# Force and Motion Grade 2

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1 Suggested Time Frame: 2-3 days Materials: Tennis balls, 10 Golf balls, 10 Marbles, 10 Ping pong balls, 10 Measuring tapes, 10 Rulers, 10 Stopwatch Masking tape Towel Sandpaper Wax paper Paper cups Matching toy cars Large space Vocabulary: Force Position Motion Speed Weight Gravity Magnets Attract Repel Condensed Content Statements Forces change the motion of an object. Motion can increase, change direction or stop depending on the force applied. The change in motion of an object is related to the size of the force. Some forces act without touching, such as using a magnet to move an object or objects falling to the ground. Lesson Summary: The following lessons are for the force and motion unit. These lessons are deeply aligned to the physical science unit for third grade. This unit also involves formal, informal and performance assessment with each lesson. Focus Process Skills: Control Variable Communicate Experiment Predict Measure Compare Hypothesize Representation 1

2 Teacher Background When students observe force they may use terms like pushing, pulling, throwing, dropping and rolling. These are words to describe how each student uses a contact force to move an object. Students should also learn that there are noncontact forces that can also move an object: gravity and magnets. In addition to this force, students may also focus on the position and movement of the object. Students may describe the position of an object as up, down, in front or behind. By experimenting with different materials, students can begin to understand that the motion of an object can be described by tracking its position over time. This position can be changed by a pushing or pulling force. Through the exploration in this unit students should discover the following force and motion concepts: Force is a push or a pull. Position is the location of an object. To describe an objects position, you compare it to the position of other objects. An object is in motion if it changes position. Motion happens over a period of time. Speed is how fast an object moves over a certain distance. Friction occurs when objects rub against another object and creates heat. The pull of gravity on an object is that object s weight. Gravity is a force that pulls everything towards the center of the Earth. Magnets create a push or pull force without contact. Attract is to bring together. Repel is to go in opposite directions. This lesson is broken into 4 simple activities. In the first activity, students discover a variety of ways to describe an object s position by locating it relative to another object or the background. The term position will be introduced. In the second activity, students will be challenged to discover a variety of ways a ball will change position from the top of a ramp to the bottom of a ramp. Students will measure the distance the ball rolled and the time it takes to move that distance. Students should discover that a heavier ball will not travel as far and would take less time, whereas, a lighter ball will travel a greater distance and take more time. Students will also learn that when you measure the distance an object has moved and the time it traveled, you are measuring the speed the object traveled (how fast it is moving). In the third activity, students will compare differences in surfaces on the ramp. The term friction will be introduced. Students should discover that a rougher surface (more friction) will make it more difficult for a car to travel a greater distance. Surfaces that are smoother (less friction) will allow the car to move a greater distance. Teacher Notes Allowing them to brainstorm various balls at school and bring in different balls will lengthen the unit but may lead to more genuine experiences. 2

3 These activities have all students using the same materials. Allowing students to bring in toy cars from home can open up further discussions and observations. Since not all cars are equal, variables can be discussed and charted. Engage (Warm-up) Activity 1: 1. In a journal or on the Position in the Classroom Journal, ask students to write about their current position within the classroom. The students may state that they are sitting in the room at a desk. Have students share their entry. Review the definition of position. Position is the location of an object. Position is usually compared to another object. (Pre-Assessment) 2. Discuss students responses and how they may have used another object in the room to describe their position. 3. Give each student the Position Lab Sheet to be completed. Explore (Instructional Strategies) Activity 2: 1. In a journal or on the Motion Journal, ask students to write about how they know something has moved. Have students share their entry. (Pre-Assessment) 2. Discuss students responses and how they may have used another object in the room to describe how something has moved. 3. Show students the tennis ball, golf ball, ping pong ball, and marble. Have each student hypothesize which ball would travel the furthest distance and explain why. 4. Place students into groups of 3, 4 or 5, depending on availability of materials. 5. Pass out the Position and Motion Lab Sheet. 6. Show the students the materials they will use and demonstrate how to make the ramp. Be certain that the students release the objects at the exact same location. To accomplish this, you should have them place a line of masking tape 2 inches from the top of the ramp. 7. Read the hypothesis. Have students discuss their hypothesis and write it down on the lab sheet. 8. Go over each role for the lab. Have students rotate their roles after each experiment. Students should complete the Lab Sheet. 3

