Physics 201 Homework 8

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2 But we are asked to quote the answer in rev/min. Since there are \$2p radians in one revolution, we need to covert the units as: ω = rad 1 s 60 s 1 min 1 rev = π rad 4. A uniform board is leaning against a smooth vertical wall. The board is at 37.6 an angle θ above the horizontal ground. The coefficient of static friction between the ground and the lower end of the board is Find the smallest value for the angle θ, such that the lower end of the board does not slide along the ground. This is an equilibrium problem. Let s begin by cataloging the forces involved. ˆ The weight of the ladder, pointing down from the center of the block ˆ The support force from the wall, pointing left from the top of the block ˆ The support force from the floor, pointing up from the bottom of the block ˆ The friction from the floor, pointing right from the bottom of the block There is no friction from the wall because it is smooth. The lever arm of all of these forces will depend on the angle θ. Also on our choice of rotational axis. We should consider analyzing the torques from one of the places the forces are applied. It might at first seem good to use the point at the floor since you eliminate two forces immediately, but notice that we are not given any information about the weight or mass of the board. This suggests that we should consider using the center of the ladder as the rotational axis for analysis. The lever arms are: ˆ l 1 = 0, by design ˆ l 2 = (r/2) sin θ ˆ l 3 = (r/2) sin(90 θ) = (r/2) cos θ ˆ l 4 = (r/2) sin θ And the corresponding torques are: ˆ τ 1 = 0, by design ˆ τ 2 = +(F 2 )(r/2) sin θ ˆ τ 3 = (F 3 )(r/2) cos θ ˆ τ 4 = +(F 4 )(r/2) sin θ where F 4 is the friction force, so F 4 = (0.650)(F 3 ). Setting the sum of these four torques to zero yields (F 2 )(r/2) sin θ (F 3 )(r/2) cos θ + (0.650)(F 3 )(r/2) sin θ = 0 Notice that the (r/2) cancels out. Unfortuantely, we have two equations with two unknowns. We need another equation. We don t know the weight, but we do know that all the forces cancel out including the horizontal ones. In other words, F 2 = F 4 = (0.650)(F 3 ) 2

3 After subsutition, this makes our torque equation solvable. (0.650)(F 3 )(r/2) sin θ (F 3 )(r/2) cos θ + (0.650)(F 3 )(r/2) sin θ = 0 We cancel the (F 3 )(r/2) and are left with: (1.300) sin θ cos θ = 0 = (1.300) sin θ = cos θ = tan θ = 1/1.300 = = θ = Figure 1 shows a uniform horizontal beam attached to a vertical wall by a P = 270 newtons. H = 210 newtons. V = 170 newtons frictionless hinge and supported from below at an angle θ = 39 by a brace that is attached to a pin. The beam has a weight of 340 newtons. Three additional forces keep the beam in equilibrium. The brace applies a force P to the right end of the beam that is directed upward at the angle θ with respect to the horizontal. The hinge applies a force to the left end of the beam that has a horizontal component H and a vertical component V. Find the magnitudes of these three forces. Figure 1: Problem 9.21 (a) Okay. There are four forces here: ˆ The weight of the beam, located in the center of the beam, pointing down. ˆ The support force from the brace, located at the end of the beam, pointing up at 39. ˆ The horizontal component of the support from the hinge, located at the start of the beam, pointing left. ˆ The vertical component of the support from the hinge, located at the start of the beam, pointing up. Now we must choose a axis of rotation for the analysis. If we choose the point where the hinge is, then the last two forces will have no lever arm. This means that we won t need to know the magnitude of these forces to calculate the torques. Now we need to determine the lever arms of these forces to get to the torques: ˆ The lever arm of the beam s weight is half the length of the beam, l 1 = L/2. ˆ The lever arm of the brace s support is l 2 = L sin 39. ˆ The lever arm of the hinge s horizontal support is zero, l 3 = 0. ˆ The lever arm of the hinge s vertical support is also zero., l 4 = 0. The only tricky one is l 2. The line of action for the brace s support is along the support, so the lever arm is perpendicular to this line. There is a right triangle here: the hypoteneus is the length of the beam, the adjecent side is along the brace, and the opposite side is the lever arm itself. So sin θ = l/l. The next step is to calculate the torques. We use τ = F l, but remember that the sign of the torque is determined by the direction of the line of force. If the line of force will generate positive rotation, the torque is positive. Thus, 3

