Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

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1 Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

2 Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning that is a real motion. When that person thinks the room is spinning, that is an illusion.

3 Daily Motion and Stars Most celestial objects appear to move across the sky. Most of these celestial objects are stars. The paths of these celestial objects are circles. This motion occurs at a rate of 15 o per hour.

4 Apparent Motion of Planets Planets exhibit daily motion similar to stars. Over longer periods of time (weeks, months) the planets appear to change positions with respect to the background field of stars around them. This is because that planet is also revolving around the sun at a different rate than us.

5 Apparent Motion of the Moon Moon follows the same pattern as stars. It appears to rise about 50 minutes later each day and shifts eastward each day compared to the background field of stars.

6 Apparent Sun Motions in Northern Mid-Latitudes The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The sun s apparent path across the sky has the shape of an arc. In fall and spring, the sun rises due east and sets due west. In the winter the sun rises south of east and sets south of west. In the summer the sun rises north of east and sets north of west.

7 Changes in Altitude of the Sun at Noon The sun always reaches the highest position in the sky at local solar noon Only between 23.5 N and 23.5 S can the sun be directly overhead.

8 Geocentric Model The Earth-centered model is called the geocentric model. The geocentric mode explained most of the motions of the stars, sun, and moon but could not explain the swinging of a pendulum.

9 Heliocentric Models Sun-centered models. Heliocentric models stated that Earth rotated on its axis and revolved around the sun. This idea explains the movement of stars and the sun because of the Earth s rotation. The apparent motions of the sun is explained by the tilt of the Earth and the revolution around the sun. Most early heliocentric models did not explain the motion of planets because they used circular orbits, not elliptical.

10 Actual Earth Motions The Earth moves with the milky way galaxy, as the galaxy expands. The Earth moves around the center of the milky way galaxy. It 225 millions years for one galaxy year The Earth also rotates and revolves around the sun.

11 Rotation The spinning of the Earth on its axis is rotation. The tilt of Earth is 23.5o. The north end of the axis points toward the north star/polaris. The Earth rotates 360 o in 24 hours, at a rate of 15 o per hour.

12 Evidence of Earth s Rotation Foucault s pendulum appears to move, but it is actually the room spinning and the pendulum is moving in the same direction constantly. The Coriolis Effect All particles of matter moving at Earth s surface are deflected from a straight line path. This deflection occurs because the Earth is rotating.

13 Evidence Earth Rotates around the Sun Seasons are evidence that the earth revolves around the sun. The apparent diameter of the sun changes in a cyclic fashion. Sun appears largest January 3 rd, when we are closest to the sun. Sun appears smallest on July 4 th.

14 Actual Motions of Earth s Moon The revolution of the moon around Earth takes 27.3 days. The moon also rotates which takes 27.3 days. As the moon rotates once, it revolves one. A year and a day for the moon takes the same amount of time

15 Moon Phases The varying amount of light seen reflected off the moon onto Earth is known as the moon s phases.

16 Tides The gravitation between the Earth, moon, and sun results in a cyclic rise and fall of the ocean waters. The moon primarily causes tides, because the moon is 400 times closer than the sun. A high tide occurs when the Earth is in line with the moon. A low tide occurs when the Earth is at a 90 o angle to the moon. Because the Earth rotates, we have high tide and low tide every 12 hours.

17 Eclipses The Earth and Moon cast shadows out into space. When a celestial object comes into the shadow of another celestial object, it is called an eclipse.

18 Lunar Eclipse When the moon is in the shadow of the Earth during a full moon. If part of the moon is in the shadow of the Earth, it is called a partial lunar eclipse.

19 Solar Eclipse The moon blocks out the sun. Solar eclipses occur at any one location about every 200 years. Solar eclipses last about 7.5 minutes. Next total solar eclipse visible in the USA Aug

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