important to clearly state to students how the objects appear to move across the sky. Background information is embedded in the lesson and in the following: Rather than saying the sun, stars, or moon move, say Earth has rotated so they are viewed in different positions in the sky and that they appear to move across the sky. The sun appears to move across the sky every day from east to west; this motion is caused by Earth s rotation. The moon rises and sets due to Earth s rotation where it can observed moving eastward relative to the stars from day to day. The stars will be in virtually the same position for a number of nights at the same time of night while the moon will not be in the same location because it is orbiting the Earth, which places it in a slightly different position. From the vantage point on Earth, stars cross the sky from the eastern to western 7

8 horizon. The stars will be in a different part of the sky each month. This is because of the Earth s revolution. At different times of the year, there will be different stars and asterisms or constellations observable in the state of Ohio. One of the constant and most easily identifiable asterisms is the Big Dipper. The reason the stars appear to move during the night is that the Earth rotates (spins). Attachments: Attachment A, The position of the Big Dipper during different seasons of the year. 8

9 Attachment A The position of the Big Dipper during different seasons. 9

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