4 ˆ τ 1 = (340)(L/2). ˆ τ 2 = +(P )( )(L). ˆ τ 3 = (H)(0) = 0. ˆ τ 4 = (V )(0) = 0. The sum of these torques must be zero because the system is not moving. Thus, (340)(L/2) + (P )( )(L) = 0 = P = (b) To get the hinge s horizontal support H, we can use fact that the forces must balance (otherwise the system would move). The horizontal forces are: H, the horizontal support from the hinge and P x, the horizontal support from the brace. Thus, H + P cos θ = 0 = H + (270.13)( ) = 0 = H = The negative sign indicates the force H is pointing left. (c) To get the hinge s vertical support V, we use similar logic. The vertical forces are: V, W, and P y. Thus, V W + P sin θ = 0 = V (340) + (270.13)( ) = 0 = V = Figure 2 shows a person (weight = 584 newtons) doing push-ups. Find the 96 newtons from each foot and 196 newtons normal force exerted by the floor on each hand and each foot, assuming that the from each hand person holds this position. Figure 2: Problem 9.72 There are three forces here. The support force from the hands, the feet, and the person s weight. We need to choose an axis of rotation. Any axis will work because the system is at rest, in equilibrium. There are three natural places to consider: each place where there is a force. Whichever point we choose will eliminate that force from the torque calculation. Suppose we choose the center of gravity. Then the lever arm of the feet is meters and the lever arm of the hands is meters. Both supports point up, but the direction of the torques are different. The torque from the hands cause positive rotation and the torque from the feet cause negative rotation. Let s agree to call the support force from the hands H and the support force from feet F. The sum of the torques is therefore, (H)(0.410) (F )(0.840) = 0 4

5 In order to move forward we need another equation. This will come from the linear equilibrium of the system. In this case, H + F 584 = 0 Two equations, two unknowns. We can use the first to get: H = (2.0488)(F ) And we can plug this into the second equation to yield: And, (2.0488)(F ) + F 584 = 0 = F = H = (2.0488)(191.55) = However, we are asked for the force from each foot and hand. So, divide both of these numbers by two. 7. A person exerts a horizontal force of 190 newtons in the test apparatus shown 1200 newtons in Figure 3. Find the magnitude of the horizontal force M that his flexor muscle exerts on his forearm. Figure 3: Problem 9.15 This is an equilibrium problem and there are two forces acting on the forearm: the apparatus is pulling with 190 newtons of force and the bicep muscle is pulling with the unknown force. The total torque must be zero but in this simple case that simply means that the two torques are equal and opposite. The torque from the apparatus is: Similarly, the torque from the muscle is: τ = F l = (190)(0.34) = 64.6 τ = F l = 64.6 = (M)(0.054) = M = Figure 4 shows a bicycle wheel resting against a small step whose height is 29 newtons meters. The weight and radius of the wheel are 25.0 newtons and meters, respectively. A horizontal force F is applied to the axle of the wheel. As the magnitude of F increases, there comes a time when the wheel just begins to rise up and loses contact with the ground. What is the magnitude of the force when this happens? 5

6 Figure 4: Problem 9.24 There are two ways to solve this problem. In the first approach we consider the point of contact between the wheel and the stair as the axis of rotation as the wheel just begins to lift off the ground. Before the wheel lifts there are three forces: the pulling force, the weight of the wheel and the support force from the ground. But as the wheel lifts, there is no longer any support to consider. So there are only two forces to worry about in this problem. So we will have to calculate two torques and therefore two lever-arms. For this a drawing might help: θ = This shows all the key distances and angles in the problem. We know the vertical height of the triangle because it is the radius of the wheel minus the height of the step. The angle can be obtained using the cosine against these two lengths and the horizontal side of the triangle you can get from either the Pythagorean theorem or using the sine of the angle we just calculated. Okay back to calculating lever arms. Fortunately we have already done the work. The lever arm of the pulling force is the vertical side of the triangle (0.220 meters) and the lever arm of the weight is the horizontal side ( meters). Right as the wheel lifts these two torque are in equilibrium: they are equal and opposite. Well, we know the torque from the weight around this pivot: τ = F l = (25.0)( ) =