4 9. Review the outcome of the Lab Sheet. Which ball traveled the farthest? Which ball did not go as far? Why do the students think this occurred? 10. Review that speed is how fast an object moves over a certain distance. In this experiment you will not be able to get an actual speed for each ball. You can have your students place a piece of tape on the floor and stop the timer when the ball passes over the piece of tape. They can then compare times to discuss which ball traveled the fastest. Activity 3: 1. Write on the chalkboard, chart paper or overhead Motion stops because... then circle it. Create branches off the circle to create a web with their responses. Prompts: What makes a car stop? What makes a bike stop? A roller skate or roller blade stop? A basketball stop? (Pre-Assessment) 2. Identify and discuss the branches of the web that focus on friction, or the force which slows the objects. Highlight or underline those branches/responses that focus on the concept of friction (one object rubs against another). 3. Place students in groups of four to five students. Explain to students that the activity they are going to do will help them understand how friction can increase or decrease, which can make doing a job harder or easier. Give each group: a piece of wax paper, plain paper, sand paper, a towel and a car 4. Give each group the Friction in Our Lives Lab Sheet and have the group place a check mark in the box that they predict will allow a car to travel the furthest distance. 5. Show the students the materials they will use and how to construct the ramp. (This is the same ramp as in lesson 2). Show students how to secure the different surfaces with masking tape. Make sure the tape is on back of the ramp so that it will not interfere with the activity. 6. Have the students complete the activity. 7. Gather the students together and discuss what they discovered. (Less friction to more friction: wax paper, plain paper, sand paper, towel.) Interdisciplinary Connections Writing: Positions, Positions Supply each student with a picture of a setting. These pictures can be found in books or cut from magazines. Have the students choose one object from their picture. Once the object is chosen, the students can write 4 sentences about the positioning of their chosen object. Each sentence will contain a word that explains the object s position in relation to another object on the paper. (Ex. The object is above the tree. The object is on the right side of the blue house 4

5 with the white door.) The students will then share their paper with a partner. As the partner reads the paper, he or she will attempt to identify the chosen object. Assessment Activity 1: 1. How do you know if an object has moved? (The object s position has changed.) 2. What would happen if there was no object to help you know the change of position? (It would be difficult to know if the object moved.) Activity 2: 1. How does an object change its position? (The object must have a force act on it to place it in motion.) 2. What determines how fast an object moves? (Its speed or how fast an object moves over a certain distance.) Activity 3: 1. Name materials that have more friction (rough surfaces). (Students may indicate sand paper, carpet, gravel, sand and concrete.) 2. Name materials that have less friction (smooth surfaces). (Students may indicate wax paper, ice, table top, window, and mirror.) 3. Can you predict what would happen to a ball/car if you lowered the ramp? (The ball or car would have a slower time and less distance.) Reteach Ideas 1. Students can Think, Pair, Share in small groups to review key concepts. 2. Read Kids Take Flight (TE p. 248). Complete the science project on page 249. Closure Activity 1: Position and Motion Lab Sheet. Activity 2: Friction in Our Lives Lab Sheet. Activity 3: Using what you have learned, answer the following questions: a. Will it be easier to move one or two textbooks across you desk with a pinky? b. Will you need to use more force or less force to push two text books? c. What could you add to the bottom of the text books to make it easier (use less force) to move the text books? 5

6 Extensions/Additional Resources Classroom Portals/Technology: UnitedStreaming: TLC Elementary School: Rules of Motion and Forces (24:33) Forces and Gravity Website: Push Me, Pull Me Literature: Force and Motion Unit Annotated Booklist Experiments With Motion by Salvatore Tocci. This is an easy to read and informative book about motion with activities to do that are inexpensive to create. Force, Of Course! 20 Thematic Science Experiments for Home and School by M. Leontovich and James Cloutier. The Explore Science series provides thought-provoking scientific questions, investigations, and activities that cross subject area boundaries. Experiments with Motion by Robert Gardner. This book has great information for the teacher and wonderful experiments for the student. Teachers can get a good explanation on why things occur with motion. The Science Book of Motion by Neil Ardley. This easy to read book has wonderful illustrations on how to complete experiments on motion and simple explanations. Force and Motion by Simon de Inna. This is a very informative book on all aspects of force and motion, which include: gravity, magnetism, flight, pressure, and collisions. This book is easy to follow, and experiments and explanations are to the point. Force and Movement by Barbara Taylor. The contents of the book include: push and pull, stick and slip, pressure, and simple machines. Each concept has an explanation, experiment, and real life application. Experiment with Motion by Bryan Murphy. Simple experiments help children test and observe basic scientific principles. Filled with fascinating information that kids want to know about the world they live in. Offers fun and facts for the entire family. Colorful photography and clear explanatory texts. 6

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