7 Since the magnitude of the torque from the pulling force must be the same: τ = F l = = (F )(0.220) = F = I said earlier there was a second way to do this problem. You don t even need to consider torque (though you still need to do that trig). The net force is the combination of the weight and the pulling force. The wheel will lift when that net force pulls the wheel above and over the pivot. The angle of this net force is: ( ) θ = tan 1 Fy Fx But in this case F y is just the weight and F x is just the pulling force. The only remaining trick is to remember to use the canonical angle. In this case that is 270 plus the angle in the triangle. Thus, tan( ) = F = F = A stationary bicycle is raised off the ground, and its front wheel (mass = newtons kilograms) is rotating at an angular velocity of 13.1 rad/s (see Figure 5). The front brake is then applied for 3.0 seconds, and the wheel slows down to 3.7 rad/s. Assume that all the mass of the wheel is concentrated in the rim, the radius of which is 0.33 meters. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the brake pad and the rim is µ k = What is the magnitude of the normal force that each brake pad applies to the rim? Figure 5: Problem 9.45 The friction from the brake pads provides the torque to decelerate the wheel. We know that the friction force is given by F = µ k N. So by determining this force we can answer the question. On the other hand, clearly we can determine the angular acceleration from the data given: ω 0 = 13.1 t = 3.0 ω = 3.7 α =? 7

8 We can use ω = ω 0 + αt... (3.7) = (13.1) + (α)(3.0) = α = The torque required to produce this deceleration is given by tau = Iα. For a ring, the moment of inertia is simply mr 2. In this case: So the torque needed is I = (1.3)(0.33) 2 = τ = ( )(3.1333) = I ve dropped the sign because the direction doesn t matter in this question. Well, the torque comes from the friction force. But since there are two brake pads, there are two forces applied. The lever arm is simply the radius of the wheel. So we can plug all this into the definition of torque to yield: τ = F l = = (2)(0.85)(N)(0.33) = N = A bowling ball encounters a meter vertical rise on the way back to 1.3 m/s the ball rack, as Figure 6 illustrates. Ignore frictional losses and assume that the mass of the ball is distributed uniformly. The translational speed of the ball is 3.50 m/s at the bottom of the rise. Find the translational speed at the top. Figure 6: Problem 9.57 Hopefully this looks a lot like those inclined plane problems. Like those problems, we can use energy to solve this one. In that case we need to catalog our energy before and after the slope. Before, the height is zero and so is the potential energy. The linear kinetic energy is simply 1 2 mv2. We are not given the mass, but we are used to that cancelling out in these energy problems. The only difficulty is the rotational kinetic energy 1 2 Iω2. Assuming that the ball is rolling (we must or we can t solve this problem), we can say v = rω, but we don t know the radius of the ball. This also is an issue in calculating the moment of inertia I = 2 5 mr2. But notice that we don t really need them individually. In fact, the radius cancels out: KE rot = 1 2 Iω2 = ( 1 2 )( 2 5 mr2 )(v/r) 2 = 1 5 mv2 8

9 This is the formula for the rotational kinetic energy of a rolling sphere. Now we can proceed with our catalog: PE = 0 KE lin = ( 1 2 )(m)(3.50)2 = (6.125)(m) KE rot = ( 1 5 )(m)(3.5)2 = (2.450)(m) This yields a total initial energy of (8.575)(m) joules. Since we ignore frictional losses, the final energy is the same. But what do we know about the final energy? PE = mgh = (m)(9.8)(0.760) = (7.448)(m) KE lin = ( 1 2 )(m)(v)2 = (0.500)(m)(v) 2 KE rot = ( 1 5 )(m)(v)2 = (0.200)(m)(v) 2 Adding these up must give us the total final energy: (8.575)(m) = (7.448)(m) + (0.700)(m)(v) 2 = v 2 = 1.61 = v =

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